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Medicine by the numbers

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Newborn Respiratory Distress - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p994.html

Newborn Skin: Part II. Birthmarks - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Birthmarks in newborns are common sources of parental concern. Although most treatment recommendations are based on expert opinion, limited evidence exists to guide management of these conditions. Large congenital melanocytic nevi require evaluation for removal, whereas smaller nevi may...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p56.html

Nocturnal Enuresis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2003 - Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem that can be troubling for children and their families. Recent studies indicate that nocturnal enuresis is best regarded as a group of conditions with different etiologies. A genetic component is likely in many affected children. Research also ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0401/p1499.html

Noonan Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p37.html

Nutrition in Toddlers - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Toddlers make a transition from dependent milk-fed infancy to independent feeding and a typical omnivorous diet. This stage is an important time for physicians to monitor growth using growth charts and body mass index and to make recommendations for healthy eating. Fat and cholesterol ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1527.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1147.html

Office Care of the Premature Infant: Part II. Common Medical and Surgical Problems - ...

May 15, 1998 - Medical problems associated with prematurity are frequently complex, and a multidisciplinary approach is often required. Some common problems include the following: (1) anemia, which can be reduced by iron supplementation, (2) cerebral palsy or mental retardation as a result of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2383.html

Ondansetron for Gastroenteritis in Children and Adolescents - Medicine by the Numbers -...

Apr 1, 2015 - Studies show vomiting stopped in 1 in 5 patients and diarrhea was a consistent adverse effect. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/od3.html

Oppositional Defiant Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2008 - Oppositional defiant disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., as a recurrent pattern of developmentally inappropriate, negativistic, defiant, and disobedient behavior toward authority figures. This behavior often appears in the preschool...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p861.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Outpatient Care of the Premature Infant - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - An increasing number of infants in the United States are born prematurely, with current statistics estimating about 13 percent of all births. Although survival rates and outcomes for premature infants have dramatically improved in recent decades, morbidity and mortality are still ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1159.html

Pediatric Vision Screening for the Family Physician - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1998 - ...Snellen letters, Snellen numbers, tumbling E chart Picture tests, Allen figures <4 out of 6 correct on 20-ft line with either eye tested at 10 ft (3 m) monocularly (i.e., <10/20 or 20/40) or Two-line difference between eyes, even within the passing range (i.e., 10/12.5 and 10/20...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0901/p691.html

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Young Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2001 - Streptococcus pneumoniae causes approximately 3,300 cases of meningitis, 100,000 to 135,000 cases of pneumonia requiring hospitalization and 6 million cases of otitis media annually in the United States. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, approved in 2000 for use in the United States, was ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0515/p1991.html

PPIs, Childhood Asthma, and the Problem of Therapeutic Creep - AFP Journal Club - ...

Mar 15, 2014 - The use of a therapy in patients one would intuitively think might benefit, but in whom no benefit has been documented, is called therapeutic creep. The use of proton pump inhibitors for poorly controlled asthma is an example of this phenomenon.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0315/p476.html

Pregnancy Prevention in Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2004 - Although the pregnancy rate in adolescents has declined steadily in the past 10 years, it remains a major public health problem with lasting repercussions for the teenage mothers, their infants and families, and society as a whole. Successful strategies to prevent adolescent pregnancy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1015/p1517.html

Prevention and Treatment of Overweight in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Overweight in childhood and adolescence is an important public health issue because of its rapidly increasing prevalence and associated adverse medical and social consequences. Recent studies have estimated that 15 percent of children in the United States are at risk for overweight, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2591.html

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Universal screening for GBS among women at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation is more effective than administration of intrapartum antibiotics based on risk factors. Lower vaginal and rectal cultures for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p903.html

Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - The prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers has declined dramatically since 1960. However, satisfaction with this achievement must be tempered because iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers is associated with long-lasting diminished mental, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1217.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injury - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2013 - Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p502.html

Preventive Health Counseling for Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2006 - The leading causes of adolescent mortality are accidents (death from unintentional injury), homicide, and suicide. Additional morbidity is related to drug, tobacco, and alcohol use; risky sexual behaviors; poor nutrition; and inadequate physical activity. One third of adolescents engage...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1151.html

Primary Care for Children with Autism - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p453.html

Primary Care of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 1999 - Down syndrome is caused by triplicate material of chromosome 21. The syndrome has a variable physical expression, but congenital cardiac defects, transient myelodysplasia of the newborn and duodenal atresia are highly specific for this chromosomal disorder. Routine health maintenance is...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0115/p381.html

Primary Care of International Adoptees - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1998 - International adoptees are presenting to family physicians with increasing frequency. U.S. citizens have adopted over 100,000 international children since 1979. Prospective parents may seek advice from their physician during the adoptive process. If available at all, medical information...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1201/p2025.html

Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: Current - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1999 - Primary nocturnal enuresis sometimes presents significant psychosocial problems for children and their parents. Causative factors may include maturational delay, genetic influence, difficulties in waking and decreased nighttime secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Anatomic abnormalities ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0301/p1205.html

Primary Prevention of Child Abuse - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1577.html

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