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Attenuating Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - American ...

Dec 15, 2000 - Patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-resistant diabetes) have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Once clinical cardiovascular disease develops, these patients have a poorer prognosis than normoglycemic patients. By inducing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1215/p2633.html

Digoxin Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Digoxin therapy has long been used to treat heart failure; however, its effectiveness was not completely known until recently. Results of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial showed that adding digoxin to standard heart failure therapy had no effect on mortality. However, adding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p613.html

The Athlete Preparticipation Evaluation: Cardiovascular Assessment - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2007 - Thousands of young athletes receive preparticipation evaluations each year in the United States. One objective of these evaluations is to detect underlying cardiovascular abnormalities that may predispose an athlete to sudden death. The leading cardiovascular causes of sudden death in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1008.html

Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis - American Family ...

Apr 1, 1999 - Chronic critical limb ischemia is manifested by pain at rest, nonhealing wounds and gangrene. Ischemic rest pain is typically described as a burning pain in the arch or distal foot that occurs while the patient is recumbent but is relieved when the patient returns to a position in which...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1899.html

Ordering and Understanding the Exercise Stress Test - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 1999 - The exercise stress test is a useful screening tool for the detection of significant coronary artery disease. Documentation of the patient's symptoms, medications, past and current significant illnesses, and usual level of physical activity helps the physician determine if an exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0115/p401.html

Preparation of the Cardiac Patient for Noncardiac Surgery - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Approximately 20 to 40 percent of patients at high risk of cardiac-related morbidity develop myocardial ischemia perioperatively. The preferred approach to diagnostic evaluation depends on the interactions of patient-specific risk factors, surgery-specific risk factors, and exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p656.html

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Noninvasive cardiac imaging can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. It is central to the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or acute coronary syndromes with or without ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1219.html

Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part II. Ventricular Arrhythmias and Arrhythmias in ...

Jun 15, 2002 - In patients without established cardiac disease, the occurrence of premature ventricular complexes without sustained ventricular tachycardia is more an annoyance than a medical risk, and treatment is not required. In contrast, patients with established heart disease and premature ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0615/p2491.html

ANCA-Associated Small-Vessel Vasculitis - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2002 - Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is the most common primary systemic small-vessel vasculitis to occur in adults. Although the etiology is not always known, the incidence of vasculitis is increasing, and the diagnosis and management of patients may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0415/p1615.html

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2006 - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1331.html

Nutritional Assessment and Counseling for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular ...

Jan 15, 2006 - Physicians face several barriers to counseling their patients about nutrition, including conflicting evidence of the benefit of counseling, limited training and understanding of the topic, and imperfect and varied guidelines to follow. Because cardiovascular disease remains the leading ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p257.html

The Importance of Beta Blockers in the Treatment of Heart Failure - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2000 - Heart failure, the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing incidence, is associated with significant mortality and poses a considerable economic burden. Traditionally, beta blockers have been considered to be contraindicated in patients with heart failure. Recently, however, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1201/p2453.html

Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 1998 - The importance of treating dyslipidemias based on cardiovascular risk factors is highlighted by the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. The first step in evaluation is to exclude secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Assessment of the patient's risk for coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0501/p2192.html

Drugs for Conversion of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in patients visiting a primary care practice. Although many patients with atrial fibrillation experience relief of symptoms with control of the heart rate, some patients require restoration of sinus rhythm. External direct current (DC) ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p471.html

Treatment of Cholesterol Abnormalities - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - Cardiovascular disease and its subset coronary heart disease are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. In general, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1137.html

Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2004 - The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2875.html

Unstable Angina and Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Part II. Coronary ...

Aug 1, 2004 - In the guideline developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, the management of suspected unstable angina and non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) has four components: initial evaluation and management; hospital care; coronary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/p535.html

Caring for Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Their Families - American Family ...

Apr 1, 1999 - Congenital heart defects are classified into two broad categories: acyanotic and cyanotic lesions. The most common acyanotic lesions are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal, pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis and coarctation...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1857.html

Update on Digoxin Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2000 - Congestive heart failure is a progressive disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure have increased in recent years. Contributing factors include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0715/p409.html

Choosing Drug Therapy for Patients with Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - Almost 13 million American adults require drug therapy to meet the low-density lipoprotein goals set by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Attempts to achieve these goals through diet and exercise are often unsuccessful. Major studies in recent years have demonstrated that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3371.html

Exercise-Related Syncope in the Young Athlete: Reassurance, Restriction or Referral? - ...

Nov 1, 1999 - A common event in young adults, syncope is usually benign and only rarely requires more than simple reassurance. However, exercise-related syncope always requires investigation because it may be the only symptom that precedes a sudden cardiac death. Syncope that occurs during exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2001.html

Beta Blocker Therapy for Chronic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - Recent studies have shown that beta blocker therapy improves survival and reduces hospitalizations in patients who have chronic heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the majority of whom are under the management of primary care physicians. Appropriate patient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2267.html

Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Message from ...

Oct 15, 2003 - Cardiovascular disease is responsible for 65 percent of deaths in persons with type 2 diabetes. However, awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with diabetes remains low, resulting in missed opportunities to lower risks for coronary events and strokes. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1569.html

Current Management of Mitral Valve Prolapse - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - Mitral valve prolapse is a pathologic anatomic and physiologic abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus affecting mitral leaflet motion.

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3343.html

Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part I. Supraventricular Arrhythmias - American ...

Jun 15, 2002 - Family physicians frequently encounter patients with symptoms that could be related to cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly atrial fibrillation or supraventricular tachycardias. The initial management of atrial fibrillation includes ventricular rate control to provide adequate cardiac ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0615/p2479.html

Guideline for Management of Heart Failure Caused by Systolic Dysfunction: Part II. ...

Sep 15, 2001 - Several large clinical trials conducted over the past decade have shown that pharmacologic interventions can dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. These trials have modified and enhanced the therapeutic paradigm for heart failure and extended ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0915/p1045.html

Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2002 - Given the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation are essential for improved patient outcomes. Ultrasonography is the standard method of screening and monitoring AAAs that have not ruptured. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0415/p1565.html

The Preparticipation Athletic Evaluation - American Family Physician

May 1, 2000 - A comprehensive medical history that includes questions about a personal and family history of cardiovascular disease is the most important initial component of the preparticipation athletic evaluation. Additional questions should focus on any history of neurologic or musculoskeletal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2683.html

Dietary Therapy for Preventing and Treating Coronary Artery Disease - American Family ...

Mar 15, 1998 - Nearly one half of Americans die of cardiovascular disease. The morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease is strongly related to abnormal lipid levels, oxidation of lipids and intra-arterial clot formation. Nutrition powerfully influences each of these factors. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0315/p1299.html

Valvular Heart Disease: Review and Update - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2001 - People with valvular heart disease are living longer, with less morbidity, than ever before. Advances in surgical techniques and a better understanding of timing for surgical intervention account for increased rates of survival. Echocardiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0601/p2201.html

Assessment and Treatment of Depression Following Myocardial Infarction - American ...

Aug 15, 2001 - Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0815/p641.html

Antioxidant Vitamins and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease - American Family ...

Sep 1, 1999 - Clinical use of antioxidant vitamin supplementation may help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies find lower CHD morbidity and mortality in persons who consume larger quantities of antioxidants in foods or supplements. Clinical trials indicate that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p895.html

Cardiovascular Screening of Student Athletes - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2000 - Each year, a number of children and adolescents die suddenly from cardiac problems that are associated with a small subgroup of disorders and high-risk behaviors. While sudden cardiac death in any child or adolescent is distressing, it can be particularly devastating when it occurs in a...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0815/p765.html

Optimizing Beta-Blocker Use After Myocardial Infarction - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2000 - Although beta-adrenergic blockers can significantly reduce mortality after a myocardial infarction, these agents are prescribed to only a minority of patients. Underutilization of beta blockers may be attributed, in part, to fear of adverse effects, especially in the elderly and in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1015/p1853.html

Dietary Therapy for Children with Hypercholesterolemia - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Accumulating evidence clearly shows that atherosclerosis begins in youth. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has recommended that children at high risk of developing coronary artery disease as adults be screened so that those with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p675.html

Percutaneous Interventions for Lower Extremity Peripheral Vascular Disease - American ...

Dec 15, 2001 - Peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities is an important cause of morbidity that affects up to 10 million people in the United States. The primary care physician can easily identify patients who are at risk for the disease with a questionnaire and a relatively simple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1215/p1965.html

Contemporary Management of Angina: Part II. Medical Management of Chronic Stable Angina...

Jan 1, 2000 - Except for a small subset of patients with angina whose survival is improved with coronary artery bypass surgery, chronic stable angina can be appropriately managed with medical therapy in the vast majority of patients. Drug therapy includes aspirin, beta-adrenergic blockers, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0101/p129.html

Optimal Management of Cholesterol Levels and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in women, is largely preventable. Lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise) are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and low levels of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p217.html

Effective Use of Statins to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Primary and secondary prevention trials have shown that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (also known as statins) to lower an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level can substantially reduce coronary events and death from coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p309.html

Postexercise Systolic Blood Pressure Response: Clinical Application to the Assessment ...

Oct 1, 1998 - Stress test parameters indicating the presence and extent of coronary artery disease have traditionally included such variables as exercise duration, and the blood pressure and ST-segment responses to exercise. The three-minute systolic blood pressure ratio, another important indicator ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1126.html

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