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afp20161201p881.pdf

December 1, 2016: Cochrane for Clinicians

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/afp20161201p881.pdf

afp20161215p972-s1.pdf

...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_ autism.htm National Library of Medicine https://medlineplus.gov/autismspectrumdisorder.html December 2016 Autism Spectrum Disorder (continued) Notes: _GoBack...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/afp20161215p972-s1.pdf

afp20170215p222.pdf

February 15, 2017: Editorials

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/afp20170215p222.pdf

afp20170301p324.pdf

February 15, 2017: AHRQ

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/afp20170301p324.pdf

afp20170315od1.pdf

...time, intensive glucose lowering did not increase or decrease the primary composite outcome of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, CV death, death from any other cause, or overall mortality. The increased CV mortality rate seen with intensive control during the active...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/afp20170315od1.pdf

afp20170315od2.pdf

...time, intensive glucose lowering did not increase or decrease the primary composite outcome of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, CV death, death from any other cause, or overall mortality. The increased CV mortality rate seen with intensive control during the active...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/afp20170315od2.pdf

afp20170315od3.pdf

...time, intensive glucose lowering did not increase or decrease the primary composite outcome of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, CV death, death from any other cause, or overall mortality. The increased CV mortality rate seen with intensive control during the active...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/afp20170315od3.pdf

afp20170315p396.pdf

...Bottom Line Semaglutide significantly reduced the composite out- come of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke (number needed to treat [NNT] = 43 over 2.1 years). It was generally well tolerated, and it reduced body weight by approximately 6.4 to 9.5 lb (2.9...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/afp20170315p396.pdf

afp20170401p455.pdf

...a recent myocardial infarction, 17% had a previous PCI, and 16% had renal insuffi- ciency. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at three years. Groups were similar at the start of the study, and analysis was by intention to treat. This...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/afp20170401p455.pdf

afp20170401p456.pdf

...a recent myocardial infarction, 17% had a previous PCI, and 16% had renal insuffi- ciency. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at three years. Groups were similar at the start of the study, and analysis was by intention to treat. This...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/afp20170401p456.pdf

afp20170401p457.pdf

...a recent myocardial infarction, 17% had a previous PCI, and 16% had renal insuffi- ciency. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at three years. Groups were similar at the start of the study, and analysis was by intention to treat. This...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/afp20170401p457.pdf

afp20170501p580.pdf

February 15, 2017: Point-of-Care Guides

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/afp20170501p580.pdf

afp20170601p700.pdf

June 1, 2017: Cochrane for Clinicians

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/afp20170601p700.pdf

afp20170715p128.pdf

...it does not affect all-cause mortality rates. It also does not lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocar- dial infarction, stroke, or the need for revascularization. There was no significant heterogeneity among trials. Even studies that specifically enrolled...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/afp20170715p128.pdf

afp20170715p128a.pdf

...it does not affect all-cause mortality rates. It also does not lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocar- dial infarction, stroke, or the need for revascularization. There was no significant heterogeneity among trials. Even studies that specifically enrolled...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/afp20170715p128a.pdf

afp20170715p129.pdf

...it does not affect all-cause mortality rates. It also does not lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocar- dial infarction, stroke, or the need for revascularization. There was no significant heterogeneity among trials. Even studies that specifically enrolled...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/afp20170715p129.pdf

afp20170801p161-s1.pdf

...What can I do to prevent heart problems? People with HIV infection are at higher risk of heart disease and stroke. You have an even higher risk if you smoke, have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes, or if heart attacks run in your family. You can lower your risk by...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/afp20170801p161-s1.pdf

afp20170801p179-s1.pdf

...vaginal bleeding, problems passing urine or stool, or any change in your ability to take care of the pessary (for instance, if you have a stroke or arthritis). What are Kegel exercises? Kegels (KEE-guls) are exercises that strengthen the muscles of the pelvis. To do a Kegel, you...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/afp20170801p179-s1.pdf

afp20171001p428.pdf

October 1, 2017: Editorials

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/afp20171001p428.pdf

afp20171001p470.pdf

...statin therapy for slightly more than two years will prevent one myocardial infarction (MI) for every 83 persons treated and prevent one stroke for every 250 persons treated. At the current cost of the drug in the United States, that amounts to approximately $2.5 mil- lion per...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/afp20171001p470.pdf

afp20171115p668.pdf

November 1, 2017: AHRQ

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/afp20171115p668.pdf

afp20171215p776.pdf

...3. Townsend RR. Stroke in chronic kidney disease: prevention and man- agement. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 3(suppl 1): S11-S16. 4. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Chronic kidney dis- ease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/afp20171215p776.pdf

afp20180101od1.pdf

...Harm End Points: Death, stroke, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hemorrhage, contrast media reaction Narrative: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), gen- erally with stenting, is commonly used to open occluded coronary arteries. This review summarizes the evidence on the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/afp20180101od1.pdf

afp20180101p29.pdf

...heart failure, depression, emphysema, falls, hypertension, incontinence, stage 3 or worse chronic kidney disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A total of at least 3 conditions is considered multiple, but many patients may have 5 or more. ‡-The presence of a single end-stage...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/afp20180101p29.pdf

afp20180201p180.pdf

...as a disabling, low-frequency, slow-intention, or postural tremor, and is typically caused by mul- tiple sclerosis with cerebellar plaques, stroke, or brainstem tumors. Most patients have other neu- rologic signs of cerebellar dysfunction, including dysmetria (overshoot on...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/afp20180201p180.pdf

afp20180215p243.pdf

...Cause of stroke; can be spontaneous or follow minor trauma or sudden neck movement; unilateral headache or face pain; ipsilateral Horner syndrome Cervical spondylosis Worse with neck movement; posterior distribution; pain is neuralgic in character and sometimes referred to vertex...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/afp20180215p243.pdf

afp20180315p376.pdf

...25% of men and 16% of women 60 to 79 years of age have diagnosed or undiagnosed CAD, or a cardiovascular disease (CVD) equivalent such as stroke or peripheral arterial disease.3 CAD is one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, accounting for 31% of all deaths in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/afp20180315p376.pdf

afp20180315p398.pdf

...accounts for 10% of cases, but it commonly presents as a mixed dementia with Alzheimer disease. Lewy body dementia, Parkinson-related demen- tia, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, and frontotemporal dementia represent most of the remaining cases. Fronto- temporal dementia, while...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/afp20180315p398.pdf

afp20180401od2.pdf

...H, Ballard C, Aarsland D, Selbæk G. Short- and long-term mortality risk associ- ated with the use of antipsychotics among 26,940 demen- tia outpatients: a population-based study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;22(4):321-331. ■

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/afp20180401od2.pdf

afp20180401p437.pdf

...Evidence-Based Answer Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.1 (Strength of Recommen- dation: A, based on consistent, good-quality patient-oriented...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/afp20180401p437.pdf

afp20180401p478.pdf

...heart failure; hypertension; age 75 years or older; diabetes mellitus; previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or throm- boembolism [doubled]) score. Abnormal findings on ECG and a lower glomerular filtration rate are also risk factors. Although it has not been shown to be...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/afp20180401p478.pdf

afp20180415od1.pdf

...is expected to live another 30 years. The prevalence and incidence of most chronic con- ditions, such as coronary heart disease, dementia, stroke, fractures, and breast cancer, increase with age; however, the excess risk for these conditions that can be attributed to menopause alone...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415od1.pdf

afp20180415p496.pdf

...(anti- factor Xa activity) data.2,3 The dosing the authors list in Table 1 is most similar to dosing guidelines for reduction of the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, that recommendation requires an adjustment to the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415p496.pdf

afp20180415p497.pdf

...(anti- factor Xa activity) data.2,3 The dosing the authors list in Table 1 is most similar to dosing guidelines for reduction of the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, that recommendation requires an adjustment to the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415p497.pdf

afp20180415p529.pdf

...Edoxaban (Savaysa) is a once-daily, oral anticoagulant used to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. It is also labeled for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism fol- lowing initial parenteral...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415p529.pdf

afp20180415p533.pdf

...Oxygen Supplementation After Acute Stroke Does Not Improve Functional Outcomes Clinical Question Does routine low-dose oxygen therapy following an acute stroke improve functional outcomes? Bottom Line For nonhypoxic patients with acute stroke, rou- tine oxygen therapy for 72...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415p533.pdf

afp20180415p541.pdf

...Although estrogen alone has no net benefit in postmenopausal women who have had a hyster- ectomy, one potential benefit is a reduced risk of stroke. Answers 1. The correct answers are A, B, and C. Although the use of combined estrogen and progestin hormone therapy in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/afp20180415p541.pdf

afp20180501p562.pdf

...Health; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovas- cular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/afp20180501p562.pdf

afp20180501p581.pdf

...mostly very small, and there is no difference among them for the most important outcomes (death from any cause, cardiovascular death, and stroke). If you choose to recommend celecoxib over less expensive drugs such as naproxen or ibuprofen, prescribe the generic version, which is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/afp20180501p581.pdf

afp20180501p594.pdf

...34. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Peripheral neu- ropathy fact sheet. What causes peripheral neuropathy? https://www. ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/ Peripheral-Neuropathy-Fact-Sheet#3208_4. Accessed April 18, 2017. 35....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/afp20180501p594.pdf

afp20180515p642.pdf

...repeated in a variety of environments. Although they may differ based on the child, common reinforcers include praise, a smile, a hug, a stroke of the hair, or a gentle pat on the head or shoulder. Parents may also be encouraged to use more tangible reinforcers such as snacks, or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/afp20180515p642.pdf

afp20180515p649.pdf

...keeping is critical because patients and supporters may not be able to provide a detailed medical history. Some conditions, such as demen- tia, may be more difficult to diagnose in the future without this baseline information. Systematically comparing cur- rent with past function is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/afp20180515p649.pdf

afp20180515p658.pdf

...RCTs recom- mended against aspirin use in the average-risk population because of the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and hem- orrhagic stroke.28 Individuals 50 to 59 years of age with a 10-year cardiovascular event risk of at least 10% who are willing to take aspirin for at least...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/afp20180515p658.pdf

afp20180601p706.pdf

...Commentary Depression affects about one-third of stroke survivors, according to the American Stroke Association. Emergence of depression following cerebrovascular disease is thought to be caused by an interplay of the psychological reaction to new functional deficits and acute brain...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/afp20180601p706.pdf

afp20180601p721.pdf

...22. Hu D, Huang J, Wang Y, Zhang D, Qu Y. Fruits and vegetables consump- tion and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Stroke. 2014; 45(6): 1613-1619. 23. World Cancer Research Fund; American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/afp20180601p721.pdf

afp20180615p798.pdf

...l Stroke l l l Ulcer l l Note: Inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, stroke, and ulcer are scored as one disease each, regardless of severity. The remaining conditions are scored as one disease each only if it limits activity or requires a prescription medication. See...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/afp20180615p798.pdf

afp20180701p54.pdf

...with the use of statins, regardless of the initial LDL level. For the combined outcome of car- diovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, the relative risk reduction was 25% for those with an initial LDL level of at least 190 mg per dL. There were favorable trends (not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/afp20180701p54.pdf

afp20180701p54a.pdf

...with the use of statins, regardless of the initial LDL level. For the combined outcome of car- diovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, the relative risk reduction was 25% for those with an initial LDL level of at least 190 mg per dL. There were favorable trends (not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/afp20180701p54a.pdf

afp20180701p55.pdf

...with the use of statins, regardless of the initial LDL level. For the combined outcome of car- diovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, the relative risk reduction was 25% for those with an initial LDL level of at least 190 mg per dL. There were favorable trends (not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/afp20180701p55.pdf

afp20180715p117.pdf

...tia in patients receiving combined estrogen/pro- gesterone therapy. Patients had an increased risk of coronary events, venous thromboembolism, breast cancer, gallbladder disease, and death from lung cancer. Patients who received estrogen-only therapy had an increased risk of stroke,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/afp20180715p117.pdf

afp20180715p85.pdf

...cocaine-associated vasospasm and hypertension have been associated with acute aortic dissection, in addition to ischemic and hem- orrhagic stroke.30 BEHAVIORAL THERAPY A 2016 Cochrane review concluded that compared with usual treatment (typically group counseling or case man-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/afp20180715p85.pdf

afp20180801p154-s1.pdf

...What problems can type 1 diabetes cause? People with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, high blood pressure, blindness, nerve damage, and gum disease. These things happen two to four times more often in people with diabetes than in people...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/afp20180801p154-s1.pdf

afp20180801p154.pdf

...glycemic control reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by 42% and severe cardiovascular events (nonfatal myo- cardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease) by 57% over 11 years among patients with type 1 diabetes.3 Long-term follow-up of the Diabetes Control...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/afp20180801p154.pdf

afp20180815p214.pdf

...a quick screening tool in the outpatient setting12 (Table 333). If the Mini-Cog screening is positive, further clinical assessment for demen- tia is warranted.33 SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Clinical recommendation Evidence rating References Older adults planning...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/afp20180815p214.pdf

afp20180815p248.pdf

...including the Cochrane Library, to identify ran- domized and nonrandomized controlled trials in English that enrolled adults without demen- tia. They also searched reference lists of previous studies and included a previous report that eval- uated interventions to prevent cognitive...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/afp20180815p248.pdf

afp20180815p248a.pdf

...including the Cochrane Library, to identify ran- domized and nonrandomized controlled trials in English that enrolled adults without demen- tia. They also searched reference lists of previous studies and included a previous report that eval- uated interventions to prevent cognitive...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/afp20180815p248a.pdf

afp20180815p250.pdf

...including the Cochrane Library, to identify ran- domized and nonrandomized controlled trials in English that enrolled adults without demen- tia. They also searched reference lists of previous studies and included a previous report that eval- uated interventions to prevent cognitive...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/afp20180815p250.pdf

afp20180815p256.pdf

...4. Vermeulen MJ, Schull MJ. Missed diagnosis of subarach- noid hemorrhage in the emergency department. Stroke. 2007; 38(4): 1216-1221. 5. Carpenter CR, Hussain AM, Ward MJ, et al. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis describing the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/afp20180815p256.pdf

afp20180901p276.pdf

...and 9,484 patients. Participants were being treated for hypertension and had a documented cardiovascular history of myocar- dial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or angina. The inter- vention was a lower BP target (135/85 mm Hg or less) vs....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/afp20180901p276.pdf

afp20180915od1.pdf

...Angiography and revascu- larization are associated with harms, including bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, cardiac arrhythmia, stroke, myocardial infarction, cor- onary artery dissection, allergic reaction to the contrast agent, and death. Current Practice. Although many...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/afp20180915od1.pdf

afp20181001p413.pdf

...of chronic hepatitis C, persons who achieve SVR have a lower incidence of diabetes mellitus, glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin lym- phoma, stroke, and other conditions.15 It is not clear whether the high cost of direct- acting antivirals is offset by long-term savings related to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/afp20181001p413.pdf

afp20181015p496.pdf

...from 19% to 47% in the early recovery period; a study of 80 consecutive adults under- going inpatient rehabilitation after a first ischemic stroke found that 23 had evidence of urinary retention on admission, but only four still did by the time of discharge.23 OTHER CAUSES The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/afp20181015p496.pdf

afp20181015p508.pdf

...is a 19-item screening tool that can be used in older patients. It retains its validity when used in patients with demen- tia, unlike the Geriatric Depression Scale. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia has a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%.38 The PHQ-2 can be...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/afp20181015p508.pdf

afp20181201p630.pdf

...event (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, revasculariza- tion procedure, hospitalization for acute coro- nary syndrome, or stroke),2 to no effect on any outcome.3 Although the two latest niacin trials did not show a benefit for niacin, it has been suggested that...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p630.pdf

afp20181201p631.pdf

...event (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, revasculariza- tion procedure, hospitalization for acute coro- nary syndrome, or stroke),2 to no effect on any outcome.3 Although the two latest niacin trials did not show a benefit for niacin, it has been suggested that...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p631.pdf

afp20181201p645.pdf

...ref- erence values (e.g., hematocrit greater than 50%).5,6,45,49 Data on patient-oriented outcomes (e.g., death, thromboembolic disease, stroke, osteoporosis, liver toxicity, myocardial infarc- tion) are sparse. Despite possible metabolic effects, few seri- ous events have been...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p645.pdf

afp20181201p682.pdf

...and between 10% and 55% had experienced a previous stroke. After perform- ing a random effects meta-analysis, the authors found that patients randomized to receive direct oral anticoagulants were less likely to experience a stroke or systemic embo- lism (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p682.pdf

afp20181201p682a.pdf

...and between 10% and 55% had experienced a previous stroke. After perform- ing a random effects meta-analysis, the authors found that patients randomized to receive direct oral anticoagulants were less likely to experience a stroke or systemic embo- lism (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p682a.pdf

afp20181201p683.pdf

...and between 10% and 55% had experienced a previous stroke. After perform- ing a random effects meta-analysis, the authors found that patients randomized to receive direct oral anticoagulants were less likely to experience a stroke or systemic embo- lism (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p683.pdf

afp20181201p683a.pdf

...and between 10% and 55% had experienced a previous stroke. After perform- ing a random effects meta-analysis, the authors found that patients randomized to receive direct oral anticoagulants were less likely to experience a stroke or systemic embo- lism (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/afp20181201p683a.pdf

afp20181215p719.pdf

...misuse. However, it has been applied to other health issues such as reducing stroke risk28 (Table 43,15,27,28). To facilitate collaboration, the physician obtains the patient’s permis- sion before providing information. By granting permis- sion, patients maintain control, implicitly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/afp20181215p719.pdf

afp20190101od1.pdf

...review included 25 randomized controlled trials involving 16,037 patients with the following conditions: sepsis, critical illness, stroke, trauma, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest. Oxygen saturation was reported as fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), arterial partial...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/afp20190101od1.pdf

afp20190101p10.pdf

...for primary pre- vention of heart attack, angina, revascularization, or death from any cause. However, there were increases in the risk of stroke (number needed to harm [NNH] = 165), blood clot in a leg or lung (NNH = 118), and blood clot in a lung (NNH = 242) in patients receiving...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/afp20190101p10.pdf

afp20190101p47.pdf

...for about five years. The patient’s history included tobacco use, newly diag- nosed hypertension, and a recent transient ischemic attack. Before the transient ischemic attack, he was not seeing a physician regularly. Physical examination revealed nontender, red-yellow papules...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/afp20190101p47.pdf

afp20190115od1.pdf

...heart disease] or Pooled Cohort Equations [which estimate 10-year risk of myocardial infarction, death from coronary heart disease, or stroke]) may improve calibration (agreement between observed and predicted outcomes), discrimination (ability to distinguish between people who...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/afp20190115od1.pdf

afp20190115p101.pdf

...Stroke Traumatic brain injury Other medical or neurologic condition Common primary care referral questions/expectations Document functional limitations (e.g., driving, independent living) Establish baseline cognitive functioning Establish or confirm diagnosis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/afp20190115p101.pdf

afp20190115p74.pdf

...The sentence should have read: Vitamin K antagonists are the first-line option, with high-quality data indicating that they have a lower stroke risk and all-cause mortality vs. pla- cebo. The online version of the article has been corrected. ■

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/afp20190115p74.pdf

afp20190115p76.pdf

...The sentence should have read: Vitamin K antagonists are the first-line option, with high-quality data indicating that they have a lower stroke risk and all-cause mortality vs. pla- cebo. The online version of the article has been corrected. ■

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/afp20190115p76.pdf

afp20190115p78.pdf

...should be considered to prevent embolic stroke when atrial fibrillation is present, depending on the individual’s risk score (a risk calculator is available at https:// www.mdcalc.com/cha2ds2-vasc-score- atrial-fibrillation-stroke-risk) and bleeding risk. Fitness-Related...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/afp20190115p78.pdf

afp20190201p188.pdf

...Plus Aspirin Provides More Net Benefit Than Aspirin Alone After Minor Stroke or TIA Clinical Question Does adding clopidogrel (Plavix) to aspirin fol- lowing a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke safely improve outcomes? Bottom Line This study provides support for...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/afp20190201p188.pdf

afp20190201p189.pdf

...Plus Aspirin Provides More Net Benefit Than Aspirin Alone After Minor Stroke or TIA Clinical Question Does adding clopidogrel (Plavix) to aspirin fol- lowing a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke safely improve outcomes? Bottom Line This study provides support for...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/afp20190201p189.pdf

afp20190201p190.pdf

...Plus Aspirin Provides More Net Benefit Than Aspirin Alone After Minor Stroke or TIA Clinical Question Does adding clopidogrel (Plavix) to aspirin fol- lowing a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke safely improve outcomes? Bottom Line This study provides support for...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/afp20190201p190.pdf

afp20190201p191.pdf

...Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging with and without contrast media was obtained during a prior emergency department visit as part of a stroke workup. It showed chronic microvascular ischemic disease with no evidence of a mass. Question Based on the patient’s history and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/afp20190201p191.pdf

afp20190215p237.pdf

...and islet cell dysfunction. Our patients with diabetes depend on us to help reduce their long-term risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, amputa- tion, dialysis, and premature mortality. Several recent large randomized controlled trials have significantly improved our knowledge...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/afp20190215p237.pdf

afp20190215p248.pdf

...identified rare serious adverse events associ- ated with SMT including cauda equina syndrome, lumbar disk herniation, fractures, hematoma, stroke, vertebrobas- ilar accident, cerebrovascular accident, and death.23,24 In children, serious adverse events resulting in hospitaliza-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/afp20190215p248.pdf

afp20190315od1.pdf

...is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke, increasing risk of stroke by as much as 5-fold. Approximately 20% of patients who have a stroke associated with atrial fibrillation are first diagnosed with atrial fibrillation at the time of stroke or shortly thereafter. DETECTION...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/afp20190315od1.pdf

afp20190315p354.pdf

...and with more comorbid conditions have led to an increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrilla- tion (AF), a condition associated with stroke and heart failure.1,2 AF is often asymptomatic. Oral anticoagulants are an accepted therapy for selected patients with AF. These factors have...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/afp20190315p354.pdf

afp20190315p362.pdf

...large cohort study found the most significant risk factors for development of CLI were diabetes, renal failure, heart fail- ure, and prior stroke.17 Annual mortality rates of patients with CLI are approximately 25%.18 ACUTE LIMB ISCHEMIA Acute limb ischemia is a medical...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/afp20190315p362.pdf

afp20190315p383.pdf

...with ECG on clinical outcomes. The USPSTF found adequate evidence that treatment with anticoagulant therapy reduces the incidence of stroke in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation. The USPSTF found ade- quate evidence that screening for atrial fibrillation with ECG is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/afp20190315p383.pdf

afp20190315p392.pdf

...it has not been studied in these groups. It should not be used in patients with severe coronary insufficiency, recent myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, or significant bradycardia. Central nervous system depression is a serious risk, especially if lofexidine is taken in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/afp20190315p392.pdf

afp20190401p421.pdf

...Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CKD John W. Lax, MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland Racheal Wood, DNP, ACCNS-AG, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, Fort...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p421.pdf

afp20190401p422.pdf

...Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CKD John W. Lax, MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland Racheal Wood, DNP, ACCNS-AG, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, Fort...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p422.pdf

afp20190401p445.pdf

...44. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Febrile seizures fact sheet. https:// www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver- Education/Fact-Sheets/Febrile-Seizures-Fact-Sheet. Accessed Septem- ber 13, 2018. 45. Millar JS. Evaluation and treatment of the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p445.pdf

afp20190401p459.pdf

...intention-to-treat analysis, after five years the rate of events (a composite of myo- cardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, unstable angina, or transient ischemic attack) was similar between the treatment groups (4.3% vs. 4.5%, respectively). The overall death rate was...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p459.pdf

afp20190401p459a.pdf

...intention-to-treat analysis, after five years the rate of events (a composite of myo- cardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, unstable angina, or transient ischemic attack) was similar between the treatment groups (4.3% vs. 4.5%, respectively). The overall death rate was...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p459a.pdf

afp20190401p461.pdf

...intention-to-treat analysis, after five years the rate of events (a composite of myo- cardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, unstable angina, or transient ischemic attack) was similar between the treatment groups (4.3% vs. 4.5%, respectively). The overall death rate was...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/afp20190401p461.pdf

afp20190415p478.pdf

...Magnetic resonance imaging without contrast media is the preferred imaging test to exclude other intracranial abnormalities, such as stroke, subdural hematoma, normal-pressure hydro- cephalus, or a treatable mass. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p398.html Does unrestricted...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/afp20190415p478.pdf

afp20190415p505.pdf

...Adverse effects: nausea, dizziness, and hypotension are common; stroke and death reported after use for lactation inhibition Caffeine avoidance14,20 Caffeine is often cited as a causative factor in breast pain Effectiveness: RCTs do not show clear evidence of pain reduction...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/afp20190415p505.pdf

afp20190415p519.pdf

...beneficial for reduc- ing the risk of stroke? Evidence-Based Answer A limited number of trials that examined the risk of tem- porary interruption of anticoagulation before a variety of procedures did not find a reduction in the risk of stroke, but they did show an increased risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/afp20190415p519.pdf

afp20190501p589.pdf

...evidence from nonrandom- ized studies recommends estimating the 10-year ASCVD risk of a first fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke by using the race and sex- specific pooled cohort equations. Patients should then be categorized as low (less than 5%), border- line (5% to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/afp20190501p589.pdf

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