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hypertension

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American Family Physician is announcing a call for applications for the next Jay Siwek* Medical Editing Fellowship.

American Family Physician

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AFP Journal Club Department Collection - American Family Physician

Three presenters review an interesting journal article on topics that affect family physicians and give their opinions about the clinical value of the studies.

For key concepts in evidence-based medicine, tips on assessing the quality of research studies, and teaching ...

American Family Physician : Department Collection

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AFP Journal Club Department Collection - American Family Physician

Three presenters review an interesting journal article on topics that affect family physicians and give their opinions about the clinical value of the studies.

For key concepts in evidence-based medicine, tips on assessing the quality of research studies, and teaching ...

American Family Physician : Department Collection

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View lists of past reviewers for American Family Physician.

American Family Physician

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The AFP Podcast is a discussion of the key evidence-based learning points from each issue of American Family Physician (AFP). Each episode includes brief summaries of articles and other features.

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/journals/afp/multimedia/podcast.html

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Collection of the interviews and videos from the AFP Podcast. The AFP Podcast is a discussion of the key evidence-based learning points from each issue of American Family Physician (AFP). Each episode includes brief summaries of articles and other features.

American Family Physician

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American Family Physician

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AFP's acceptance rates and timelines to publication

American Family Physician

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AFP's Top Articles

View the top 20 articles published in American Family Physician each year based on web views.

American Family Physician

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AFP’s Conflict of Interest Policy: Disclosure Is Not Enough

...Beach, SC Sept. 20 / Coronary Artery Disease / Chicago, IL (Rosemont) Sept. 21 / Childhood Illness / Chicago, IL (Rosemont) Sept. 20 / Hypertension /Albuquerque, NM (Santa Ana Pueblo) Sept. 21 / Health Behavior / Albuquerque, NM (Santa Ana Pueblo) Oct. 11 / Hospital Medicine /...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/afp20140201p161.pdf

afp20041101p1697.pdf

...have been shown to affect the duration of ill- ness.26-28 Oral decongestants can be used until symptoms resolve. In patients with stable hypertension, decongestants have not been shown to seriously increase blood pressure.29 Decongestants should be used with caution in patients with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/afp20041101p1697.pdf

afp20050301p933.pdf

...tract anatomy and renal function. Misdiagnosis can lead to sepsis, renal abscesses, and chronic pyelonephritis that may cause secondary hypertension and renal failure. Risk factors for complicated acute pyelonephritis are those that increase susceptibility or reduce host response to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/afp20050301p933.pdf

afp20050615p2313.pdf

...Hypertension Tachycardia Gastrointestinal symptoms Abdominal pain Nausea Vomiting Immune symptoms Anaphylaxis Musculoskeletal symptoms Arthralgias Myalgias Spasm Information from reference 14. Neurologic symptoms Ataxia Coma Headache...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/afp20050615p2313.pdf

afp20050615p2348-f1.pdf

...History of stroke or TIA; hypertension; heart failure; age older than 75 years; or more than one moderate risk factor High 3.0 (2.5 to 3.8) Age 65 to 75 years, diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease; not high risk Moderate 1.0 (0.4 to 2.2) Not moderate or high risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/afp20050615p2348-f1.pdf

afp20051015p1492.pdf

...Healthy adults tolerate a drop in systolic blood pressure to 70 mm Hg without incident; however, older patients and those with chronic hypertension are susceptible to syncope when a relatively small decrease in systemic blood pressure occurs. Differential Diagnosis The underlying...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/afp20051015p1492.pdf

afp20051215p2483.pdf

...and renal scarring. Although some children with renal scarring develop hypertension and renal insufficiency in adulthood, this association appears limited to those with extensive renal scarring or hypertension in child- hood.28 Recommendations have been made to identify VUR early to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/afp20051215p2483.pdf

afp20060115p244.pdf

...is associated with some underlying conditions that can cause vertigo. For example, older patients, espe- cially those with diabetes or hypertension, are at higher risk of cerebrovascular causes of vertigo.12 Patients should be asked about family history including hereditary condi-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/afp20060115p244.pdf

afp20060301p841.pdf

...dysfunction; therefore, a patient cannot have pure systolic heart failure.4 In contrast, certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension may lead to diastolic dysfunction without concomitant systolic dysfunction.5 Although diastolic heart failure accounts for approximately 40...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/afp20060301p841.pdf

afp20060501p1558.pdf

...Hypertension in Children and Adolescents GREGORY B. LUMA, M.D., and ROSEANN T. SPIOTTA, M.D., Jamaica Hospital Medical Center Family Medicine Residency Program, New York, New York T he prevalence and rate of diagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents appear to be increas-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/afp20060501p1558.pdf

afp20060515p1748.pdf

...Malignant hypertension Renal artery embolism/thrombosis Renal venous thrombosis Sickle cell disease extrarenal Benign prostatic hypertrophy Calculi Coagulopathy related Drug induced (warfarin [Coumadin], heparin) Secondary to systemic disease Congenital...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/afp20060515p1748.pdf

afp20060601p1971.pdf

...modification. Medical therapy is directed at reduc- ing platelet aggregation. In addition, patients with contributing disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia need to have these conditions managed as aggressively as possible. Surgical therapies include stents,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/afp20060601p1971.pdf

afp20060701p105.pdf

...Hypertension During prior pregnancy, now resolved 2 1 1 1 1 1 Well controlled 3 1 2 1 1 1 Systolic BP 140-159 mm Hg or diastolic BP 90-99 mm Hg 3 1 2 1 1 1 Systolic BP ≥ 160 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 100 mm Hg 4 2 3 2 2 1 With vascular disease 4 2 3 2 2 1 Table 1...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/afp20060701p105.pdf

afp20060801p420.pdf

...that limits food and fluid intake. Cerebral hypoxia from severe paroxysms1 can cause sei- zures and encephalopathy. Refractory pulmonary hypertension can be a late sequela in infants with pertussis.1,7 Clinical Presentation Pertussis symptoms are described in three stages:...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/afp20060801p420.pdf

afp20060801p437.pdf

...hypertension Special considerations Focus on aerobic activities that use large muscle groups. Patients should exercise 30 to 60 minutes, three to seven days per week to effectively lower blood pressure; daily exercise may be most effective. Intensities of 40 to 70...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/afp20060801p437.pdf

afp20060815p613.pdf

...A: high risk of heart failure; no underlying structural cardiac disease (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia) No correlation B: asymptomatic structural heart disease (e.g., left ventricular hypertrophy) I: no limitation of patient activities; ordinary physical...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/afp20060815p613.pdf

afp20060901p756.pdf

...decompensation, character- ized by ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, or variceal bleeding from portal hypertension. Physical examination of patients with cirrhosis may reveal a variety of findings that necessitate a hepatic- or gastro-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/afp20060901p756.pdf

afp20060901p767.pdf

...and treatment. Major complica- tions of cirrhosis include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, variceal bleeding, and hepatorenal syndrome. Ascites Ascites is defined as the pathologic accumula- tion of fluid in the peritoneal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/afp20060901p767.pdf

afp20060915p971.pdf

...Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascu- lar disease (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complica- tions from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in help-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/afp20060915p971.pdf

afp20060915p991.pdf

...Acute renal failure results when micro- thrombi are deposited in kidney parenchyma. This manifests in the form of hypertension associated with oliguria and anuria, which are early signs of acute renal failure. The central nervous system is another organ system that could become...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/afp20060915p991.pdf

afp20061001p1132.pdf

...MA, Post P, Rabiner M, et al. Adapting your practice: treatment and recommendations for homeless patients with cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, hyperlipidemia and heart failure. Nashville, Tenn.: Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians’ Network, National Health Care for the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/afp20061001p1132.pdf

afp20061015p1331.pdf

...and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to pharmacologic therapy for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Women who already are at optimal or low risk for CVD should be encouraged to maintain or further improve their healthy...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/afp20061015p1331.pdf

afp20061101p1537.pdf

...examination or as an incidental finding on an imaging study. Patients at highest risk for AAA are older men who use tobacco and have hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and a family history of AAA.4,14,38-40 Smoking is the strongest independent risk factor; 90 percent of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/afp20061101p1537.pdf

afp20061101p1547.pdf

...hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and fluid retention. Baseline ophthalmologic evaluation is essential to assess any development of isch- emic optic atrophy from GCA. Most visual loss occurs early in the disease. Late visual loss while receiving therapy is uncommon.13...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/afp20061101p1547.pdf

afp20061115p1749.pdf

...syndromes, chest pain centers, acute myocardial infarction, asymptomatic patients, valvular heart disease, rhythm disturbances, and hypertension. Adjustment of the ST heart rate can identify myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with elevated cardiac risk. Intermediate- and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/afp20061115p1749.pdf

afp20070115p231.pdf

...her osteoarthritis now reports ankle edema. In your absence, a colleague had started her on a calcium channel blocker for newly diagnosed hypertension. Scenario 4: A 20-year-old woman with sinus pain who was prescribed a fluoroquin- olone by the overnight call physician called...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/afp20070115p231.pdf

afp20070301p656.pdf

...Uncontrolled systemic hypertension Intermediate Mild angina pectoris (Canadian class I or II‡) Previous MI by history or pathologic Q waves Compensated or prior heart failure Diabetes mellitus (particularly insulin-dependent) Renal insufficiency Preoperative...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/afp20070301p656.pdf

afp20070315p841.pdf

...It is common for disaster victims to require assistance in the management of chronic health problems (e.g., dia- betes, hypertension, CHF). Simple provision of medica- tion and medical supplies may be sufficient. Depending on the degree to which the disaster has impacted com- munity...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p841.pdf

afp20070315p869.pdf

...Latrodectus antivenin is indicated for patients manifesting severe regional or systemic toxicity, and for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, seizures, or respiratory arrest.10,11 One vial of antivenin diluted in 100 to 250 mL of saline should be infused intravenously over two...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p869.pdf

afp20070315p875.pdf

...of two to four hours. Because ergot alkaloid agents raise blood pressure, they are contrain- dicated in women with preclampsia or hypertension.33 Other adverse effects include nausea and vomiting.33 Prostaglandins enhance uterine contractility and cause vasoconstriction.34 The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p875.pdf

afp20070401p1008.pdf

...Athletes with stage 2 hypertension (i.e., blood pressure above the 99th percentile [based on age, sex, and height] plus 5 mm Hg; or blood pressure more than 160/100 mm Hg for athletes older than 18 years) should be restricted from participation until hypertension is controlled. C...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/afp20070401p1008.pdf

afp20070401p1031.pdf

...systemic embolism; age older than 75 years; impaired left ventricular systolic function and/or congestive heart failure; history of hypertension or diabetes. §-In patients 65 to 75 years of age without other risk factors; of note, aspirin (325 mg) is an acceptable alternative in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/afp20070401p1031.pdf

afp20070415p1199.pdf

...Chronic hypertension Multiparity Multiple gestations Older age Previous cesarean delivery Tobacco use Uterine curettage Placental abruption8-10 Chronic hypertension Multiparity Preeclampsia Previous abruption Short umbilical cord Sudden...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/afp20070415p1199.pdf

afp20070415p1219.pdf

...of Patients with Suspected CAD Evaluation of patient history will reveal the presence of cardiac risk factors, including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, abnormal lipid profile, and family history in any first­degree female relative 65 years...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/afp20070415p1219.pdf

afp20070515p1487.pdf

...in patients with chronic kidney disease are listed in Table 4.4,5 Thiazide diuretics are first-line agents for treating uncompli- cated hypertension,6 but they are not recom- mended if the serum creatinine level is higher than 2.5 mg per dL (220 µmol per L) or if the creatinine...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1487.pdf

afp20070515p1503.pdf

...occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension. Many tumors are asymptomatic and may be diagnosed incidentally. Although a causal relationship has not been established, fibroid...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1503.pdf

afp20070715p255.pdf

...and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home moni- toring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Glucose...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/afp20070715p255.pdf

afp20070801p382.pdf

...ischemic attack are common problems in primary care, with stroke survivors averaging 10 outpatient visits per year. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia should be evaluated during each office visit. Attention should be given to lifestyle modification...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p382.pdf

afp20070801p391.pdf

...the following scenario: A 35-year- old white woman with panic disorder was treated with paroxetine (Paxil). She devel- oped unrelated hypertension, for which the physician prescribed 50 mg daily of extended- release metoprolol (Toprol XL). The patient became symptomatically...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p391.pdf

afp20070801p397.pdf

...future pregnancies (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, thromboembolism, autoimmune diseases); screen for ongoing chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes Medication use: Review the patient’s current medication use; avoid FDA pregnancy category X medications and most...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p397.pdf

afp20070815p539.pdf

...pressure of 88/44 mm Hg, pulse rate of 113 beats per minute, and respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal failure that did not require dialysis, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis secondary to alcohol abuse. Laboratory...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/afp20070815p539.pdf

afp20070915p829.pdf

...Risk factors for CRAO include age older than 70, atherosclerosis, diabetes, endar- teritis, glaucoma, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, hypercoagulable states, and migraine.15-17 CRAO may occur in younger patients with systemic disease, such as col- lagen vascular diseases,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/afp20070915p829.pdf

afp20071015p1141.pdf

...Angina, angioedema, arrhythmias, bronchospasm (paradoxical), hypertension, hypokalemia, QT-interval prolongation, seizures, urticaria Bad taste in the mouth, cough, throat irritation, tremor, URTI symptoms Improves breathlessness but not other patient- oriented outcomes11...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/afp20071015p1141.pdf

afp20071015p1169.pdf

...Hypertension Hyperthermia Insomnia Myocardial infarction Paranoia Psychosis Renal failure Rhabdomyolysis Seizures Sexually and parenterally transmitted infections Stroke Tachycardia Tachypnea Trauma Chronic exposure Cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/afp20071015p1169.pdf

afp20071101p1341.pdf

...study to study because of differences in the populations surveyed. In addition, many causes are interdepen- dent; for example, maternal hypertension can cause uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction.9,10 Etiologies of Second Trimester Pregnancy Loss Conditions...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/afp20071101p1341.pdf

afp20071201p1679.pdf

...of patients and can result in rupture, infection, intracystic bleeding, and obstruction of the surround- ing structures.24 Rarely, portal hypertension and gastric varices result from thrombosis of the splenic vein; this can cause pseudo- aneurysms to form, especially in the splenic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/afp20071201p1679.pdf

afp20071215p1837.pdf

...Amphetamines and anorexics Potentially increase risk of hypertension, angina, and myocardial infarction; cause dependence Anticholinergics and antihistamines (i.e., chlorpheniramine [Chlor- Trimeton], diphenhydramine [Benadryl], hydroxyzine [Vistaril], cyproheptadine...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1215/afp20071215p1837.pdf

afp20080115p187.pdf

...Diet pill toxicity (e.g., palpitations, hypertension) Emetine cardiomyopathy (ipecac syrup) Mitral valve prolapse Peripheral edema Dermatologic Carotenosis Dry skin, brittle nails Lanugo Starvation-associated pruritus Russell’s sign (i.e., calluses on dorsum...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/afp20080115p187.pdf

afp20080201p311.pdf

...che- motherapeutic agents.16 However, effects on normal blood vessels can also occur, leading to such toxicities as bleeding, thrombosis, hypertension, and-through alterations to glomerular capillaries17-proteinuria. For example, the anti-VEGF monoclonal anti- body bevacizumab...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/afp20080201p311.pdf

afp20080215p483.pdf

...alcoholism, or uncontrolled hypertension, and in those who have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor within the past 14 days Seizures, arrhythmias, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, hallucinations, mania, suicidality, hypertension, migraines Yes; safe and mildly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/afp20080215p483.pdf

afp20080301p621.pdf

...May have hypertension and other risk factors for atherosclerosis May have chest or back pain Obtain chest CT scan or magnetic resonance angiogram; plain chest radiography is insensitive Psychogenic (e.g., depression, anxiety)35 History of depression or anxiety Blunted...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/afp20080301p621.pdf

afp20080315p785.pdf

...relative to SSris. tCA overdose can cause respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, hypothermia, seizures, hallucinations, and hypertension for as long as five days.4 ssris and sEroTonin norEPinEPhrinE rEuPTakE inhibiTors (snris) SSris rapidly became the most popular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/afp20080315p785.pdf

afp20080415p1117.pdf

...Cushing’s disease Facial plethora; hirsutism; hyperglycemia; hypertension; poor wound healing; stria Marfan’s syndrome Enlarged aortic root; eye involvement; mitral valve prolapse; scoliosis; pectus excavatum; stretch marks; tall and slim, with long limbs and digits Vitamin C...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1117.pdf

afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

...Hypertension treated with a diuretic and lisinopril (Prinivil) Hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine Irregular periods, some hot flashes The patient is concerned because her mother, a smoker, began menopause at 47 years of age and had a myocardial infarction at 51 years of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

afp20080415p1129.pdf

...and mortality of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers.3,4 Physical activity improves mental health and control of diabetes, hypertension, and lipid levels; prevents osteoporosis; and, especially in older patients, sustains mobil- ity, reduces disability, and decreases...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129.pdf

afp20080515p1403.pdf

...[Minipress]) also lower blood pressure through their action on vascular smooth muscles. although these three agents are indicated for hypertension, they are less effec- tive than thiazide diuretics and angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing adverse cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/afp20080515p1403.pdf

afp20080601p1553.pdf

...Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality.14 Despite the availability of several pharmacologic treatment options for hypertension, only 34 percent of north americans are achieving target blood pressure goals, and preventing cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/afp20080601p1553.pdf

afp20080715p206.pdf

...for patients with diet-related illness such as diabetes or hypertension and those with other risk factors for CHd.12,13 exerCise COunseLing physical activity is beneficial to all adults. it reduces the rate of all-cause mortality and helps to prevent osteoporosis and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/afp20080715p206.pdf

afp20080801p347.pdf

...Hypertension Sickle cell anemia Chronic renal disease Congenital Vascular malformations and aneurysms Artifactual causes of hematuria Food (e.g., beets, berries, rhubarb) Food coloring Medications Menstrual blood *-The first five causes listed in the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p347.pdf

afp20080801p365.pdf

...Withdrawal and rebound hypertension may occur in patients discontinuing therapy after receiving high doses for long period of time; tapering is recommended Also antispastic agent Do not use with CYP1A2 inhibitors, ciprofloxacin (Cipro) or fluvoxamine (Luvox CR) Caution...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p365.pdf

afp20080901p583.pdf

...Drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, and rebound hypertension Methyldopa (Aldomet; brand no longer available in the United States) 375 to 1,125 mg daily in divided dosages No No benefit over placebo SNRI = serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI = selective...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/afp20080901p583.pdf

afp20080915p717.pdf

...and those with left ventricular dysfunction. Many patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis have concurrent cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, atrial fibril- lation, and coronary artery disease, which should also be carefully managed. (Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(6):717-724,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/afp20080915p717.pdf

afp20081015p961.pdf

...phenomenon and scleroderma (hardening of the skin) are the clinical hall- marks of the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the leading causes of death.3 Epidemiology and Classification Patients who have systemic sclerosis can be classified into...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/afp20081015p961.pdf

afp20081101p1052.pdf

...cardiovascular risk factors: larger waist- line, elevated triglyceride level, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose level.6 The same associations are emerging in overweight young persons. approximately 60 percent...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/afp20081101p1052.pdf

afp20081201p1277.pdf

...Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes KAREN L. WHALEN, PharmD, University of Florida College of Pharmacy-St. Petersburg Campus, Seminole, Florida ROBERT D. STEWART, PharmD, Bay Pines Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Bay Pines, Florida pproximately...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1277.pdf

afp20090301p391.pdf

...less legs syndrome or OSA, the latter of which may occur even in persons who are not obese or who do not have the common comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary disease. In most cases, overnight polysomnog- raphy is required to confirm the diagnosis of OSA and to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p391.pdf

afp20090301p397.pdf

...Tachycardia, hypertension, fasciculations, gastrointestinal cramps, emesis, miosis Atropine/pralidoxime (not available in the United States) Cyanide Cyanide Syncope, cyanosis, hypotension, psychosis Sodium nitrite 3%, sodium thiosulfate 25% Ethylene glycol, methanol...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p397.pdf

afp20090515p863.pdf

...Difficult-to-Control or Resistant Hypertension ANTHONY J. VIERA, MD, MPH, and ALAN L. HINDERLITER, MD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina M ore than 65 million U.S. adults have hypertension, about 40 million of whom do not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p863.pdf

afp20090515p875.pdf

...Effect on disease markers Hypertension (atherosclerosis) Diabetes (retinopathy) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (endoscopic esophagitis) Effect on risk factors for disease Blood pressure A1C Cholesterol Determining strength of Recommendations sORt A sORt C sORt B...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p875.pdf

afp20090615p1080.pdf

...for CHD should be performed every three to five years in all patients. Risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history, age, and sex. In patients with two or more major risk factors, calculation of a 10-year coronary artery dis- ease risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/afp20090615p1080.pdf

afp20090701p57.pdf

...reflect the patient’s degree of metabolic control, the type of therapy she is receiving, and the presence of other risk factors (e.g., hypertension). ACOG recom- mends that women with gestational diabetes who are on insulin or who have poor glucose control have the same antenatal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p57.pdf

afp20090701p67.pdf

...porating patient preferences may be criti- cal to making an appropriate decision. For example, you may offer a 60-year-old man with hypertension the option of taking daily aspirin to lower his risk of myocardial infarc- tion, but advise him that this medication will increase his...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p67.pdf

afp20090715p157.pdf

...15. Paolisso G, Barbagallo M. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Am J Hypertens. 1997; 10(3):346-355. 16. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, et al. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/afp20090715p157.pdf

afp20091015p841.pdf

...myocar- dial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure). There was a 62 percent higher risk of cardio- vascular events in patients with hypertension whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was less than 15 ng per mL (38 nmol per L), compared with those whose level was 15 ng per mL or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/afp20091015p841.pdf

afp20100101p55.pdf

...the chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabe- tes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in this...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p55.pdf

afp20100401p863.pdf

...random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/afp20100401p863.pdf

afp20100415p965.pdf

...Complications Chronic HBV infection can lead to cirrhosis and its complications, including ascites, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocel- lular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic HBV infection is often performed every six to 12 months...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p965.pdf

afp20100415p975.pdf

...the driver to a specialist, if necessary. For many conditions, including some types of heart disease and hypertension controlled by medication, medical certification should be for less than 24 months. Limited certifica- tion is also appropriate for a medical condi- tion that does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p975.pdf

afp20100415p989.pdf

...Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of venous ulcers is not entirely clear. Venous incompetence and associated venous hypertension are thought to be the primary mechanisms for ulcer formation. Factors that may lead to venous incompetence include immobility; ineffec- tive pumping...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p989.pdf

afp20100515p1250.pdf

...Nephrectomy Glomerular toxicity; tubular dysfunction; renal insufficiency; hypertension Bladder Cyclophosphamide; ifosfamide Pelvic (including bladder); lumbar- sacral spine Spinal surgery; cystectomy Hemorrhagic cystitis; bladder fibrosis; dysfunctional voiding;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/afp20100515p1250.pdf

afp20100601p1361.pdf

...syndrome 5 Hypertension, moon-shaped face, striae, proximal muscle weakness, truncal obesity, thin skin, easy bruising Overnight dexamethasone suppression test, serum and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels, serum corticotropin level Pheochromocytoma 3 to 10 Hypertension,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1361.pdf

afp20100615p1440.pdf

...Arrhythmias, dizziness, headache, hypertension, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, urinary retention Intranasal cromolyn Cromolyn (Nasalcrom) B Two years Inhibits histamine release; results typically noted in one week, but may take two to four weeks for full effect epistaxis,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1440.pdf

afp20100615p1462.pdf

...In addition to anemia, patients may present with abdominal pain, altered mental status, renal disease, and hypertension Microcytic anemia may be concurrent with iron deficiency; peripheral smear may show basophilic stippling; hemolysis may be present Late childhood and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1462.pdf

afp20100701p53.pdf

...demonstrated that doxazosin (Cardura) increased the risk of heart failure compared with a thia- zide diuretic in the treatment of hypertension.10 The demonstration that a marker is independently associated with risk does not mean that treatments that modify levels of the marker...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/afp20100701p53.pdf

afp20100915p621.pdf

...dysphoric disorder. Oral contraceptive pills may be used safely in women with a range of medical conditions, including well-controlled hypertension, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, depression, and uncomplicated valvular heart disease. However, women older than 35 years who smoke...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/afp20100915p621.pdf

afp20110115p141.pdf

...24 months, who require medical therapy (i.e., medication to control congestive heart failure, those with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, or infants with cyanotic disease) Premature infants born at less than 31 weeks, six days of gestation Certain infants with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/afp20110115p141.pdf

afp20110201p271.pdf

...that has not responded to adequate doses of simple analgesics. Triptans should be avoided in patients with vascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or hemiplegic migraine. Intravenous antiemetics, with or without intravenous dihydroergotamine, are effective therapies in an...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/afp20110201p271.pdf

afp20110615p1403.pdf

...are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer dis- ease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcho-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1403.pdf

afp20110615p1443.pdf

...cell counts less than 200 per mm3 (0.20 × 109 per L); those with viral loads greater than 4,000 copies per mL; and those with diabetes, hypertension, or co-occurring hepatitis C should be screened every six months. C 5, 39 A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1443.pdf

afp20110901p551.pdf

...CHD risk > 20 percent. ‡-Initiation of drug therapy is an option on the basis of available clinical trial results. §-Cigarette smoking; hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or on antihypertensive therapy); low HDL cholesterol (< 40 mg per dL [1.04 mmol per L]); family...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/afp20110901p551.pdf

afp20111001od1.pdf

...a pharmacist-based intervention involving 200 patients with hypertension and hyperlip- idemia (mean age = 78 years; mean number of medications per patient = 9).3 Pharma- cists provided patient education, performed follow-up to assess and support medication adherence, and dispensed...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/afp20111001od1.pdf

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