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stroke

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afp20190515p606.pdf

...Postoperative Pain, Acute Stroke, Hormone Therapy, Diet to Improve Cardiovascular Risk, Ovarian Cancer Which is the better oral pain reliever for children with postoperative pain: ibuprofen or morphine? A carefully designed and adequately powered study found no difference in pain...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/afp20190515p606.pdf

afp20190601p670.pdf

...Administering aspirin during a heart attack or stroke can be lifesaving. The benefits of daily low-dose (81 mg) aspirin therapy to prevent recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are also well established.1 Aspirin’s routine use for primary prevention, however, has been the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/afp20190601p670.pdf

afp20190601p699.pdf

...STROKE Stroke is the leading cause of serious long-term disabil- ity, and most stroke survivors return home.44 These care recipients often require significant assistance with activi- ties of daily living and instrumental activities of daily liv- ing.44 A review of caregiver...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/afp20190601p699.pdf

afp20190601p716.pdf

...two or more of the following major events: acute coronary syndrome in the past 12 months, previous myocardial infarction, previous ischemic stroke, or symp- tomatic peripheral artery disease. A patient is also very high risk if he or she has one of those major ASCVD events and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/afp20190601p716.pdf

afp20190601p717.pdf

...two or more of the following major events: acute coronary syndrome in the past 12 months, previous myocardial infarction, previous ischemic stroke, or symp- tomatic peripheral artery disease. A patient is also very high risk if he or she has one of those major ASCVD events and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/afp20190601p717.pdf

afp20190601p717a.pdf

...two or more of the following major events: acute coronary syndrome in the past 12 months, previous myocardial infarction, previous ischemic stroke, or symp- tomatic peripheral artery disease. A patient is also very high risk if he or she has one of those major ASCVD events and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/afp20190601p717a.pdf

afp20190615od2.pdf

...out- comes: response or remission, cardiac-related outcomes (cardiac mortality, repeat acute coronary syndrome event, resuscitated arrest, stroke, arrhythmias, revascularization) Quality of life Cost-effectiveness Use of health care services: cardiac medication adherence,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/afp20190615od2.pdf

afp20190615p751.pdf

...but multiple studies have sought to clarify the optimal level of glycemic control to prevent macrovascular (e.g., myocardial infarction, stroke, death) and microvascular (e.g., retinopathy, DKD) complications of diabetes.13-15 The American Diabetes Association recommends a target...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/afp20190615p751.pdf

afp20190701p32.pdf

...multiple treatments and modalities.22 Other conditions associated with polypharmacy in younger patients include diabetes, heart dis- ease, stroke, and cancer.24 A population often overlooked with regard to polypharmacy is patients with mental health conditions.22,25 These...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/afp20190701p32.pdf

afp20190701p49.pdf

...included total mortality (cardiovascular and noncardiovascular), cardiovascular morbidity (myocardial infarction, stroke), total hospital- izations, and withdrawal due to adverse drug effects. There was no difference in total mortality (seven studies; n = 8,260; relative risk [RR] =...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/afp20190701p49.pdf

afp20190701p58.pdf

...is reduced with consistent physical activity. Physical activity improves function in patients with Parkinson disease, multiple sclero- sis, stroke, and other types of frailty. Cancer In addition to reductions in the risk of breast and colon cancers reported in 2008, studies have...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/afp20190701p58.pdf

afp20190715p116.pdf

...the addition of semaglutide reduced the composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfa- tal stroke by 2.3 percentage points as compared with placebo (6.6% vs. 8.9%; number needed to treat = 44 over 2.1 years).2 Although not directly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p116.pdf

afp20190715p118.pdf

...risk. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke (excluding hemorrhagic stroke), vascular death, or transient ischemic attack. Transient ischemic attack was added after recruit- ment had begun, and the length of the trial was increased...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p118.pdf

afp20190715p118a.pdf

...risk. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke (excluding hemorrhagic stroke), vascular death, or transient ischemic attack. Transient ischemic attack was added after recruit- ment had begun, and the length of the trial was increased...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p118a.pdf

afp20190715p119.pdf

...risk. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke (excluding hemorrhagic stroke), vascular death, or transient ischemic attack. Transient ischemic attack was added after recruit- ment had begun, and the length of the trial was increased...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p119.pdf

afp20190715p120.pdf

...risk. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke (excluding hemorrhagic stroke), vascular death, or transient ischemic attack. Transient ischemic attack was added after recruit- ment had begun, and the length of the trial was increased...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p120.pdf

afp20190715p69.pdf

...in combination with aspirin to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascu- lar [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease. Before publication, the article was not updated to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p69.pdf

afp20190715p70.pdf

...in combination with aspirin to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascu- lar [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease. Before publication, the article was not updated to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p70.pdf

afp20190715p73.pdf

...in combination with aspirin to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascu- lar [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease. Before publication, the article was not updated to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/afp20190715p73.pdf

afp20190801p184.pdf

...Dapagliflozin in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Hospitalization for Heart Failure But Does Not Reduce Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke Clinical Question Does dapagliflozin (Farxiga) improve cardiovas- cular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/afp20190801p184.pdf

afp20190815p208.pdf

...Asthma, Back and Neck Pain, Pain During Labor, TIA, CBT for Anxiety Is intravenous magnesium sulfate effective for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations? Patients presenting to the emergency depart- ment with an acute asthma exacerbation that has not responded to first-line...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/afp20190815p208.pdf

afp20190815p249.pdf

...Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin Prevents Second Ischemic Stroke Better Than Aspirin Alone Clinical Question Does clopidogrel (Plavix) add benefit to aspirin treatment in patients with acute minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack? Bottom Line Combined treatment with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/afp20190815p249.pdf

afp20190815p249a.pdf

...Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin Prevents Second Ischemic Stroke Better Than Aspirin Alone Clinical Question Does clopidogrel (Plavix) add benefit to aspirin treatment in patients with acute minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack? Bottom Line Combined treatment with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/afp20190815p249a.pdf

afp20190915p339.pdf

...because of stroke).40 Behavior therapies, such as assisted and timed toileting, are the primary treatment for func- tional incontinence.40 Indications for Referral Subspecialist referral should be considered for compli- cated UI to include associated pain, persistent hematuria...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p339.pdf

afp20190915p369.pdf

...Clinical Commentary The current fragmentation and failure of demen- tia care are a problem of framing. Even if dementia is diagnosed correctly,1 it is viewed indiscrimi- nately, as an additional problem on the list, such as hypertension or diabetes. Prescribing acetyl-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p369.pdf

afp20190915p374.pdf

...of cancer diagnosis or the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (i.e., cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke). There was no dif- ference between groups regarding cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. There was a reduction in total myocardial...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p374.pdf

afp20190915p374a.pdf

...of cancer diagnosis or the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (i.e., cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke). There was no dif- ference between groups regarding cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. There was a reduction in total myocardial...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p374a.pdf

afp20190915p376.pdf

...of cancer diagnosis or the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (i.e., cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke). There was no dif- ference between groups regarding cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. There was a reduction in total myocardial...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p376.pdf

afp20190915p378.pdf

...Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for High-Risk TIA and Minor Stroke: BMJ Rapid Recommendation Dual antiplatelet therapy after stroke has not previously been shown to improve outcomes over a single agent. Based on a recent randomized controlled trial followed by a systematic review,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/afp20190915p378.pdf

afp20191001p391.pdf

...Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Young Committee of Council on Cardiovas- cular Disease in Young, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and Council on Lifestyle and Car- diometabolic Health. The agenda...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/afp20191001p391.pdf

afp20191001p392.pdf

...Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Young Committee of Council on Cardiovas- cular Disease in Young, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and Council on Lifestyle and Car- diometabolic Health. The agenda...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/afp20191001p392.pdf

afp20191001p403.pdf

...Evidence-Based Answer Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibi- tor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/afp20191001p403.pdf

afp20191001p405.pdf

...Evidence-Based Answer Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibi- tor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/afp20191001p405.pdf

afp20191015p462.pdf

...fibrillation beneficial for reducing the risk of stroke? A limited number of trials that examined the risk of temporary interruption of anticoagula- tion before a variety of procedures did not find a reduction in the risk of stroke, but they did show an increased risk of bleeding...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/afp20191015p462.pdf

afp20191015p463.pdf

...of randomized controlled trials [RCTs].) Dual antiplatelet therapy decreases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and isch- emic stroke (number needed to treat [NNT] = 77 and 43, respectively) with no change in mortal- ity. It also increases the risks of major and minor bleeding...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/afp20191015p463.pdf

afp20191101od1.pdf

...heart attack, stroke Harm End Points: Major bleeding, dyspnea Narrative: Dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel [Plavix] or ticagrelor [Brillinta]) com- pared with aspirin alone after PCI modestly reduces non- fatal events such as heart attack and stroke.1,2 This...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/afp20191101od1.pdf

afp20191101p541.pdf

...= 100), and fewer strokes (NNT = 166) than those treated with RAS inhibitors. Patients treated with RAS inhibitors have fewer deaths and hospitalizations from heart failure than those treated with calcium channel blockers (CCBs; NNT = 83), although CCBs decrease stroke risk more...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/afp20191101p541.pdf

afp20191101p556.pdf

...from neurogenic and psychogenic stuttering. Neurogenic stuttering is an acquired form of stuttering that follows brain injury, such as from stroke or trauma. Psychogenic stuttering is a manifestation of a psychiatric condition. These forms of stuttering are much less common than...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/afp20191101p556.pdf

afp20191115p618.pdf

...Air pollution is associated with increased risks of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and is asso- ciated with increased emergency department visits, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma exacerbations, and development of respiratory disease....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/afp20191115p618.pdf

afp20191115p649.pdf

...within 60 minutes of pre- sentation to avoid such adverse outcomes as con- gestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, renal failure, and stroke. CONSENSUS AND EXPERT OPINION Epidural and spinal anesthesia are appropriate options during delivery for women who have a stable...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/afp20191115p649.pdf

afp20191201p677.pdf

...cardiovascular mortality (studied in nine trials, with varying definitions, including coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease plus stroke) between patients undergoing general health checks and those in control groups. Further data analysis demonstrated no difference...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/afp20191201p677.pdf

afp20191201p680.pdf

...Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, trauma Impaired mobility and/or thermoregulation Peripheral neuropathy Impaired sensation Psychiatric Alcoholism Behavioral modifications; vasodilatory effects; malnutrition/depleted glycogen stores...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/afp20191201p680.pdf

afp20191201p687.pdf

...Functional: neurogenic bladder, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, stroke, pharmacologic adverse effects (anticholinergics, antidepressants) Prostate: benign prostatic hypertrophy, carcinoma, infection Urethral: posterior urethral valves, strictures, trauma, infections,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/afp20191201p687.pdf

afp20191201p709.pdf

...2007, American Family Physician pub- lished the inaugural Close-ups department, featur- ing a story about my mother, who had experienced a stroke, and my father, who cared for her at home for seven years.1 Officially, their relationship lasted 56 years, but emotionally it never...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/afp20191201p709.pdf

afp20191215od2.pdf

...monotherapy for up to five years. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or bleeding. Individ- uals masked to treatment group assignment adjudicated all clinical events. Complete follow-up occurred for 98.8% of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/afp20191215od2.pdf

afp20191215od3.pdf

...monotherapy for up to five years. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or bleeding. Individ- uals masked to treatment group assignment adjudicated all clinical events. Complete follow-up occurred for 98.8% of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/afp20191215od3.pdf

afp20191215od4.pdf

...monotherapy for up to five years. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or bleeding. Individ- uals masked to treatment group assignment adjudicated all clinical events. Complete follow-up occurred for 98.8% of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/afp20191215od4.pdf

afp20191215p742.pdf

...current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of statins in people older than 75 years who have no history of stroke or heart attack.2 For people 65 to 75 years of age with one or more risk factors, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/afp20191215p742.pdf

afp20191215p751.pdf

...Any condition that may compromise the handling of respira- tory secretions (e.g., neuromuscular diseases, cerebral palsy, stroke, seizure disorder, dementia) Asthma or other chronic pulmonary disease Chronic kidney disease Chronic liver disease Heart disease (acquired or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/afp20191215p751.pdf

afp20200101p17.pdf

...prob- lems such as atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke.3 CPAP is the current first-line therapy; however, up to two-thirds of patients do not adhere to treatment.4 Positional therapies for...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/afp20200101p17.pdf

afp20200101p5.pdf

...Initiate Stroke-Protective Therapy Original Article: Downsides of Detecting Atrial Fibrillation in Asymptomatic Patients [Editorials] Issue Date: March 15, 2019 See additional reader comments at: https://www.aafp.org/ afp/2019/0315/p354.html To the Editor: Stroke is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/afp20200101p5.pdf

afp20200101p6.pdf

...Initiate Stroke-Protective Therapy Original Article: Downsides of Detecting Atrial Fibrillation in Asymptomatic Patients [Editorials] Issue Date: March 15, 2019 See additional reader comments at: https://www.aafp.org/ afp/2019/0315/p354.html To the Editor: Stroke is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/afp20200101p6.pdf

afp20200101p7.pdf

...Initiate Stroke-Protective Therapy Original Article: Downsides of Detecting Atrial Fibrillation in Asymptomatic Patients [Editorials] Issue Date: March 15, 2019 See additional reader comments at: https://www.aafp.org/ afp/2019/0315/p354.html To the Editor: Stroke is...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/afp20200101p7.pdf

afp20200115p123.pdf

...summary focuses on the new and revised rec- ommendations for choosing an anticoagu- lant and new recommendations for preventing stroke via nonpharmacologic options and use of catheter ablation. Key Recommendations HIGH-QUALITY EVIDENCE Based on high-quality evidence, oral...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/afp20200115p123.pdf

afp20200115p95.pdf

...Upper motor neurons, which are located in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and corticospinal tracts, may be injured from stroke, multiple scle- rosis, and spinal cord or brain masses. Lower motor neurons, which are located in the ante- rior horn of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/afp20200115p95.pdf

afp20200215p206.pdf

...anticoag- ulation therapy does not increase the risk of future diver- ticular bleeding and is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke when discontinued.14 Data Sources: Multiple searches were performed in Essential Evidence, PubMed, the Cochrane database, and Google...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/afp20200215p206.pdf

afp20200215p213.pdf

...24. Tranchida GV, Van Heest A. Preferred options and evidence for upper limb surgery for spasticity in cerebral palsy, stroke, and brain injury [published online October 9, 2019]. J Hand Surg Eur. Accessed November 5, 2019. https:// journals.sagepub.co...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/afp20200215p213.pdf

afp20200215p248a.pdf

...hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, heart failure, or hypertension) at one year. Study design: Cohort (retrospective) Funding source: Government Allocation: Uncertain Setting: Inpatient (any location) with outpatient follow-up...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/afp20200215p248a.pdf

afp20200215p249.pdf

...hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, heart failure, or hypertension) at one year. Study design: Cohort (retrospective) Funding source: Government Allocation: Uncertain Setting: Inpatient (any location) with outpatient follow-up...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/afp20200215p249.pdf

afp20200215p250.pdf

...hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, heart failure, or hypertension) at one year. Study design: Cohort (retrospective) Funding source: Government Allocation: Uncertain Setting: Inpatient (any location) with outpatient follow-up...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/afp20200215p250.pdf

afp20200301p294.pdf

...per year.5 Because non-vitamin K oral anticoag- ulants show similar or better stroke prevention than warfarin with a reduction in major bleed- ing, they are now recommended more than war- farin.12 A 2017 systematic review of 23 RCTs that included 94,656 individuals showed that apix-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/afp20200301p294.pdf

afp20200301p309.pdf

...This study found that linagliptin is noninferior to glimepir­ ide for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in adults with type 2 diabetes at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although hypogly­ cemic events occurred significantly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/afp20200301p309.pdf

afp20200301p309a.pdf

...This study found that linagliptin is noninferior to glimepir­ ide for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in adults with type 2 diabetes at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although hypogly­ cemic events occurred significantly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/afp20200301p309a.pdf

afp20200301p310a.pdf

...This study found that linagliptin is noninferior to glimepir­ ide for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in adults with type 2 diabetes at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although hypogly­ cemic events occurred significantly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/afp20200301p310a.pdf

afp20200315od1.pdf

...These harms include vasomotor symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and possible cardiovas- cular events, such as stroke. Aromatase inhibitors do not reduce, and may even increase, risk of fractures. USPSTF ASSESSMENT The USPSTF concludes with moderate...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/afp20200315od1.pdf

afp20200315p341.pdf

...- - Adults with history of stroke, 18 to 65 years of age ≥ 140/90 120 to 130/70 to 79 Adults with his- tory of stroke§ ≥ 130/80 Adults with history of stroke, 65 to 79 years of age ≥ 140/90 130 to 139/70 to 79 Adults with history of stroke, 80 years and older ≥...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/afp20200315p341.pdf

afp20200401p409.pdf

...heart failure, or acute lung injury. Additional modalities can be used to determine fluid tolerance and fluid responsiveness (increase in stroke volume) for assessment of optimal fluid management. These include ultrasonography to assess infe- rior vena cava collapsibility or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/afp20200401p409.pdf

afp20200401p434.pdf

...assessed outcomes, includ- ing the primary composite outcome of myocardial infarc- tion, coronary revascularization, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death. Complete follow-up occurred for more than 99% of participants at a median of 6.3 years. Using...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/afp20200401p434.pdf

afp20200401p435.pdf

...assessed outcomes, includ- ing the primary composite outcome of myocardial infarc- tion, coronary revascularization, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death. Complete follow-up occurred for more than 99% of participants at a median of 6.3 years. Using...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/afp20200401p435.pdf

afp20200401p435a.pdf

...assessed outcomes, includ- ing the primary composite outcome of myocardial infarc- tion, coronary revascularization, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death. Complete follow-up occurred for more than 99% of participants at a median of 6.3 years. Using...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/afp20200401p435a.pdf

afp20200501od2.pdf

...tranexamic acid and placebo in the rate of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke), organ failure (renal, cardiac, respiratory), or sepsis and use of uterotonics. A systematic review and meta-analysis,5 which only...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/afp20200501od2.pdf

afp20200501p542.pdf

...Commit- tees of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure: a scientific statement from the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/afp20200501p542.pdf

afp20200515p618.pdf

...adverse effects appear to be similar to those of other combined hormonal contraceptives and include thrombosis, myocar- dial infarction, stroke, carcinoma, gallbladder disease, liver disease, dyslipidemia, and hyper- tension.1,2 Because segesterone acetate is a new progesterone,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/afp20200515p618.pdf

afp20200515p625.pdf

...Chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, or stroke, are more prevalent as people age and may affect driving ability. Medications used to treat chronic and aging-related conditions may impair optimal functioning and exacerbate driving-related hazards....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/afp20200515p625.pdf

afp20200601p695.pdf

...age of participants was 65 years, 25% had diabetes mellitus, 33% had a previous myo- cardial infarction, and 9% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Left main disease was present in 40% and three-vessel disease in 60% of the patients. The primary outcome was all-cause...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/afp20200601p695.pdf

afp20200601p695a.pdf

...age of participants was 65 years, 25% had diabetes mellitus, 33% had a previous myo- cardial infarction, and 9% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Left main disease was present in 40% and three-vessel disease in 60% of the patients. The primary outcome was all-cause...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/afp20200601p695a.pdf

afp20200601p696.pdf

...age of participants was 65 years, 25% had diabetes mellitus, 33% had a previous myo- cardial infarction, and 9% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Left main disease was present in 40% and three-vessel disease in 60% of the patients. The primary outcome was all-cause...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/afp20200601p696.pdf

afp20200601p698.pdf

...age of participants was 65 years, 25% had diabetes mellitus, 33% had a previous myo- cardial infarction, and 9% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Left main disease was present in 40% and three-vessel disease in 60% of the patients. The primary outcome was all-cause...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/afp20200601p698.pdf

afp20200615od1.pdf

...9. Holsinger T, Deveau J, Boustani M, et al. Does this patient have demen- tia? JAMA. 2007; 297(21): 2391-2404. 10. Plassman BL, Williams JW Jr, Burke JR, et al. Systematic review: factors associated with risk for and possible prevention of cognitive decline in later life. Ann...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/afp20200615od1.pdf

afp20200615p748.pdf

...but no stenosis or significant regurgitation. A cardiologist recommended pre- scribing a direct oral anticoagulant to prevent an embolic stroke. However, Mr. H’s primary care physician is con- cerned about the risks of anticoagulation because of recent functional decline in the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/afp20200615p748.pdf

afp20200615p753.pdf

... D. Mild cognitive impairment and demen- tia interfere with independent daily functioning.  E. Dementia currently affects an esti- mated 8 to 9 million people in the United States. Answers 1. The correct answer is D. The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to assess the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/afp20200615p753.pdf

afp20200701p30.pdf

...blood cells for arbitrary hemoglobin or hematocrit thresholds and in the absence of symptoms or active coronary disease, heart failure, or stroke. Society of Hospital Medicine (Adult) Do not transfuse red blood cells in hemodynamically stable, nonbleeding patients in the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/afp20200701p30.pdf

afp20200715p115.pdf

...no difference in the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (i.e., cardiovascular-related death, myocardial infarc- tion, or ischemic stroke) between patients taking dapagliflozin and placebo, trial investigators con- sider the reduction in combined renal outcome as...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0715/afp20200715p115.pdf

afp20200801p150.pdf

...Ripping or tearing sensation in neck, diplopia, drop attacks, headache, syncope, transient ischemic attack symptoms, vertigo, vision changes Kernig sign, unilateral decrease in sensation, unilat- eral weakness Urgent referral and imaging (CT or CT angiography) CRP =...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/afp20200801p150.pdf

afp20200815p247.pdf

...Reduction in Cardiovascular Outcome After Ischemic Stroke with Lower LDL Target, but also Harms; No Change in All-Cause Mortality Clinical Question Does a lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) tar- get following ischemic stroke reduce the likeli- hood of major adverse...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/afp20200815p247.pdf

afp20200815p248.pdf

...Reduction in Cardiovascular Outcome After Ischemic Stroke with Lower LDL Target, but also Harms; No Change in All-Cause Mortality Clinical Question Does a lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) tar- get following ischemic stroke reduce the likeli- hood of major adverse...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/afp20200815p248.pdf

afp20200815p248a.pdf

...Reduction in Cardiovascular Outcome After Ischemic Stroke with Lower LDL Target, but also Harms; No Change in All-Cause Mortality Clinical Question Does a lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) tar- get following ischemic stroke reduce the likeli- hood of major adverse...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/afp20200815p248a.pdf

afp20200901od2.pdf

...Aspirin After Acute Ischemic Stroke John Conway, BS, and Benjamin W. Friedman, MD Details for This Review Study Population: Adults presenting with acute stroke Efficacy End Points: Death or dependence, recurrent stroke, complete recovery from stroke Harm End Points:...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/afp20200901od2.pdf

afp20200901p271.pdf

...Effectiveness of PPAR Gamma Agonists in Preventing Recurrent Stroke and Other Vascular Events Madhavi Singh, MD; Kristen Grine, DO; and Amy Hays, MD, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/afp20200901p271.pdf

afp20200915p332.pdf

...for dual antiplatelet therapy after stroke or transient ischemic attack? A 10- to 21-day course of dual antiplatelet ther- apy reduces stroke recurrence and improves quality of life after mild stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack. Low-dose aspirin and a 300-mg loading dose...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/afp20200915p332.pdf

afp20200915p335.pdf

...and muscle relax- ants.7 The use of nonopioid medications is often restricted by limited effectiveness or adverse effects, such as bleeding, strokes, and cardiovascular and renal disease with NSAIDs.8 Adjuvant medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin) have been used for nonapproved...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/afp20200915p335.pdf

afp20200915p347.pdf

...outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke compared with those taking placebo (11.2% vs. 14.8%; HR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.83; NNT = 28 over five years).39 Those taking icosapent also had lower cardio- vascular mortality (4.3% vs. 5.2%; HR = 0.80;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/afp20200915p347.pdf

afp20201015od4.pdf

...age, sex, education), smoking status, alcohol intake, and diagnoses of chronic medical conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic bronchitis). In addition to count- ing steps, step intensity was estimated based on extended bouts of stepping and peak...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/afp20201015od4.pdf

afp20201015od5.pdf

...age, sex, education), smoking status, alcohol intake, and diagnoses of chronic medical conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic bronchitis). In addition to count- ing steps, step intensity was estimated based on extended bouts of stepping and peak...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/afp20201015od5.pdf

afp20201015od6.pdf

...age, sex, education), smoking status, alcohol intake, and diagnoses of chronic medical conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic bronchitis). In addition to count- ing steps, step intensity was estimated based on extended bouts of stepping and peak...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/afp20201015od6.pdf

afp20201015p478.pdf

...requires imaging and extensive laboratory testing. • Acute complications of COVID-19 include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, stroke, and arterial and venous thrombosis. Hospitalized patients may have debil- ity 66 and mental health effects.67 Factors that may...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/afp20201015p478.pdf

afp20201101p525.pdf

...which confers additional benefit over aspi- rin alone. Dual antiplatelet therapy decreases the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke (number needed to treat [NNT] = 77 and 43, respectively) with no change in mortality. Dual antiplatelet therapy is more beneficial in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/afp20201101p525.pdf

afp20201101p531.pdf

...were all-cause mortality, incidence of type 2 diabetes, serious adverse effects, cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, health- related quality of life, and socioeconomic effects. Patients who used metformin for one to five years were less likely to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/afp20201101p531.pdf

afp20201101p539.pdf

...each condition and be able to perform a basic eye examination. Patients with a central retinal artery occlusion require urgent referral for stroke eval- uation and should receive therapy to lower intraocular pressure and vasodilating agents to minimize retinal ischemia. Chemical...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/afp20201101p539.pdf

afp20201101p562.pdf

...current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of ECG screening for AF because of a lack of information on stroke risk and benefit of anticoagulation in asymptomatic patients with screening-detected AF (as opposed to clinically detected).6,7 There are...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/afp20201101p562.pdf

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