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fetal macrosomia

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Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Fetal macrosomia, arbitrarily defined as a birth weight of more than 4,000 g (8 lb, 13 oz) complicates more than 10 percent of all pregnancies in the United States. It is associated with increased risks of cesarean section and trauma to the birth canal and the fetus. Fetal macrosomia is...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p302.html

Shoulder Dystocia: Managing an Obstetric Emergency - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 15, 2020 - Shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency in which normal traction on the fetal head does not lead to delivery of the shoulders. This can cause neonatal brachial plexus injuries, hypoxia, and maternal trauma, including damage to the bladder, anal sphincter, and rectum, and postpartum ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0715/p84.html

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family...

Apr 1, 2015 - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.html

ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia - Practice Guidelines - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2001 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has issued new clinical management guidelines on fetal macrosomia. The term fetal macrosomia implies fetal growth beyond a specific weight, regardless of the fetal gestational age.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p169.html

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Management of Fetal Macrosomia - American Family Physician

...to Predict Macrosomia The three major strategies used to predict macrosomia are clinical risk factors, clinician estimation by Leopold’s maneuvers and ultrasonography. Each method has substan- tial limitations. RISK FACTORS A number of risk factors for fetal macroso- mia...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/afp20010115p302.pdf

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, limb amputation, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p103.html

Choosing Wisely: Don’t recommend delivery in a nondiabetic patient for suspected ...

Don’t recommend delivery in a nondiabetic patient for suspected macrosomia before 39 0/7 weeks of gestation.

American Family Physician : Choosing Wisely Recommendations

https://www.aafp.org/afp/recommendations/viewRecommendation.htm?recommendationId=477

Newborn Respiratory Distress - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p994.html

Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.html

Common Questions About Late-Term and Postterm Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Pregnancy is considered late term from 41 weeks, 0 days’ to 41 weeks, 6 days’ gestation, and postterm at 42 weeks’ gestation. Early dating of the pregnancy is important for accurately determining when a pregnancy is late- or postterm, and first-trimester ultrasonography should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p160.html

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2008 - The second stage of labor is a dynamic event that may require assistance when maternal efforts fail to effect delivery or when there are nonreassuring fetal heart tones. Therefore, knowing how to perform an operative vaginal delivery with forceps or vacuum is vital for family physicians...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p953.html

Shoulder Dystocia - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2004 - Shoulder dystocia can be one of the most frightening emergencies in the delivery room. Although many factors have been associated with shoulder dystocia, most cases occur with no warning. Calm and effective management of this emergency is possible with recognition of the impaction and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1707.html

Respiratory Distress in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - The most common etiology of neonatal respiratory distress is transient tachypnea of the newborn; this is triggered by excessive lung fluid, and symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature infants as a result of surfactant deficiency and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p987.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Obesity in Pregnancy: Risks and Management - Editorials - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - As obesity becomes more common, it is important for all maternity care clinicians to understand the risks and associated management of obesity in pregnancy. Elevated prepregnancy weight increases the absolute risk of many adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p559.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2007 - Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1671.html

Assisted Vaginal Delivery Using the Vacuum Extractor - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2000 - Vacuum extractors have replaced forceps for many situations in which assistance is required to achieve vaginal delivery. Compared with metal-cup vacuum extractors, soft-cup devices are easier to use and cause fewer neonatal scalp injuries; however, they detach more frequently. Vacuum ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0915/p1316.html

Practice Guidelines - Apr 15, 2006 - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2006 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released an opinion statement on issues specific to pregnancy in obese women. Women who are obese are at increased risk of complications of pregnancy such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, preeclampsia, fetal ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0415/p1471.html

Recommendations for Preconception Counseling and Care - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Given that nearly one-half of pregnancies are unintended, preconception care should be considered an integral part of primary care for women of reproductive age. Common issues in preconception care include family planning, achieving a healthy body weight, screening and treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p499.html

The Abnormal Fontanel - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2547.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive...

Dec 1, 2014 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in asymptomatic pregnant women after 24 weeks of gestation.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/od1.html

Preconception Care (Position Paper)

Read the AAFP's position paper on preconception care. Preconception care is defined as individualized care for men and women that is focused on reducing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

About AAFP |AAFP Policies and Recommendations : Policies

https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/preconception-care.html

AFP Documents with Keyword: Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

...on Fetal Macrosomia [Practice Guidelines] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has issued new clinical management guidelines on fetal macrosomia. The term fetal macrosomia implies fetal growth beyond a specific weight, regardless of the fetal gestational...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/viewRelatedDocumentsByKeyword.htm?keywordId=2425&page=12

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Children and adolescents whose heights and growth velocities deviate from the normal percentiles on standard growth charts present a special challenge to physicians. Height that is less than the 3rd percentile or greater than the 97th percentile is deemed short or tall stature, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p597.html

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part I. General Prenatal Care and Counseling Issues - ...

Apr 1, 2005 - Effective prenatal care should integrate the best available evidence into a model of shared decision making. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risks of smoking and alcohol and drug use. Structured educational programs to promote breastfeeding are effective. Routine fetal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1307.html

Common Peripartum Emergencies - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 1998 - Peripartum emergencies occur in patients with no known risk factors. When the well-being of the fetus is in question, the fetal heart rate pattern may offer etiologic clues. Repetitive late decelerations may signify uteroplacental insufficiency, and a sinusoidal pattern may indicate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1101/p1593.html

Choosing Wisely: More Good Clinical Recommendations - American Family Physician

Choosing Wisely: More Good Clinical Recommendations to Improve Health Care Quality and Reduce Harm

American Family Physician : Choosing Wisely Recommendations

https://www.aafp.org/afp/recommendations/search.htm

Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2003 - Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common but controversial disorder. While no large randomized controlled trials show that screening for and treating gestational diabetes affect perinatal outcomes, multiple studies have documented an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/p1767.html

Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese - ...

Mar 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/od1.html

ACOG Releases Guideline on Gestational Diabetes - Practice Guidelines - American Family...

Sep 15, 2014 - Gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and developing diabetes later in life. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released a guideline that provides recommendations based on good-quality ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/p416.html

Evaluation of Incidental Renal and Adrenal Masses - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p288.html

AFP Documents with Keyword: Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

...of management of alloimmunization in pregnant women and may allow for a more thorough and less invasive workup with fewer maternal and fetal risks. Dec 1, 2006 Issue CDC Releases Guidelines on Improving Preconception Health Care [Practice Guidelines] Improving preconception...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/viewRelatedDocumentsByKeyword.htm?keywordId=2425&page=9

Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper)

Read the AAFP's position on the role of family physicians in delivering maternity care including cesarean delivery.

About AAFP |AAFP Policies and Recommendations : Policies

https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/cesarean-delivery-family-medicine.html

Effective Use of Statins to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Primary and secondary prevention trials have shown that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (also known as statins) to lower an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level can substantially reduce coronary events and death from coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p309.html

AFP Documents with Keyword: Obesity - American Family Physician

...Women who are obese are at increased risk of complications of pregnancy such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, preeclampsia, fetal macrosomia, spon... Jan 1, 2006 Issue Controlling Obesity: School, Work, and Leisure [Practice Guidelines] The Centers for Disease...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/viewRelatedDocumentsByKeyword.htm?keywordId=2400&page=5

July 1, 2001 - American Family Physician

...ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia Joanne E. Chatfield Quantum Sufficit Quantum Sufficit Sarah Morgan; Lori Parry Resident and Student Voice Women in Medicine S R. Brian Letters to the Editor Management of MVP with Antibiotic Prophylaxis Barry D....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/

January 15, 2001 - American Family Physician

...Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia Mark A. Zamorski; Wendy S. Biggs Effective Use of Statins to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease Michael A. Crouch Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Infections: Etiology, Diagnosis and Therapy Ellis H. Tobin; William W. Jih...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/

February 15, 2003 - American Family Physician

...What Is the Best Management of Fetal Macrosomia? Is IV Albuterol Effective for Acute Asthma Management? Obesity Surgery May Cure Diabetes in Nonobese Patients Central Venous Catheter Colonization in Children Recurrent Fevers in Children: Differential Diagnosis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/

2001

AFP issues for the year of 2001.

American Family Physician : American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/journals/afp/issues/2001.html

Rationale for a 39-Week Elective Delivery Policy - Editorials - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2011 - Several organizations have called for obstetric care professionals to decrease the number of elective (non-medically indicated) deliveries before an estimated gestational age of 39 weeks to prevent iatrogenic neonatal harm. Approximately one out of every three births in the United ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1215/p1335.html

Induction of Labor at or Beyond Term - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Fetal or neonatal deaths in women who delivered after their due date and before 42 weeks occur at a rate of less than 0.5 percent, regardless of whether labor is induced or spontaneous. Compared with awaiting spontaneous labor, inducing labor between 41 and 42 weeks is associated with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p581.html

Predicting the Likelihood of Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - ...

Oct 15, 2007 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that pregnant women with a single previous cesarean delivery and a low-transverse incision be offered a trial of labor.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1192.html

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part II. Third-Trimester Care and Prevention of ...

Apr 15, 2005 - All pregnant women should be offered screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, syphilis, rubella, and hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection early in pregnancy. Women at increased risk should be tested for hepatitis C infection, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. All women should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1555.html

Shoulder Dystocia - American Family Physician

...the fetal anterior shoulder impacts against the maternal symphysis following delivery of the vertex. Less commonly, shoulder dys- tocia results from impaction of the posterior shoulder on the sacral promontory.1 The overall incidence of shoulder dystocia varies based on fetal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/afp20040401p1707.pdf

Task Force: Screen Pregnant Patients for Gestational Diabetes

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force posted a draft recommendation statement and draft evidence review on screening for gestational diabetes in asymptomatic pregnant patients, and is now accepting comments.

AAFP News : Patient Care

https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20210303uspstfgdscreening.html

USPSTF: Screen Pregnant Patients for Gestational Diabetes

On Aug. 10, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published a final recommendation statement that recommends screening for gestational diabetes in asymptomatic pregnant patients at 24 weeks gestation or later.

AAFP News : Patient Care

https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20210825uspstfgd.html

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Date xx, xxxx Scientific

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/afp20150401p460.pdf

ACOG Updates Recommendations on Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery - ...

Jan 15, 2011 - The rate of cesarean delivery has increased dramatically in the United States over the past four decades, perpetuated somewhat by the dictum once a cesarean, always a cesarean. However, evidence has shown that many women who have had a cesarean delivery can safely deliver vaginally in ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p214.html

afp20200715p84.pdf

...traction of the fetal head does not lead to delivery and additional maneuvers are required to deliver the fetal shoulders.1 Shoulder dystocia is usually attributed to impaction of the anterior shoulder against the maternal symphysis after delivery of the fetal head; less commonly,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0715/afp20200715p84.pdf

Management of Postterm Pregnancy - Practice Guidelines - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - The Committee on Practice Bulletins—Obstetrics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released a new guideline entitled, Management of Postterm Pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1808.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force - ...

Jul 15, 2003 - This statement summarizes the current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for gestational diabetes and the supporting scientific evidence.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p331.html

afp20141201od1.pdf

December 1, 2014 USPSTF

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/afp20141201od1.pdf

afp20090701p57.pdf

...relative, history of glucose intolerance (including pre- vious gestational diabetes), marked obesity, and a previous infant with macrosomia.9 Screening Expert consensus has put forth a sequential model of testing using a 50-g nonfasting one- hour glucose challenge test between 24...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p57.pdf

https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all.pdflist.html

...Although the presence of toxic chemicals in humans’ fetal environment and milk signals the urgent need to reduce community exposure to these pollutants, the weight of the evidence indicates that breastfeeding remains the healthiest option for mothers and babies. Employment...

About AAFP

https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/about_us/policies/AAFP_AllPoliciesApril2019.pdf

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - ...screening pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. Treating substantially elevated fasting glucose levels reduces the risk of fetal macrosomia and perinatal complications, but it is unclear whether treating mild gestational diabetes (e.g., a normal fasting glucose level,...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p539.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive...

Jul 15, 2009 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus, before or after 24 weeks' gestation.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/p173.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Putting Prevention into Practice - ...

Mar 1, 2004 - Case study: MT is a 23-year-old woman visiting your office for her initial prenatal checkup. She has a family history of diabetes and is obese. MT developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during her previous pregnancy, and because she is concerned about having GDM, she asks if she ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1187.html

Clinical Briefs - Feb 15, 2003 - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2003 - ...Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes increase the risk of shoulder dystocia, a substantial number of cases occur in women who do not have diabetes and among infants weighing less than 8.8 lb (4,000 g). In one study, the presence of both diabetes and macrosomia predicted...

American Family Physician : Clinical Briefs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p887.html

ACOG Releases Guidelines on Management of Post-term Pregnancy - Practice Guidelines - ...

Dec 1, 2004 - Post-term pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that has extended to or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently issued guidelines for the clinical management of post-term pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2221.html

Management ofGestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

...delivery, and future type 2 diabetes. In the fetus or neonate, the disorder is associated with higher rates of perinatal mortality, macrosomia, birth trauma, hyperbilirubinemia, and neo- natal hypoglycemia.5-8 Some studies9-11 have found an association between gesta- tional...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/afp20031101p1767.pdf

AHRQ Reviews Management of Gestational Diabetes - Practice Guidelines - American Family...

Nov 15, 2008 - The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) systematically reviewed the literature on the management of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is one of the most common complications of pregnancy, affecting about 7 percent of pregnancies each year in the United States.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1217.html

afp20081015p953.pdf

...there are nonreassuring fetal heart tones. therefore, the ability to perform an opera- tive vaginal delivery with forceps or vacuum remains a vital skill for family physicians who provide maternity care. the World health organization considers operative vaginal delivery to be a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/afp20081015p953.pdf

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment

April 1, 2017:Date xx, xxxx

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/afp20170401p442.pdf

afp20070315p875.pdf

...Prevention Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage include a prolonged third stage of labor, mul- tiple delivery, episiotomy, fetal macrosomia, and history of postpartum hemorrhage.3,4,11,12 However, postpartum hemorrhage also occurs in women with no risk factors, so physicians must...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p875.pdf

afp20040801p489.pdf

...Macrosomia was associated with postprandial glucose higher than 130 mg per dL (7.2 mmol per L) between 29 and 32 weeks of gestation. Basal therapy with glargine (Lantus) provides better A1C and less nocturnal hypoglycemia when compared with bedtime NPH (Novolin N, Humulin N)....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/afp20040801p489.pdf

ACOG Releases Report on Risk Factors, Causes and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - ...

Sep 15, 1998 - ...Risk factors for uterine atony include uterine overdistention secondary to hydramnios, multiple gestation, use of oxytocin, fetal macrosomia, high parity, rapid or prolonged labor, intra-amniotic infection and use of uterine-relaxing agents. Predisposing factors for placenta...

American Family Physician : Special Medical Reports

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0915/p1002.html

ACOG Releases Guidelines for Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - Practice ...

Oct 1, 2004 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently issued clinical management guidelines for vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in various situations.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1397.html

When Should Pregnant Women with Diabetes Receive Insulin? - Letters to the Editor - ...

Jan 15, 2005 - ...these levels. An article1 in American Family Physician on gestational diabetes cited limited studies claiming to reduce the frequency of macrosomia, which is an indirect measure of a rare event (such as shoulder dystocia or brachial plexus injury with permanent paralysis of an arm)....

American Family Physician : Letter

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p247.html

New-Onset Digital Clubbing - Photo Quiz - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2001 - Photo Quiz presents readers with a clinical challenge based on a photograph or other image.

American Family Physician : Photo Quiz

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p141.html

Clinical Briefs - Jul 1, 2001 - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2001 - ...Previous: ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia Next: Women in Medicine View the full table of contents >> Home / Journals / afp / Vol. 64/No. 1(July 1, 2001) / Clinical Briefs: Clinical Briefs...

American Family Physician : Clinical Briefs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p172.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2003 - ...What Is the Best Management of Fetal Macrosomia? Am Fam Physician. 2003 Feb 15;67(4):838-839. A fetus estimated to weigh more than 4,000 g (8 lb, 11 oz) or above the 90th percentile weight for gestational age is regarded as macrosomic, and the risks of adverse outcomes for both mother...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p838.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2005 - ...glucose crosses the placenta, and fetal beta cells can produce insulin. If the maternal glucose level is elevated after 12 weeks of gestation, fetal insulin production increases. The growth hormone effects of this insulin lead to fetal macrosomia. About 20 percent of deliveries in...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2537a.html

afp20071001p987.pdf

...respira- tory distress, constituting more than 40 per- cent of cases.1 A benign condition, it occurs when residual pulmonary fluid remains in fetal lung tissue after delivery. Prostaglandins released after delivery dilate lymphatic vessels to remove lung fluid as pulmonary circula-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/afp20071001p987.pdf

afp20180501p559.pdf

...weight increases the absolute risk of many adverse fetal and maternal outcomes (Table 12). Obe- sity during pregnancy also increases the odds of spontaneous and recurrent miscarriages, subop- timal ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies, congenital heart and neural tube defects,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/afp20180501p559.pdf

The Abnormal Fontanel - American Family Physician

...toward the periphery. These irregular bone islands are remodeled into flattened sheets of bone by osteoblast and osteoclast activity. During fetal and postnatal life, the membranous bones enlarge by resorption centrally and by apposition of new layers at the edges of the sutures.5...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/afp20030615p2547.pdf

Newborn Respiratory Distress

...Postdelivery prostaglandin release distends lymphatic vessels, which removes lung fluid as pulmonary circula- tion increases with the initial fetal breath. Cesarean delivery without labor bypasses this process and is therefore a risk factor for TTN.25 Surfactant deficiency may play...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/afp20151201p994.pdf

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

January 15, 2016 Scientific

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/afp20160115p103.pdf

ACOG Releases Report on Dystocia and Augmentation of Labor - Practice Guidelines - ...

Mar 1, 2004 - Dystocia is characterized by the slow and abnormal progression of labor and is the leading indication for primary cesarean delivery in the United States. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical practice guideline on dystocia and ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1290.html

ACOG Releases Guideline on Gestational Diabetes

September 15, 2014 Practice Guidelines

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/afp20140915p416.pdf

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - ...and fetal tolerability of mifepristone were assessed. The study included 346 patients. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups in demographics or medical and obstetric history. The main indications for labor induction were post-term, hypertension, fetal...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1384.html

Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2004 - There is not enough evidence to support dietary or drug treatment in patients with gestational diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p866.html

Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jul 1, 2004 - ...Gestational diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with macrosomia and may be associated with increased risk for cesarean delivery, shoulder dystocia, and birth trauma. Although preexisting diabetes has been shown to increase the risk of poor perinatal outcomes, it...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0701/p84.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2002 - ...conditions later in life and face a range of complications during pregnancy, including hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery. Macrosomia is more common in infants exposed to GDM, as are the risks of operative delivery, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and obesity during...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p964.html

ACOG Updates Recommendations on Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery

...MACROSOMIA Women attempting TOLAC with a macrosomic fetus (greater than 4,000 to 4,500 g [8 lb, 13 oz to 9 lb, 15 oz]) have a lower likelihood of successful VBAC than those who have a nonmacrosomic fetus. Women who have had a previous cesarean delivery because of dystocia also...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/afp20110115p214.pdf

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part II. Third-Trimester Care and Prevention of ...

...Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is associated with hyper- tensive disorders, macrosomia, shoulder dys- tocia, and higher rates of cesarean delivery and diabetes later in life for the mother. The incidence of gestational diabetes is estimated at 2 to 5 percent.51 Screening...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/afp20050415p1555.pdf

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - ...Effect of Glycemic Control on Fetal Growth Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jun 1;61(11):3389-3390. Macrosomia is the major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality in women with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes). Even in the best obstetric centers, up to 40...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3389a.html

Labor Induction: A Decade of Change - Editorials - American Family Physician

May 15, 2003 - ...yet the change in incidence rates varies considerably by indication. Macrosomia has increased the most as an indication, 22.5-fold since 1980, despite evidence that induction for suspected macrosomia has shown potential benefit only in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.5,6...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2076.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2002 - ...diabetes stresses good glycemic control during pregnancy to reduce macrosomia and tight control during labor and delivery to minimize maternal and infant hypoglycemia. Taylor and colleagues studied predictors of macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia in 107 pregnancies in...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p505.html

ACOG Releases Practice Pattern on Shoulder Dystocia - Special Medical Reports - ...

May 15, 1998 - ...ACOG reports that macrosomia and maternal diabetes appear to be the two risk factors most often associated with shoulder dystocia. However, a large number of cases occur among women who do not have diabetes and among infants with birth weights of less than 4,000 g (8 lb, 13 oz)....

American Family Physician : Special Medical Reports

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2546.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2006 - ...occurs in up to 14 percent of mothers. Successful treatment of gestational diabetes is associated with reduced serious maternal and fetal morbidity. Oral glyburide (Micronase) is as effective as insulin in achieving glycemic control and is associated with birth weights similar to...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1420a.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2000 - ...sonographic examinations. The other cases included one or more indications, such as risk for macrosomia (30 mothers), risk for growth restriction (61 mothers) and suspected fetal abnormality (22 cases). Sonograms obtained before 37 weeks resulted in fewer errors in predicting true...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1015/p1880.html

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2001 - ...if diet alone does not normalize blood sugar levels The use of oral sulfonylureas is not recommended in pregnancy because of the risk of fetal anomalies and neonatal hypoglycemia. However, the data on which this recommendation is based are from studies with older, first-generation...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1616.html

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