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hypertension

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Assessment of Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Microscopic hematuria, a common finding on routine urinalysis of adults, is clinically significant when three to five red blood cells per high-power field are visible. Etiologies of microscopic hematuria range from incidental causes to life-threatening urinary tract neoplasm. The lack ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1748.html

Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1723.html

Outpatient Approach to Palpitations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Palpitations are a common problem seen in family medicine; most are of cardiac origin, although an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, is also common. Even if a psychiatric comorbidity does exist, it should not be assumed that palpitations are of a noncardiac etiology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p63.html

Bleeding and Bruising: A Diagnostic Work-up - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2008 - Primary care physicians are often asked about easy bruising, excessive bleeding, or risk of bleeding before surgery. A thorough history, including a family history, will guide the appropriate work-up, and a physical examination may provide clues to diagnosis. A standardized bleeding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1117.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Lumbar puncture is frequently performed in primary care. Properly interpreted tests can make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a key tool in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Proper evaluation of CSF depends on knowing which tests to order, normal ranges for the patient's age, and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html

The Abnormal Fontanel - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2547.html

Diagnosis of Heart Failure in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Heart failure is a common, progressive, complex clinical syndrome with high morbidity and mortality. Coronary artery disease is its most common cause. The evaluation of symptomatic patients with suspected heart failure is directed at confirming the diagnosis, determining the cause, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2145.html

Radiologic Evaluation of Incidentally Discovered Adrenal Masses - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2010 - The increasing use of cross-sectional imaging has led to an increase in the incidental discovery of adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas). Although most of these lesions are benign, they often present a diagnostic dilemma. Before creating a management plan, the physician should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1361.html

Essentials of the Diagnosis of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Although heart failure is a common clinical syndrome, especially in the elderly, its diagnosis is often missed. A detailed clinical history is crucial and should address not only current signs and symptoms of heart failure but also signs and symptoms that point to a specific cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1319.html

Lymphadenopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Although the finding of lymphadenopathy sometimes raises fears about serious illness, it is, in patients seen in primary care settings, usually a result of benign infectious causes. Most patients can be diagnosed on the basis of a careful history and physical examination. Localized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1313.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

Recognizing Occupational Illnesses and Injuries - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Given the burden of occupational illnesses and injuries in the United States, family physicians should understand the role workplace exposures may play in patients' chief concerns. Incorporating employment screening questions into patients' intake questionnaires is an efficient means of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p169.html

Geriatric Screening and Preventive Care - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2008 - Preventive health care decisions and recommendations become more complex as the population ages. The leading causes of death (i.e., heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory disease) among older adults mirror the actual causes of death ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/p206.html

Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.html

Diagnostic Approach to Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2004 - Tinnitus is a common disorder with many possible causes. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. Common causes of conductive hearing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0101/p120.html

Radiologic Evaluation of Hematuria: Guidelines from the American College of Radiology's...

Aug 1, 2008 - Hematuria, symptomatic and incidental, that involves more than three red blood cells per high-power field on two of three properly collected urinalysis specimens warrants some type of imaging to evaluate the upper tracts. Traditionally, excretory urography or the intravenous pyelogram ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p347.html

Diagnosing Night Sweats - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2003 - Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p1019.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2003 - Acute abdominal pain in children presents a diagnostic dilemma. Although many cases of acute abdominal pain are benign, some require rapid diagnosis and treatment to minimize morbidity. Numerous disorders can cause abdominal pain. The most common medical cause is gastroenteritis, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2321.html

Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Congenital Heart Disease in Adults - American Family...

Sep 15, 2009 - The population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing in North America. Radiologic imaging is critical for the initial assessment and for surveillance in this population. Chest radiography and echocardiography are valuable first-line tools for evaluation. However, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p597.html

Fetal Chromosomal Abnormalities: Antenatal Screening and Diagnosis - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2009 - Pregnant women of all ages should be offered screening and invasive diagnostic testing for chromosomal abnormalities before 20 weeks' gestation. New developments in screening methods have increased the number of options for patients. Diagnostic options include chorionic villus sampling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0115/p117.html

Health Maintenance for Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian and follicular activity. It usually occurs when women reach their early 50s. Vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness are frequently reported during menopause. Estrogen is the most effective treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p583.html

Heart Murmurs in Pediatric Patients: When Do You Refer? - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1999 - Many normal children have heart murmurs, but most children do not have heart disease. An appropriate history and a properly conducted physical examination can identify children at increased risk for significant heart disease. Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0801/p558.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2005 - Though relatively common, syncope is a complex presenting symptom defined by a transient loss of consciousness, usually accompanied by falling, and with spontaneous recovery. Syncope must be carefully differentiated from other conditions that may cause a loss of consciousness or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/p1492.html

The Visually Impaired Patient - American Family Physician

May 15, 2008 - Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/p1431.html

Evaluation of Acute Headaches in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2001 - Classifying headaches as primary (migraine, tension-type or cluster) or secondary can facilitate evaluation and management A detailed headache history helps to distinguish among the primary headache disorders.

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0215/p685.html

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