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hypertension

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afp20080915p717.pdf

...and those with left ventricular dysfunction. Many patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis have concurrent cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, atrial fibril- lation, and coronary artery disease, which should also be carefully managed. (Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(6):717-724,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/afp20080915p717.pdf

afp20081015p961.pdf

...phenomenon and scleroderma (hardening of the skin) are the clinical hall- marks of the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the leading causes of death.3 Epidemiology and Classification Patients who have systemic sclerosis can be classified into...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/afp20081015p961.pdf

afp20081101p1052.pdf

...cardiovascular risk factors: larger waist- line, elevated triglyceride level, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose level.6 The same associations are emerging in overweight young persons. approximately 60 percent...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/afp20081101p1052.pdf

afp20081201p1277.pdf

...Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes KAREN L. WHALEN, PharmD, University of Florida College of Pharmacy-St. Petersburg Campus, Seminole, Florida ROBERT D. STEWART, PharmD, Bay Pines Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Bay Pines, Florida pproximately...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1277.pdf

afp20090301p391.pdf

...less legs syndrome or OSA, the latter of which may occur even in persons who are not obese or who do not have the common comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary disease. In most cases, overnight polysomnog- raphy is required to confirm the diagnosis of OSA and to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p391.pdf

afp20090301p397.pdf

...Tachycardia, hypertension, fasciculations, gastrointestinal cramps, emesis, miosis Atropine/pralidoxime (not available in the United States) Cyanide Cyanide Syncope, cyanosis, hypotension, psychosis Sodium nitrite 3%, sodium thiosulfate 25% Ethylene glycol, methanol...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p397.pdf

afp20090315p489.pdf

...protection,27 and con- tributes to prevention of hypertension42 and diabetes. Exercise is valuable in managing chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, dys- lipidemia, depression, osteopenia, and osteoporosis.43-47 Fall PreventiOn Reducing...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/afp20090315p489.pdf

afp20090515p863.pdf

...Difficult-to-Control or Resistant Hypertension ANTHONY J. VIERA, MD, MPH, and ALAN L. HINDERLITER, MD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina M ore than 65 million U.S. adults have hypertension, about 40 million of whom do not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p863.pdf

afp20090515p875.pdf

...Effect on disease markers Hypertension (atherosclerosis) Diabetes (retinopathy) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (endoscopic esophagitis) Effect on risk factors for disease Blood pressure A1C Cholesterol Determining strength of Recommendations sORt A sORt C sORt B...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p875.pdf

afp20090615p1080.pdf

...for CHD should be performed every three to five years in all patients. Risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history, age, and sex. In patients with two or more major risk factors, calculation of a 10-year coronary artery dis- ease risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/afp20090615p1080.pdf

afp20090701p67.pdf

...porating patient preferences may be criti- cal to making an appropriate decision. For example, you may offer a 60-year-old man with hypertension the option of taking daily aspirin to lower his risk of myocardial infarc- tion, but advise him that this medication will increase his...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p67.pdf

afp20090715p157.pdf

...15. Paolisso G, Barbagallo M. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Am J Hypertens. 1997; 10(3):346-355. 16. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, et al. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/afp20090715p157.pdf

afp20090801p273.pdf

...Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Renovascular Hypertension ROBERT P. HARTMAN, MD, and AKIRA KAWASHIMA, MD, PhD Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota T he prevention and management of hypertension are major public health challenges for the United States....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/afp20090801p273.pdf

afp20091015p841.pdf

...myocar- dial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure). There was a 62 percent higher risk of cardio- vascular events in patients with hypertension whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was less than 15 ng per mL (38 nmol per L), compared with those whose level was 15 ng per mL or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/afp20091015p841.pdf

afp20100101p55.pdf

...the chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabe- tes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in this...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p55.pdf

afp20100401p863.pdf

...random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/afp20100401p863.pdf

afp20100415p965.pdf

...Complications Chronic HBV infection can lead to cirrhosis and its complications, including ascites, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocel- lular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic HBV infection is often performed every six to 12 months...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p965.pdf

afp20100415p975.pdf

...examiners are advised to refer the driver to a specialist, if necessary. For many conditions, including some types of heart disease and hypertension controlled by medication, medical certification should be for less than 24 months. Limited certifica- tion is also appropriate for a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p975.pdf

afp20100415p989.pdf

...Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of venous ulcers is not entirely clear. Venous incompetence and associated venous hypertension are thought to be the primary mechanisms for ulcer formation. Factors that may lead to venous incompetence include immobility; ineffec- tive pumping...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p989.pdf

afp20100501p1139.pdf

...Hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia (up to 114.8° F [46° C]) Diaphoresis, mottled skin, agitation, decreased bowel sounds, muscular rigidity, hyporeflexia Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Ingestion of antipsychotic medications Hypertension, tachycardia,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/afp20100501p1139.pdf

afp20100515p1250.pdf

...Nephrectomy Glomerular toxicity; tubular dysfunction; renal insufficiency; hypertension Bladder Cyclophosphamide; ifosfamide Pelvic (including bladder); lumbar- sacral spine Spinal surgery; cystectomy Hemorrhagic cystitis; bladder fibrosis; dysfunctional voiding;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/afp20100515p1250.pdf

afp20100601p1351.pdf

...hypertension, ascites, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,3 Factors associated with disease progression to cirrhosis include male sex, developing HCV infec- tion when older than 40 years, HIV or HBV coinfection, immunosuppression, and daily alcohol consumption of at least 50...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1351.pdf

afp20100601p1361.pdf

...syndrome 5 Hypertension, moon-shaped face, striae, proximal muscle weakness, truncal obesity, thin skin, easy bruising Overnight dexamethasone suppression test, serum and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels, serum corticotropin level Pheochromocytoma 3 to 10 Hypertension,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1361.pdf

afp20100615p1440.pdf

...Arrhythmias, dizziness, headache, hypertension, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, urinary retention Intranasal cromolyn Cromolyn (Nasalcrom) B Two years Inhibits histamine release; results typically noted in one week, but may take two to four weeks for full effect epistaxis,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1440.pdf

afp20100615p1449.pdf

...Roughly two thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabe- tes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, pulmonary disease, hepatobiliary disease, cancer, and a number of psy- chosocial complications. Physicians often feel...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1449.pdf

afp20100615p1462.pdf

...In addition to anemia, patients may present with abdominal pain, altered mental status, renal disease, and hypertension Microcytic anemia may be concurrent with iron deficiency; peripheral smear may show basophilic stippling; hemolysis may be present Late childhood and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1462.pdf

afp20100915p621.pdf

...dysphoric disorder. Oral contraceptive pills may be used safely in women with a range of medical conditions, including well-controlled hypertension, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, depression, and uncomplicated valvular heart disease. However, women older than 35 years who smoke...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/afp20100915p621.pdf

afp20110115p141.pdf

...24 months, who require medical therapy (i.e., medication to control congestive heart failure, those with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, or infants with cyanotic disease) Premature infants born at less than 31 weeks, six days of gestation Certain infants with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/afp20110115p141.pdf

afp20110615p1403.pdf

...are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer dis- ease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcho-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1403.pdf

afp20110615p1443.pdf

...cell counts less than 200 per mm3 (0.20 × 109 per L); those with viral loads greater than 4,000 copies per mL; and those with diabetes, hypertension, or co-occurring hepatitis C should be screened every six months. C 5, 39 A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1443.pdf

afp20110901p551.pdf

...CHD risk > 20 percent. ‡-Initiation of drug therapy is an option on the basis of available clinical trial results. §-Cigarette smoking; hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or on antihypertensive therapy); low HDL cholesterol (< 40 mg per dL [1.04 mmol per L]); family...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/afp20110901p551.pdf

afp20111115p1138.pdf

...treated for end-stage renal disease in 2007.6 The increases are partly explained by the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the leading risk factors for CKD. Aware- ness of CKD among patients has modestly increased in recent years, but remains low. According...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/afp20111115p1138.pdf

afp20111201p1234.pdf

...More children are developing kidney stones, which is attributed to the corresponding rise in diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in this population.2,3 Because increasing age is a risk factor for kidney stones, adolescents are more likely to form stones than younger children. The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/afp20111201p1234.pdf

afp20120215p373.pdf

...Hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance Elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol level Hyperprolactinemia Rare to present with isolated hirsutism Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility Elevated prolactin level Thyroid dysfunction Rare to present with isolated hirsutism...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/afp20120215p373.pdf

afp20120801p225.pdf

...from researchers in the Univer- sity of California-San Francisco Department of Family and Community Medicine, low-income patients with hypertension who had access to the services of a trained health coach, including frequent telephone contact, had an average decrease in systolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/afp20120801p225.pdf

afp20120915p521.pdf

...risk factors associated with ischemic disease, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipid- emia, and hypertension, as well as personal or family history of hypercoagulability disorders, stroke, or TIA. Symptoms of TIA occur suddenly and include a neuro- logic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/afp20120915p521.pdf

afp20130301p337.pdf

...retained fluid in the stomach.30,40 Signs of cerebral edema that require immediate evaluation include head­ ache, persistent vomiting, hypertension, bradycardia, and lethargy and other neurologic changes. Other complications of DKA include hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, acute renal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/afp20130301p337.pdf

afp20130415p556.pdf

...CHADS2 score, which assigns one point each for conges- tive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years and older, and diabetes mellitus, and two points for prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.1 For persons with a CHADS2 score of 2 or higher, the ACCP guidelines rec-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/afp20130415p556.pdf

afp20130515p682.pdf

...Patients with headache and fever, papilledema, or severe hypertension (systolic pressure greater than 180 mm Hg or diastolic pressure greater than 120 mm Hg) require evaluation for CNS infection and increased intracranial pres- sure. Patients also should be evaluated to determine if...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/afp20130515p682.pdf

afp20130601p751.pdf

...that practices that received redesign support, embedded care managers, and a revised payment plan achieved significant improvements in hypertension con- trol and breast cancer screenings, and reduced emergency department visits compared with practices that received only yearly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/afp20130601p751.pdf

afp20130601p781.pdf

...Striae, buffalo hump, central obesity, hypertension Cushing syndrome Tanner staging abnormal Turner syndrome, constitutional delay of puberty, rare causes Laboratory testing (refer to local reference values) Complete blood count and metabolic panel abnormalities Chronic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/afp20130601p781.pdf

afp20130615od1.pdf

...Summary of Recommendation and Evidence Population: General adult population with- out a known diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or cardio- vascular disease (CVD). Recommendation: Although the correla- tion among healthful diet, physical activity, and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/afp20130615od1.pdf

afp20130701p20.pdf

...Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension JANELLE GUIRGUIS-BLAKE, MD University of Washington, Tacoma, Washington Clinical Question Does treating mild hypertension improve health outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/afp20130701p20.pdf

afp20130701p21.pdf

...Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension JANELLE GUIRGUIS-BLAKE, MD University of Washington, Tacoma, Washington Clinical Question Does treating mild hypertension improve health outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/afp20130701p21.pdf

afp20130715p102.pdf

...a systemic cause, such as CHF (especially right-sided), pulmonary hypertension, chronic renal or hepatic dis- ease (causing hypoalbuminemia), protein-losing enter- opathies, or severe malnutrition.1,4,5 Edema can be an adverse effect of certain medications (Table 31-5). The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/afp20130715p102.pdf

afp20130801p164.pdf

...Avoid NSAIDs in individuals with hypertension or heart failure or chronic kidney disease of all causes, including diabetes.18* National Kidney Foundation KDQI Don’t screen for renal artery stenosis in patients without resistant hypertension and with normal renal function, even...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/afp20130801p164.pdf

afp20131015od4.pdf

...Clinical Question Is chlorthalidone safer or more effective than hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in older adults with hypertension? Bottom Line In this retrospective analysis, chlorthalidone and HCTZ produced the same clinical out- comes in older adults. In general, chlortha- lidone...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/afp20131015od4.pdf

afp20131015p543.pdf

...Children and adults who have chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular (except isolated hypertension), renal, hepatic, neurologic/neuromuscular, hematologic, or metabolic disorders Children and adults who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/afp20131015p543.pdf

afp20131115p655.pdf

...(paradoxical), hypertension, hypokalemia, QT-interval prolongation, seizures Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA) Two puffs every four to six hours as needed $55 per inhaler Anaphylaxis, arrhythmias, bronchospasm (paradoxical), hypersensitivity reaction, hypertension, hypokalemia,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1115/afp20131115p655.pdf

afp20131201od1.pdf

...severities of COPD. There were also no treatment group differences in the need for mechani- cal ventilation, quality-of-life assessments, hypertension or hyperglycemia worsening, infection rates, gastrointestinal bleeding, or all-cause mortality. Study design: Randomized...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/afp20131201od1.pdf

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