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hypertension

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Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2011 - Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1234.html

Diabetic Nephropathy: Common Questions - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2005 - Diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease, affects 20 to 30 percent of patients with diabetes. It is a common cause of kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy presents in its earliest stage with low levels of albumin (microalbuminuria) in the urine. The most practical method of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p96.html

Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults - Putting Prevention into Practice -...

Jul 15, 2015 - N.D. is a 72-year-old white man who presents for a preventive visit. He smokes, and his medical history is significant for essential hypertension, which is stable and well controlled with medication. N.D.'s close friend was recently diagnosed with dementia, and N.D. is concerned that he...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0715/p125.html

Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Heart murmurs are common in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease. Historical elements that suggest pathology include family history of sudden cardiac death or congenital heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Diagnosis and Management of Red Eye in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2010 - Red eye is the cardinal sign of ocular inflammation. The condition is usually benign and can be managed by primary care physicians. Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0115/p137.html

Common Questions About the Pharmacologic Management of Depression in Adults - American ...

Jul 15, 2015 - One in 11 U.S. adults currently meets diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, and a similar number report that they have taken an antidepressant medication in the past 30 days. In the primary care population, medications are modestly superior to placebo in achieving ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0715/p94.html

Choosing Topical Corticosteroids - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2009 - Topical corticosteroids are one of the oldest and most useful treatments for dermatologic conditions. There are many topical steroids available, and they differ in potency and formulation. Successful treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis and consideration of the steroid's delivery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0115/p135.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Croup: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Croup is a common illness responsible for up to 15 percent of emergency department visits due to respiratory disease in children in the United States. Croup symptoms usually start like an upper respiratory tract infection, with low-grade fever and coryza followed by a barking cough and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1067.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

HIV-Associated Complications: A Systems-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p161.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

METRIC

Fulfill a Performance Improvement Activity of the ABFM's Family Medicine Certification requirement through a streamlined method of evaluating and strengthening your practice functions and systems. Select from topics including: Asthma and Hypertension.

CME : Programs

https://www.aafp.org/cme/programs/metric.html

METRIC for Residency Programs

Family medicine residency programs easily meet the ACGME requirements for practice-based learning and improvement with METRIC. Choose from modules on: asthma and hypertension.

CME : Programs

https://www.aafp.org/cme/programs/metric/residency.html

Drug Treatments for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2009 - Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms can be subtle and varied. These may include hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and biochemical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p671.html

Cholesterol Treatment Guidelines Update - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2002 - Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major contributors to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in our society. The National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Institutes of Health has created a set of guidelines that standardize the clinical assessment and management of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p871.html

Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p281.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is atherosclerosis leading to narrowing of the major arteries distal to the aortic arch. The most common presenting symptom is claudication; however, only 10% of patients have classic claudication. Approximately 8 to 12 million Americans have PAD, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p306.html

Recognition and Management of Vitamin D Deficiency - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2009 - Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p841.html

Initial Management of Patients with HIV Infection - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a treatable chronic disease with near-normal life expectancy when patients receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Family physicians and other primary care clinicians commonly provide long-term comprehensive care for persons with HIV...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p708.html

Key Recommendations on Managing Dyslipidemia for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: ...

Apr 15, 2021 - In June 2020, the third iteration of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense guidelines on managing dyslipidemia was published. These recommendations create a simple, pragmatic, evidence-based approach that can be valuable to family physicians.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0415/p455.html

Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Serotonin Syndrome - American Family Physician

May 1, 2010 - Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by excessive serotonergic activity in the nervous system. It is characterized by mental status changes, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular hyperactivity. Most reported cases of serotonin syndrome are in patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/p1139.html

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Part 1. Definition, ...

Sep 1, 2004 - In February 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease. The first six of the 15 guidelines are of the greatest relevance to family physicians. Part I of this two-part article ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p869.html

Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p525.html

Stroke: Strategies for Primary Prevention - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2003 - Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in North America. Primary prevention of stroke includes lifestyle modifications and measures to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation. Lowering blood pressure in patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2379.html

Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2017 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman’s 10-year risk of atherosclerotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p561.html

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2009 - Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, and it affects an estimated 20 percent of the population. Persons with excessive daytime sleepiness are at risk of motor vehicle and work-related incidents, and have poorer health than comparable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p391.html

Diabetic Nephropathy--The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

May 1, 2012 - Nearly one-half of persons with chronic kidney disease have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes accounted for 44 percent of new cases of kidney failure in 2008. Diabetic nephropathy, also called diabetic kidney disease, is associated with significant macrovascular risk, and is the leading cause...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p883.html

Top POEMs of 2016 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Aug 15, 2017 - A challenge in the Choosing Wisely campaign is to identify low-value clinical actions supported by high-quality evidence. We applied a method based on crowdsourcing the Daily POEM (patient-oriented evidence that matters) to identify low-value clinical actions from research studies ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p234.html

Skin Deep: How to Properly Code for Biopsies and Lesion Removal -- FPM

Apr 1, 2019 - Learn about the new skin biopsy codes, and follow these tips to make sure you get full credit for the skin procedures you perform.

Family Practice Management : Articles

https://www.aafp.org/fpm/2019/0300/p15.html

Preoperative Care of Patients with Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Patients with chronic kidney disease often require surgical interventions for vascular access and for medical problems related to comorbid conditions. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are increased in these patients. Preoperative attention to common medical problems that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1471.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation: Improving Function and Reducing Risk - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive multidisciplinary program individually tailored to the needs of patients with cardiovascular disease. The overall goals focus on improving daily function and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiac rehabilitation includes interventions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p37.html

Screening for Glaucoma - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - A 55-year-old black woman presents to your office for a routine well-woman examination. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which is well controlled with medication. She mentions that her mother was diagnosed with glaucoma a few years ago and is currently undergoing ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p569.html

Sleep Disorders in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - ...Hypertension Musculoskeletal Care Respiratory Tract Infections Urinary Tract Infections/Dysuria Email Alerts Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents. Sign Up Now Legend Algorithm Point of Care Resource...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=84

Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Gastrointestinal Complications - American Family ...

Dec 15, 2016 - Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p980.html

Which Diuretic Should Be Used for the Treatment of Hypertension? - Editorials - ...

Aug 15, 2008 - ...Be Used for the Treatment of Hypertension? MOHAMMAD G. SAKLAYEN, MD, Boonshoft School of Medicine at Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio Am Fam Physician. 2008 Aug 15;78(4):444-446. Thiazide diuretics are underused in the treatment of hypertension, despite their proven...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0815/p444.html

Behavioral Disorders in Dementia: Appropriate Nondrug Interventions and Antipsychotic ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient’s environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p276.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Ulcers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2010 - Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p989.html

Diagnosis and Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Upper gastrointestinal bleeding causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, and has been associated with increasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. Rapid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p469.html

Vision Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p219.html

Glaucoma - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Glaucoma is a set of irreversible, progressive optic neuropathies that can lead to severe visual field loss and blindness. The two most common forms of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma, affect more than 2 million Americans and are increasing in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p668.html

Provision of Contraception: Key Recommendations from the CDC - American Family Physician

May 1, 2015 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released comprehensive recommendations for provision of family planning services. Contraceptive services may be addressed in five steps, and counseling may be provided in a tiered approach, whereby the most effective options are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0501/p625.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p35.html

Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Constipation in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2011 - Constipation is traditionally defined as three or fewer bowel movements per week. Risk factors for constipation include female sex, older age, inactivity, low caloric intake, low-fiber diet, low income, low educational level, and taking a large number of medications. Chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0801/p299.html

Acute Management of Atrial Fibrillation: Part II. Prevention of Thromboembolic ...

Jul 15, 2002 - Family physicians should be familiar with the acute management of atrial fibrillation and the initiation of chronic therapy for this common arrhythmia. Initial management should include hemodynamic stabilization, rate control, restoration of sinus rhythm, and initiation of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p261.html

Treatment of Adult Obesity with Bariatric Surgery - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2016 - In 2013, approximately 179,000 bariatric surgery procedures were performed in the United States, including the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (42.1%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (34.2%), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (14.0%). Choice of procedure depends on the medical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p31.html

Intensive Blood Pressure Control: Too Close for Comfort?

New research suggests that in older patients with hypertension, aggressively treating blood pressure levels may significantly increase the risk of falls and fainting.

AAFP News : Patient Care

https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20180912htntxfalls.html

Automated Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Clinical Utility in the Family Practice...

Jun 1, 2003 - Although the percentage of patients who are treated for hypertension has increased, the percentage of those who demonstrate control of blood pressure has declined. As a result of this trend, clinicians may increasingly rely on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to improve the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2343.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1058.html

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