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hypertension

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afp20070515p1487.pdf

...in patients with chronic kidney disease are listed in Table 4.4,5 Thiazide diuretics are first-line agents for treating uncompli- cated hypertension,6 but they are not recom- mended if the serum creatinine level is higher than 2.5 mg per dL (220 µmol per L) or if the creatinine...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1487.pdf

afp20070515p1503.pdf

...occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension. Many tumors are asymptomatic and may be diagnosed incidentally. Although a causal relationship has not been established, fibroid...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1503.pdf

afp20070715p255.pdf

...and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home moni- toring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Glucose...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/afp20070715p255.pdf

afp20070801p382.pdf

...ischemic attack are common problems in primary care, with stroke survivors averaging 10 outpatient visits per year. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia should be evaluated during each office visit. Attention should be given to lifestyle modification...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p382.pdf

afp20070801p391.pdf

...the following scenario: A 35-year- old white woman with panic disorder was treated with paroxetine (Paxil). She devel- oped unrelated hypertension, for which the physician prescribed 50 mg daily of extended- release metoprolol (Toprol XL). The patient became symptomatically...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p391.pdf

afp20070801p405.pdf

...aortic root dilatation or dis- section can also occur, particularly in patients with a bicuspid valve, coarctation, or untreated hypertension.8,9 Patients with Turner syndrome often have an atherogenic cardiovascular risk factor profile.10 Other potential complications of Turner...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p405.pdf

afp20070815p539.pdf

...pressure of 88/44 mm Hg, pulse rate of 113 beats per minute, and respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal failure that did not require dialysis, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis secondary to alcohol abuse. Laboratory...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/afp20070815p539.pdf

afp20070901p658.pdf

...and sex plus two addi- tional risk factors (i.e., family history, high-risk ethnicity, acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia). Reducing overweight and impaired glucose tolerance with increased physical activity and healthier eating habits may...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/afp20070901p658.pdf

afp20070915p801.pdf

...such as diuretic-treated hypertension may contribute to increasing gout diagnoses. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology Uric acid is a metabolic by-product of purine catabolism. In most mammals, the urate oxidase (uricase) enzyme converts uric acid to allantoin, leading to very low...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/afp20070915p801.pdf

afp20070915p829.pdf

...Risk factors for CRAO include age older than 70, atherosclerosis, diabetes, endar- teritis, glaucoma, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, hypercoagulable states, and migraine.15-17 CRAO may occur in younger patients with systemic disease, such as col- lagen vascular diseases,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/afp20070915p829.pdf

afp20071001p987.pdf

...replacement, and ventilation. Other etiologies of respira- tory distress include pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and congenital malformations; treatment is disease specific. Initial evaluation for persistent or severe respiratory distress may...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/afp20071001p987.pdf

afp20071015p1141.pdf

...Angina, angioedema, arrhythmias, bronchospasm (paradoxical), hypertension, hypokalemia, QT-interval prolongation, seizures, urticaria Bad taste in the mouth, cough, throat irritation, tremor, URTI symptoms Improves breathlessness but not other patient- oriented outcomes11...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/afp20071015p1141.pdf

afp20071101p1341.pdf

...study to study because of differences in the populations surveyed. In addition, many causes are interdepen- dent; for example, maternal hypertension can cause uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction.9,10 Etiologies of Second Trimester Pregnancy Loss Conditions...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/afp20071101p1341.pdf

afp20071201p1679.pdf

...of patients and can result in rupture, infection, intracystic bleeding, and obstruction of the surround- ing structures.24 Rarely, portal hypertension and gastric varices result from thrombosis of the splenic vein; this can cause pseudo- aneurysms to form, especially in the splenic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/afp20071201p1679.pdf

afp20071215p1837.pdf

...Amphetamines and anorexics Potentially increase risk of hypertension, angina, and myocardial infarction; cause dependence Anticholinergics and antihistamines (i.e., chlorpheniramine [Chlor- Trimeton], diphenhydramine [Benadryl], hydroxyzine [Vistaril], cyproheptadine...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1215/afp20071215p1837.pdf

afp20080115p187.pdf

...Diet pill toxicity (e.g., palpitations, hypertension) Emetine cardiomyopathy (ipecac syrup) Mitral valve prolapse Peripheral edema Dermatologic Carotenosis Dry skin, brittle nails Lanugo Starvation-associated pruritus Russell’s sign (i.e., calluses on dorsum...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/afp20080115p187.pdf

afp20080201p311.pdf

...che- motherapeutic agents.16 However, effects on normal blood vessels can also occur, leading to such toxicities as bleeding, thrombosis, hypertension, and-through alterations to glomerular capillaries17-proteinuria. For example, the anti-VEGF monoclonal anti- body bevacizumab...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/afp20080201p311.pdf

afp20080215p483.pdf

...alcoholism, or uncontrolled hypertension, and in those who have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor within the past 14 days Seizures, arrhythmias, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, hallucinations, mania, suicidality, hypertension, migraines Yes; safe and mildly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/afp20080215p483.pdf

afp20080301p621.pdf

...May have hypertension and other risk factors for atherosclerosis May have chest or back pain Obtain chest CT scan or magnetic resonance angiogram; plain chest radiography is insensitive Psychogenic (e.g., depression, anxiety)35 History of depression or anxiety Blunted...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/afp20080301p621.pdf

afp20080315p785.pdf

...relative to SSris. tCA overdose can cause respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, hypothermia, seizures, hallucinations, and hypertension for as long as five days.4 ssris and sEroTonin norEPinEPhrinE rEuPTakE inhibiTors (snris) SSris rapidly became the most popular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/afp20080315p785.pdf

afp20080415p1117.pdf

...Cushing’s disease Facial plethora; hirsutism; hyperglycemia; hypertension; poor wound healing; stria Marfan’s syndrome Enlarged aortic root; eye involvement; mitral valve prolapse; scoliosis; pectus excavatum; stretch marks; tall and slim, with long limbs and digits Vitamin C...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1117.pdf

afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

...Hypertension treated with a diuretic and lisinopril (Prinivil) Hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine Irregular periods, some hot flashes The patient is concerned because her mother, a smoker, began menopause at 47 years of age and had a myocardial infarction at 51 years of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

afp20080415p1129.pdf

...and mortality of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers.3,4 Physical activity improves mental health and control of diabetes, hypertension, and lipid levels; prevents osteoporosis; and, especially in older patients, sustains mobil- ity, reduces disability, and decreases...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129.pdf

afp20080501p1279.pdf

...Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy Jennifer frank, MD, University of Wisconsin Department of Family Medicine, Appleton, Wisconsin C ombination therapy is treatment with two or more agents adminis- tered separately or in a fixed-dose combination pill and is required...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/afp20080501p1279.pdf

afp20080515p1431.pdf

...vision remains intact, and the patient does not progress to total blindness. Although the etiology of AMD is unclear, older age, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vascular insufficiency to the retina and the choroids, a history of ultra- violet (UV) light exposure, and a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/afp20080515p1431.pdf

afp20080601p1553.pdf

...Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality.14 Despite the availability of several pharmacologic treatment options for hypertension, only 34 percent of north americans are achieving target blood pressure goals, and preventing cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/afp20080601p1553.pdf

afp20080715p206.pdf

...for patients with diet-related illness such as diabetes or hypertension and those with other risk factors for CHd.12,13 exerCise COunseLing physical activity is beneficial to all adults. it reduces the rate of all-cause mortality and helps to prevent osteoporosis and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/afp20080715p206.pdf

afp20080801p347.pdf

...Hypertension Sickle cell anemia Chronic renal disease Congenital Vascular malformations and aneurysms Artifactual causes of hematuria Food (e.g., beets, berries, rhubarb) Food coloring Medications Menstrual blood *-The first five causes listed in the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p347.pdf

afp20080801p365.pdf

...Withdrawal and rebound hypertension may occur in patients discontinuing therapy after receiving high doses for long period of time; tapering is recommended Also antispastic agent Do not use with CYP1A2 inhibitors, ciprofloxacin (Cipro) or fluvoxamine (Luvox CR) Caution...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p365.pdf

afp20080901p583.pdf

...Drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, and rebound hypertension Methyldopa (Aldomet; brand no longer available in the United States) 375 to 1,125 mg daily in divided dosages No No benefit over placebo SNRI = serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI = selective...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/afp20080901p583.pdf

afp20080915p717.pdf

...and those with left ventricular dysfunction. Many patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis have concurrent cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, atrial fibril- lation, and coronary artery disease, which should also be carefully managed. (Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(6):717-724,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/afp20080915p717.pdf

afp20081015p961.pdf

...phenomenon and scleroderma (hardening of the skin) are the clinical hall- marks of the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the leading causes of death.3 Epidemiology and Classification Patients who have systemic sclerosis can be classified into...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/afp20081015p961.pdf

afp20081101p1052.pdf

...cardiovascular risk factors: larger waist- line, elevated triglyceride level, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose level.6 The same associations are emerging in overweight young persons. approximately 60 percent...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/afp20081101p1052.pdf

afp20081201p1277.pdf

...Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes KAREN L. WHALEN, PharmD, University of Florida College of Pharmacy-St. Petersburg Campus, Seminole, Florida ROBERT D. STEWART, PharmD, Bay Pines Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Bay Pines, Florida pproximately...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1277.pdf

afp20090301p391.pdf

...less legs syndrome or OSA, the latter of which may occur even in persons who are not obese or who do not have the common comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary disease. In most cases, overnight polysomnog- raphy is required to confirm the diagnosis of OSA and to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p391.pdf

afp20090301p397.pdf

...Tachycardia, hypertension, fasciculations, gastrointestinal cramps, emesis, miosis Atropine/pralidoxime (not available in the United States) Cyanide Cyanide Syncope, cyanosis, hypotension, psychosis Sodium nitrite 3%, sodium thiosulfate 25% Ethylene glycol, methanol...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/afp20090301p397.pdf

afp20090315p489.pdf

...protection,27 and con- tributes to prevention of hypertension42 and diabetes. Exercise is valuable in managing chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, dys- lipidemia, depression, osteopenia, and osteoporosis.43-47 Fall PreventiOn Reducing...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/afp20090315p489.pdf

afp20090515p863.pdf

...Difficult-to-Control or Resistant Hypertension ANTHONY J. VIERA, MD, MPH, and ALAN L. HINDERLITER, MD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina M ore than 65 million U.S. adults have hypertension, about 40 million of whom do not...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p863.pdf

afp20090515p875.pdf

...Effect on disease markers Hypertension (atherosclerosis) Diabetes (retinopathy) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (endoscopic esophagitis) Effect on risk factors for disease Blood pressure A1C Cholesterol Determining strength of Recommendations sORt A sORt C sORt B...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/afp20090515p875.pdf

afp20090615p1080.pdf

...for CHD should be performed every three to five years in all patients. Risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history, age, and sex. In patients with two or more major risk factors, calculation of a 10-year coronary artery dis- ease risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/afp20090615p1080.pdf

afp20090701p57.pdf

...reflect the patient’s degree of metabolic control, the type of therapy she is receiving, and the presence of other risk factors (e.g., hypertension). ACOG recom- mends that women with gestational diabetes who are on insulin or who have poor glucose control have the same antenatal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p57.pdf

afp20090701p67.pdf

...porating patient preferences may be criti- cal to making an appropriate decision. For example, you may offer a 60-year-old man with hypertension the option of taking daily aspirin to lower his risk of myocardial infarc- tion, but advise him that this medication will increase his...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p67.pdf

afp20090715p157.pdf

...15. Paolisso G, Barbagallo M. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Am J Hypertens. 1997; 10(3):346-355. 16. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, et al. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/afp20090715p157.pdf

afp20090801p273.pdf

...Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Renovascular Hypertension ROBERT P. HARTMAN, MD, and AKIRA KAWASHIMA, MD, PhD Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota T he prevention and management of hypertension are major public health challenges for the United States....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/afp20090801p273.pdf

afp20091015p841.pdf

...myocar- dial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure). There was a 62 percent higher risk of cardio- vascular events in patients with hypertension whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was less than 15 ng per mL (38 nmol per L), compared with those whose level was 15 ng per mL or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/afp20091015p841.pdf

afp20100101p55.pdf

...the chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabe- tes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in this...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p55.pdf

afp20100401p863.pdf

...random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/afp20100401p863.pdf

afp20100415p965.pdf

...Complications Chronic HBV infection can lead to cirrhosis and its complications, including ascites, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocel- lular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic HBV infection is often performed every six to 12 months...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p965.pdf

afp20100415p989.pdf

...Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of venous ulcers is not entirely clear. Venous incompetence and associated venous hypertension are thought to be the primary mechanisms for ulcer formation. Factors that may lead to venous incompetence include immobility; ineffec- tive pumping...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p989.pdf

afp20100501p1139.pdf

...Hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia (up to 114.8° F [46° C]) Diaphoresis, mottled skin, agitation, decreased bowel sounds, muscular rigidity, hyporeflexia Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Ingestion of antipsychotic medications Hypertension, tachycardia,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/afp20100501p1139.pdf

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