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hypertension

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afp20090801p273.pdf

...Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Renovascular Hypertension ROBERT P. HARTMAN, MD, and AKIRA KAWASHIMA, MD, PhD Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota T he prevention and management of hypertension are major public health challenges for the United States....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/afp20090801p273.pdf

afp20091015p841.pdf

...myocar- dial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure). There was a 62 percent higher risk of cardio- vascular events in patients with hypertension whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was less than 15 ng per mL (38 nmol per L), compared with those whose level was 15 ng per mL or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/afp20091015p841.pdf

afp20100101p55.pdf

...the chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabe- tes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in this...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p55.pdf

afp20100401p863.pdf

...random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/afp20100401p863.pdf

afp20100415p965.pdf

...Complications Chronic HBV infection can lead to cirrhosis and its complications, including ascites, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocel- lular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic HBV infection is often performed every six to 12 months...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p965.pdf

afp20100415p975.pdf

...the driver to a specialist, if necessary. For many conditions, including some types of heart disease and hypertension controlled by medication, medical certification should be for less than 24 months. Limited certifica- tion is also appropriate for a medical condi- tion that does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p975.pdf

afp20100415p989.pdf

...Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of venous ulcers is not entirely clear. Venous incompetence and associated venous hypertension are thought to be the primary mechanisms for ulcer formation. Factors that may lead to venous incompetence include immobility; ineffec- tive pumping...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/afp20100415p989.pdf

afp20100501p1139.pdf

...Hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia (up to 114.8° F [46° C]) Diaphoresis, mottled skin, agitation, decreased bowel sounds, muscular rigidity, hyporeflexia Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Ingestion of antipsychotic medications Hypertension, tachycardia,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/afp20100501p1139.pdf

afp20100515p1250.pdf

...Nephrectomy Glomerular toxicity; tubular dysfunction; renal insufficiency; hypertension Bladder Cyclophosphamide; ifosfamide Pelvic (including bladder); lumbar- sacral spine Spinal surgery; cystectomy Hemorrhagic cystitis; bladder fibrosis; dysfunctional voiding;...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/afp20100515p1250.pdf

afp20100601p1351.pdf

...hypertension, ascites, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,3 Factors associated with disease progression to cirrhosis include male sex, developing HCV infec- tion when older than 40 years, HIV or HBV coinfection, immunosuppression, and daily alcohol consumption of at least 50...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1351.pdf

afp20100601p1361.pdf

...syndrome 5 Hypertension, moon-shaped face, striae, proximal muscle weakness, truncal obesity, thin skin, easy bruising Overnight dexamethasone suppression test, serum and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels, serum corticotropin level Pheochromocytoma 3 to 10 Hypertension,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1361.pdf

afp20100615p1440.pdf

...Arrhythmias, dizziness, headache, hypertension, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, urinary retention Intranasal cromolyn Cromolyn (Nasalcrom) B Two years Inhibits histamine release; results typically noted in one week, but may take two to four weeks for full effect epistaxis,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1440.pdf

afp20100615p1449.pdf

...Roughly two thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabe- tes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, pulmonary disease, hepatobiliary disease, cancer, and a number of psy- chosocial complications. Physicians often feel...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1449.pdf

afp20100615p1462.pdf

...In addition to anemia, patients may present with abdominal pain, altered mental status, renal disease, and hypertension Microcytic anemia may be concurrent with iron deficiency; peripheral smear may show basophilic stippling; hemolysis may be present Late childhood and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/afp20100615p1462.pdf

afp20100701p53.pdf

...demonstrated that doxazosin (Cardura) increased the risk of heart failure compared with a thia- zide diuretic in the treatment of hypertension.10 The demonstration that a marker is independently associated with risk does not mean that treatments that modify levels of the marker...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/afp20100701p53.pdf

afp20100915p621.pdf

...dysphoric disorder. Oral contraceptive pills may be used safely in women with a range of medical conditions, including well-controlled hypertension, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, depression, and uncomplicated valvular heart disease. However, women older than 35 years who smoke...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/afp20100915p621.pdf

afp20110115p141.pdf

...24 months, who require medical therapy (i.e., medication to control congestive heart failure, those with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, or infants with cyanotic disease) Premature infants born at less than 31 weeks, six days of gestation Certain infants with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/afp20110115p141.pdf

afp20110201p271.pdf

...that has not responded to adequate doses of simple analgesics. Triptans should be avoided in patients with vascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or hemiplegic migraine. Intravenous antiemetics, with or without intravenous dihydroergotamine, are effective therapies in an...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/afp20110201p271.pdf

afp20110615p1403.pdf

...are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer dis- ease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcho-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1403.pdf

afp20110615p1443.pdf

...cell counts less than 200 per mm3 (0.20 × 109 per L); those with viral loads greater than 4,000 copies per mL; and those with diabetes, hypertension, or co-occurring hepatitis C should be screened every six months. C 5, 39 A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1443.pdf

afp20111001od1.pdf

...a pharmacist-based intervention involving 200 patients with hypertension and hyperlip- idemia (mean age = 78 years; mean number of medications per patient = 9).3 Pharma- cists provided patient education, performed follow-up to assess and support medication adherence, and dispensed...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/afp20111001od1.pdf

afp20111201p1234.pdf

...More children are developing kidney stones, which is attributed to the corresponding rise in diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in this population.2,3 Because increasing age is a risk factor for kidney stones, adolescents are more likely to form stones than younger children. The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/afp20111201p1234.pdf

afp20120215p373.pdf

...Hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance Elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol level Hyperprolactinemia Rare to present with isolated hirsutism Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility Elevated prolactin level Thyroid dysfunction Rare to present with isolated hirsutism...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/afp20120215p373.pdf

afp20120801p225.pdf

...from researchers in the Univer- sity of California-San Francisco Department of Family and Community Medicine, low-income patients with hypertension who had access to the services of a trained health coach, including frequent telephone contact, had an average decrease in systolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/afp20120801p225.pdf

afp20120915p521.pdf

...risk factors associated with ischemic disease, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipid- emia, and hypertension, as well as personal or family history of hypercoagulability disorders, stroke, or TIA. Symptoms of TIA occur suddenly and include a neuro- logic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/afp20120915p521.pdf

afp20130301p337.pdf

...retained fluid in the stomach.30,40 Signs of cerebral edema that require immediate evaluation include head­ ache, persistent vomiting, hypertension, bradycardia, and lethargy and other neurologic changes. Other complications of DKA include hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, acute renal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/afp20130301p337.pdf

afp20130415p556.pdf

...CHADS2 score, which assigns one point each for conges- tive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years and older, and diabetes mellitus, and two points for prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.1 For persons with a CHADS2 score of 2 or higher, the ACCP guidelines rec-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/afp20130415p556.pdf

afp20130515p682.pdf

...Patients with headache and fever, papilledema, or severe hypertension (systolic pressure greater than 180 mm Hg or diastolic pressure greater than 120 mm Hg) require evaluation for CNS infection and increased intracranial pres- sure. Patients also should be evaluated to determine if...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/afp20130515p682.pdf

afp20130601p781.pdf

...Striae, buffalo hump, central obesity, hypertension Cushing syndrome Tanner staging abnormal Turner syndrome, constitutional delay of puberty, rare causes Laboratory testing (refer to local reference values) Complete blood count and metabolic panel abnormalities Chronic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/afp20130601p781.pdf

afp20130615od1.pdf

...Summary of Recommendation and Evidence Population: General adult population with- out a known diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or cardio- vascular disease (CVD). Recommendation: Although the correla- tion among healthful diet, physical activity, and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/afp20130615od1.pdf

afp20130701p20.pdf

...Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension JANELLE GUIRGUIS-BLAKE, MD University of Washington, Tacoma, Washington Clinical Question Does treating mild hypertension improve health outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/afp20130701p20.pdf

afp20130701p21.pdf

...Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension JANELLE GUIRGUIS-BLAKE, MD University of Washington, Tacoma, Washington Clinical Question Does treating mild hypertension improve health outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/afp20130701p21.pdf

afp20130715p102.pdf

...a systemic cause, such as CHF (especially right-sided), pulmonary hypertension, chronic renal or hepatic dis- ease (causing hypoalbuminemia), protein-losing enter- opathies, or severe malnutrition.1,4,5 Edema can be an adverse effect of certain medications (Table 31-5). The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/afp20130715p102.pdf

afp20130801p164.pdf

...Avoid NSAIDs in individuals with hypertension or heart failure or chronic kidney disease of all causes, including diabetes.18* National Kidney Foundation KDQI Don’t screen for renal artery stenosis in patients without resistant hypertension and with normal renal function, even...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/afp20130801p164.pdf

afp20130801p201.pdf

...women between 60 and 80 years of age (n = 7,447) who had type 2 diabetes mellitus or who had three or more of the following risk factors: hypertension, smoking, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level greater than 160 mg per dL (4.1 mmol per L), high-density lipoprotein...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/afp20130801p201.pdf

afp20130815p231.pdf

...daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, occupational accidents, and motor vehicle crashes. Evi- dence suggests that OSA also causes hypertension.31,32 Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) decreases blood pressure in patients with OSA,33 especially those with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/afp20130815p231.pdf

afp20131015p543.pdf

...Children and adults who have chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular (except isolated hypertension), renal, hepatic, neurologic/neuromuscular, hematologic, or metabolic disorders Children and adults who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/afp20131015p543.pdf

afp20131115p655.pdf

...(paradoxical), hypertension, hypokalemia, QT-interval prolongation, seizures Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA) Two puffs every four to six hours as needed $55 per inhaler Anaphylaxis, arrhythmias, bronchospasm (paradoxical), hypersensitivity reaction, hypertension, hypokalemia,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1115/afp20131115p655.pdf

afp20131201od1.pdf

...severities of COPD. There were also no treatment group differences in the need for mechani- cal ventilation, quality-of-life assessments, hypertension or hyperglycemia worsening, infection rates, gastrointestinal bleeding, or all-cause mortality. Study design: Randomized...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/afp20131201od1.pdf

afp20131201p739.pdf

...Systolic Hypertension Clinical Question Does treatment with vitamin D lower blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension and low vitamin D levels? Bottom Line Vitamin D supplementation in patients with isolated sys- tolic hypertension and low levels...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/afp20131201p739.pdf

afp20131201p739a.pdf

...Systolic Hypertension Clinical Question Does treatment with vitamin D lower blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension and low vitamin D levels? Bottom Line Vitamin D supplementation in patients with isolated sys- tolic hypertension and low levels...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/afp20131201p739a.pdf

afp20131201p744.pdf

...Systolic Hypertension Clinical Question Does treatment with vitamin D lower blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension and low vitamin D levels? Bottom Line Vitamin D supplementation in patients with isolated sys- tolic hypertension and low levels...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/afp20131201p744.pdf

afp20131215p841.pdf

...3 Generalized muscular pain in back, abdomen, and chest; diaphoresis remote from envenomation site; abnormal vital signs, such as hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg) and tachycardia (pulse > 100 beats per minute); nausea and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/afp20131215p841.pdf

afp20140201p224.pdf

...in both groups were white and evenly split by sex. Approximately 12% of patients self-reported coronary heart disease, 59% had hypertension (although only 13.5% were treated with medication), 32% smoked, and only 4% had diabetes mel- litus. Screening identified 7.6% of patients with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/afp20140201p224.pdf

afp20140201p224a.pdf

...in both groups were white and evenly split by sex. Approximately 12% of patients self-reported coronary heart disease, 59% had hypertension (although only 13.5% were treated with medication), 32% smoked, and only 4% had diabetes mel- litus. Screening identified 7.6% of patients with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/afp20140201p224a.pdf

afp20140201p225.pdf

...in both groups were white and evenly split by sex. Approximately 12% of patients self-reported coronary heart disease, 59% had hypertension (although only 13.5% were treated with medication), 32% smoked, and only 4% had diabetes mel- litus. Screening identified 7.6% of patients with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/afp20140201p225.pdf

afp20140215p262.pdf

...physi- cians handled 84.5% of visits for chronic obstructive pul- monary disease; 77.9% of visits for hyperlipidemia; 68.9% of visits for hypertension; 66.8% of visits for osteoporosis; and 63.6% of visits for chronic kidney disease. Of the 14 chronic conditions for which data were...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0215/afp20140215p262.pdf

afp20140401p574.pdf

...on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Clinical Question What are the best methods to prevent, detect, evaluate, and treat hypertension? Bottom Line See the Synopsis section for a summary of the updated hypertension treatment recom- mendations from the Eighth...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/afp20140401p574.pdf

afp20140401p574a.pdf

...on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Clinical Question What are the best methods to prevent, detect, evaluate, and treat hypertension? Bottom Line See the Synopsis section for a summary of the updated hypertension treatment recom- mendations from the Eighth...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/afp20140401p574a.pdf

afp20140401p576.pdf

...on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Clinical Question What are the best methods to prevent, detect, evaluate, and treat hypertension? Bottom Line See the Synopsis section for a summary of the updated hypertension treatment recom- mendations from the Eighth...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/afp20140401p576.pdf

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