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hypertension

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Endometrial Cancer - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Endometrial cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer in the United States. Etiologically, endometrial carcinoma usually results from unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, although non-estrogen-related forms occur as well. The most common presentation of endometrial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1075.html

Endometrial Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 1999 - Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, accounting for approximately 6,000 deaths per year in the United States. It is more common in women who are older, white, affluent obese and of low parity. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are also predisposing factors. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0601/p3069.html

Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is common, affecting at least 12 million U.S. men. The five-question International Index of Erectile Function allows rapid clinical assessment of ED. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p820.html

Evaluating the Safety and Effectiveness of New Drugs - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Prescribers seek to provide their patients with access to the latest innovations in medicine to maximize their health status. When a new drug comes to market, it often has not been as widely tested as other available therapies, and its effectiveness and safety cannot be fully evaluated....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p53.html

Evaluation and Management of Common Childhood Poisonings - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2009 - Family physicians often manage substance ingestions in children, most of which are nontoxic in nature. Physicians should know the phone number of the poison control center, understand the appropriate initial assessment of suspected toxin ingestion, and recognize important toxidromes. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p397.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

Evaluation and Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Diabetic neuropathy is a debilitating disorder that occurs in nearly 50 percent of patients with diabetes. It is a late finding in type 1 diabetes but can be an early finding in type 2 diabetes. The primary types of diabetic neuropathy are sensorimotor and autonomic. Patients may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2123.html

Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p817.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood Obesity - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically in the past several decades. Although 25 to 30 percent of children are affected, this condition is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Hormonal and genetic factors are rarely the cause of childhood obesity; ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p861.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2002 - The body's ability to regulate core temperature depends on both host (internal) and environmental (external) factors. Although athletes are commonly thought to be most at risk for heat illnesses, children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable. Heat cramps, which are caused by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2307.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Hematospermia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Hematospermia can be a distressing symptom for patients, but most cases are effectively managed by a primary care physician. Although the condition is usually benign, significant underlying pathology must be excluded by history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and, in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1421.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - American Family ...

Apr 1, 1998 - Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections encountered by primary care physicians. Although UTIs do not occur with as great a frequency in children as in adults, they can be a source of significant morbidity in children. For reasons that are not yet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1573.html

Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - In patients without significant urologic symptoms, microscopic hematuria is occasionally detected on routine urinalysis. At present, routine screening of all adults for microscopic hematuria with dipstick testing is not recommended because of the intermittent occurrence of this finding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1143.html

Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2005 - Chronic dyspnea is defined as dyspnea lasting more than one month. In approximately two thirds of patients presenting with dyspnea, the underlying cause is cardiopulmonary disease. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is essential because treatment differs depending on the underlying ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1529.html

Evaluation of Incidental Renal and Adrenal Masses - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p288.html

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part I. General Prenatal Care and Counseling Issues - ...

Apr 1, 2005 - Effective prenatal care should integrate the best available evidence into a model of shared decision making. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risks of smoking and alcohol and drug use. Structured educational programs to promote breastfeeding are effective. Routine fetal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1307.html

Exercise During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1846.html

External Cephalic Version - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1998 - External cephalic version is a procedure that externally rotates the fetus from a breech presentation to a vertex presentation. External version has made a resurgence in the past 15 years because of a strong safety record and a success rate of about 65 percent. Before the resurgence of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0901/p731.html

Fetal Chromosomal Abnormalities: Antenatal Screening and Diagnosis - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2009 - Pregnant women of all ages should be offered screening and invasive diagnostic testing for chromosomal abnormalities before 20 weeks' gestation. New developments in screening methods have increased the number of options for patients. Diagnostic options include chorionic villus sampling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0115/p117.html

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1999 - Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, relapsing condition with associated morbidity and an adverse impact on quality of life. The disease is common, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 25 to 35 percent in the U.S. population. GERD can usually be diagnosed based on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0301/p1161.html

Generalized Anxiety Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2000 - Patients with generalized anxiety disorder experience worry or anxiety and a number of physical and psychologic symptoms. The disorder is frequently difficult to diagnose because of the variety of presentations and the common occurrence of comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. The...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1001/p1591.html

Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

Global Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Assessment and Application - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2010 - Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the United States. The conventional risk factor approach to primary prevention excludes many patients who could benefit from preventive therapies. A global risk approach allows more accurate estimates of risk to guide clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p265.html

Gout: An Update - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2007 - Arthritis caused by gout (i.e., gouty arthritis) accounts for millions of outpatient visits annually, and the prevalence is increasing. Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in tissues leading to arthritis, soft tissue masses (i.e., tophi), nephrolithiasis, and urate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/p801.html

Headaches in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2002 - Headaches are common during childhood and become more common and increase in frequency during adolescence. The rational, cost-effective evaluation of children with headache begins with a careful history. The first step is to identify the temporal pattern of the headache--acute, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p625.html

Health Care Management of Adults with Down Syndrome - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2001 - The family physician's holistic approach to patients forms the basis of good health care for adults with Down syndrome. Patients with Down syndrome are likely to have a variety of illnesses, including thyroid disease, diabetes, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hearing loss, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0915/p1031.html

Health Effects of Hawthorn - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - Hawthorn medicinal extract has long been a favored herbal remedy in Europe. The active components of this slow-acting cardiotonic agent are thought to be flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins. The most studied hawthorn extracts are WS 1442 and LI 132. Reviews of placebo-controlled ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p465.html

Health Issues for Surfers - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2005 - Surfers are prone to acute injuries as well as conditions resulting from chronic environmental exposure. Sprains, lacerations, strains, and fractures are the most common types of trauma. Injury from the rider's own surfboard may be the prevailing mechanism. Minor wound infections can be...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/p2313.html

Health Maintenance for Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian and follicular activity. It usually occurs when women reach their early 50s. Vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness are frequently reported during menopause. Estrogen is the most effective treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p583.html

Health Maintenance in Women - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html

Heart Murmurs in Pediatric Patients: When Do You Refer? - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1999 - Many normal children have heart murmurs, but most children do not have heart disease. An appropriate history and a properly conducted physical examination can identify children at increased risk for significant heart disease. Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0801/p558.html

Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1998 - Heat-related illnesses cause 240 deaths annually. Although common in athletes, heat-related illnesses also affect the elderly, persons with predisposing medical conditions and those taking a variety of medications. Symptoms range from mild weakness, dizziness and fatigue in cases of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0901/p749.html

HELLP Syndrome: Recognition and Perinatal Management - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1999 - HELLP, a syndrome characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels and a low platelet count, is an obstetric complication that is frequently misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Many investigators consider the syndrome to be a variant of preeclampsia, but it may be a separate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p829.html

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: An Emerging Health Risk - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2006 - Hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused primarily by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The most common cause of acute renal failure in children, hemolytic uremic syndrome also can occur in adults. Characteristic features of the syndrome are microangiopathic anemia, thrombotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p991.html

Hepatitis C: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Hepatitis C, a common chronic bloodborne infection, is found in approximately 2 percent of adults in the United States. Chronic infection is associated with serious morbidity and mortality (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma). Testing for hepatitis C is recommended for at-risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1351.html

Herbal Remedies: Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1999 - A growing number of Americans are using herbal products for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. For this reason, the adverse effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0301/p1239.html

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2010 - Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an uncommon autosomal dominant disease that occurs in approximately one in 5,000 to 8,000 persons. This multisystem disorder can affect the nose, skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver, and brain. Epistaxis is the most common presenting ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1001/p785.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2005 - The recognizable appearance and the dermatomal distribution of herpes zoster lesions usually enable a clinical diagnosis to be made easily. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia occur mainly in older patients. The role of the varicella vaccine in preventing herpes zoster is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0915/p1075.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p693.html

High-Altitude Medicine - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - As more people enjoy the outdoors, high-altitude illness is increasingly becoming a problem that family physicians across the country must treat. High-altitude illness, which usually occurs at altitudes of over 1,500 m (4,921 ft), is caused primarily by hypoxia but is compounded by cold...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1907.html

HIV-Associated Complications: A Systems-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p161.html

Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2021 - Home blood pressure monitoring provides important diagnostic information beyond in-office blood pressure readings and offers similar results to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Home blood pressure monitoring involves patients independently measuring their blood pressure with an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0900/p237.html

Home Monitoring of Glucose and Blood Pressure - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2007 - Home monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home monitoring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p255.html

Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2016 - The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p884.html

Hyperparathyroidism - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia in ambulatory patients. The condition is most common in postmenopausal women, although it can occur in persons of all ages, including pregnant women. If symptoms are present, they are attributable to hypercalcemia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p333.html

Hyperparathyroidism - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - Hyperparathyroidism is a common cause of hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia usually is discovered during a routine serum chemistry profile. Often, there has been no previous suspicion of this disorder. In most patients initially believed to be asymptomatic, previously unrecognized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1795.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2004 - Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose form an intermediate stage in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. From 10 to 15 percent of adults in the United States have one of these conditions. Impaired glucose tolerance is defined as two-hour glucose levels of 140 to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0415/p1961.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

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