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hypertension

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Insulin Resistance Syndrome - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2001 - Insulin resistance can be linked to diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and other abnormalities. These abnormalities constitute the insulin resistance syndrome. Because resistance usually develops long before these diseases appear, identifying and treating ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1159.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed in the 1960s to assist in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia during labor. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal seizures, but there has been no beneficial effect in decreasing cerebral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1388.html

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Identification and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common diagnosis in obstetrics and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Identification of IUGR is crucial because proper evaluation and management can result in a favorable outcome. Certain pregnancies are at high ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p453.html

Intrauterine Growth Retardation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), which is defined as less than 10 percent of predicted fetal weight for gestational age, may result in significant fetal morbidity and mortality if not properly diagnosed. The condition is most commonly caused by inadequate maternal-fetal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1384.html

Low-Carbohydrate Diets - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1942.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment Principles, and Screening - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non–small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p250.html

Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes with more than 90 subtypes. It is traditionally classified broadly as non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma. Approximately 82,000 new U.S. patients are diagnosed with lymphoma annually. Any tobacco use and obesity are major modifiable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p34.html

Management of Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus focus on three areas: intensive lifestyle intervention that includes at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity, weight loss with an initial goal of 7 percent of baseline weight, and a low-fat, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p29.html

Management of Cluster Headache - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2005 - Cluster headache, an excruciating, unilateral headache usually accompanied by conjunctival injection and lacrimation, can occur episodically or chronically, and can be difficult to treat. Existing effective treatments may be underused because of underdiagnosis of the syndrome. Oxygen ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p717.html

Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 1998 - The importance of treating dyslipidemias based on cardiovascular risk factors is highlighted by the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. The first step in evaluation is to exclude secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Assessment of the patient's risk for coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0501/p2192.html

Management of Epistaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Family physicians frequently encounter patients with epistaxis (nasal bleeding). In rare cases, this condition may lead to massive bleeding and even death. Although epistaxis can have an anterior or posterior source, it most often originates in the anterior nasal cavity. A directed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p305.html

Management of Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p305.html

Management of Gallstones and Their Complications - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2000 - The accurate differentiation of gallstone-induced biliary colic from other abdominal disease processes is the most crucial step in the successful management of gallstone disease. Despite the availability of many imaging techniques to demonstrate the presence of gallstones, clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1673.html

Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2003 - Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common but controversial disorder. While no large randomized controlled trials show that screening for and treating gestational diabetes affect perinatal outcomes, multiple studies have documented an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/p1767.html

Management of Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica are closely related disorders that affect persons more than 50 years of age and cause substantial morbidity. Patients with giant cell arteritis typically have a localized headache, nonspecific systemic symptoms, temporal artery tenderness ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2061.html

Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluating Suitability for Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2004 - Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a common and serious disease. Although an estimated 2.7 million persons in the United States have this disease, most have not yet been diagnosed. Recent advances in treatment provide successful cure in 50 to 80 percent of cases. Current drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1429.html

Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 1998 - Patients with an inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, have recurrent symptoms with considerable morbidity. Patient involvement and education are necessary components of effective management. Mild disease requires only symptomatic relief and dietary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0101/p57.html

Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p525.html

Management of Pregnancy Beyond 40 Weeks' Gestation - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - A post-term or prolonged pregnancy is one that reaches 42 weeks' gestation; approximately 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies are post-term. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of pregnancies considered post-term when early ultrasound dating is performed. Maternal and fetal risks ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1935.html

Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: An Update - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2007 - Although type 1 diabetes historically has been more common in patients eight to 19 years of age, type 2 diabetes is emerging as an important disease in this group. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 8 to 45 percent of new childhood diabetes. This article is an update from the National ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p658.html

Managing Adverse Birth Outcomes: Helping Parents and Families Cope - American Family ...

May 1, 2012 - Unexpected adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes (e.g., stillbirth, birth trauma, congenital anomalies) present a crisis for the family and the medical care team. In cases of stillbirth, the family physician should be flexible in supporting the parents’ choices, validate the loss, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p900.html

Managing Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraceptives - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives usually diminish with continued use of the same method. Often, physi- cians only need to reassure patients that these symptoms will likely resolve within three to five months. Long-acting injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is the only...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1499.html

Managing Hypertension in Athletes and Physically Active Patients - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2002 - Athletes and other physically active patients should be screened for hypertension and given appropriate therapy if needed. Mild hypertension should be treated with non-pharmacologic measures for six months. If blood pressure control is adequate, lifestyle modifications are continued. If...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p445.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1279.html

Managing Opioid Addiction with Buprenorphine - American Family Physician

May 1, 2006 - Legislation has enabled physicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with an office-based maintenance program using buprenorphine, a partial mu-opioid receptor agonist. Clinical studies indicate buprenorphine effectively manages opioid addiction. Buprenorphine is more effective than ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1573.html

Managing the Adverse Effects of Radiation Therapy - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p381.html

Managing the Patient with Hard-to-Control Hypertension - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - Less than 25 percent of patients with hypertension in the United States have their blood pressure under control, mainly because of inadequate or inappropriate therapy and noncompliance. Approximately one half of these treatment failures are related to factors such as cost and adverse ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1007.html

Marijuana: Medical Implications - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1999 - Over 50 percent of people will use marijuana sometime in their life. While intoxication lasts two to three hours, the active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol, can accumulate in fatty tissues, including the brain and testes. Adverse effects from marijuana use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1201/p2583.html

Medical Advice for Commercial Air Travelers - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1999 - Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p801.html

Medical Care of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities - American ...

Jun 15, 2006 - Persons with mental retardation are living longer and integrating into their communities. Primary medical care of persons with mental retardation should involve continuity of care, maintenance of comprehensive treatment documentation, routine periodic health screening, and an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html

Medical Treatments for Balding in Men - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1999 - Two drugs are available for the treatment of balding in men. Minoxidil, a topical product, is available without a prescription in two strengths. Finasteride is a prescription drug taken orally once daily. Both agents are modestly effective in maintaining (and sometimes regrowing) hair ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2189.html

Medications for COPD: A Review of Effectiveness - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common problem among patients presenting to primary care. This condition has multiple individual and combined treatment regimens. The goals of treatment are to improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, sleep quality, and survival; and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1141.html

Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2004 - The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2875.html

Methamphetamine Abuse - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1169.html

Nasopharyngeal Cancer and the Southeast Asian Patient - American Family Physician

May 1, 2001 - Because of a documented increased incidence, nasopharyngeal cancer should be considered when signs or symptoms of ear, nose and throat disease are present in patients from southern China (in particular, Hong Kong and the province of Guangdong) or Southeast Asia. Environmental factors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0501/p1776.html

Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Nephrotic syndrome may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Patients present with marked edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and often hyperlipidemia. In adults, diabetes mellitus is the most common secondary cause, and focal segmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1129.html

New Developments in the Management of Hypertension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2003 - The management of hypertension has evolved over the past decade. Isolated systolic blood pressure elevation, the most common form of uncontrolled hypertension, is recognized as a significant risk factor for vascular complications in patients with hypertension. Nutritional management of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p853.html

Newer Pharmacologic Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - With the introduction of effective pharmacologic therapies for erectile dysfunction, more men are seeking treatment. The underlying cause of erectile dysfunction is usually a chronic medical illness or a side effect of certain drugs. Less commonly, the problem is psychogenic. Even after...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1159.html

NHBPEP Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: A Summary for Family Physicians - ...

Jul 15, 2001 - The National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy recently issued a report implicating hypertension as a complication in 6 to 8 percent of pregnancies. Hypertension in pregnancy is related to one of four conditions: (1) chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0715/p263.html

Nocturnal Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p350.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common condition associated with metabolic syndrome. It is the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes in U.S. adults, and is diagnosed after ruling out other causes of steatosis (fatty infiltration of liver), particularly infectious hepatitis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1961.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Common Questions and Answers on Diagnosis and ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease in the United States, affecting up to 30% of adults. There are two forms of NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), defined as 5% or greater hepatic steatosis without hepatocellular injury or fibrosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p603.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p35.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1058.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Hypertension is one of the most common conditions encountered in primary care. Nonpharmacologic strategies have been shown to help lower blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications are recommended for all patients with hypertension. The American Heart Association/American College of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p772.html

Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Managing Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends lifestyle modification for all patients with hypertension or prehypertension. Modifications include reducing dietary sodium to less than 2.4 g per ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1953.html

Nutrition in Toddlers - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Toddlers make a transition from dependent milk-fed infancy to independent feeding and a typical omnivorous diet. This stage is an important time for physicians to monitor growth using growth charts and body mass index and to make recommendations for healthy eating. Fat and cholesterol ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1527.html

Nutritional Assessment and Counseling for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular ...

Jan 15, 2006 - Physicians face several barriers to counseling their patients about nutrition, including conflicting evidence of the benefit of counseling, limited training and understanding of the topic, and imperfect and varied guidelines to follow. Because cardiovascular disease remains the leading ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p257.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1147.html

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