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stroke

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afp20080301p651.pdf

...Basal ganglia insult Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke Postinfectious (encephalitis) Posttraumatic Coexistent with another movement disorder Dystonia Essential tremor Myoclonus Restless legs syndrome Exposure to drugs or toxins Cocaine Stimulants Tardive...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/afp20080301p651.pdf

afp20080315p797.pdf

...30. Scannapieco FA, Bush RB, Paju S. Associations between periodontal disease and risk for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol. 2003;8(1):38-53. 31. Caplan DJ, Chasen JB, Krall EA, et al. Lesions of endodontic origin and risk...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/afp20080315p797.pdf

afp20080315p807.pdf

...8. Volicer L, Hurley AC, Blasi ZV. Characteristics of demen- tia end-of-life care across care settings. Am J Hosp Pal- liat Care. 2003;20(3):191-200. 9. Hospice and Palliative Care Association of NY State. Common misperceptions about hospice. http://www....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/afp20080315p807.pdf

afp20080401p957.pdf

...1. American Heart Association. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2007 update. Dallas, Tex.: American Heart Association; 2007. http://www. americanheart.org /downloadable /heart /1166712318459HS_Stats InsideText.pdf. Accessed October 17, 2007. Heart Failure 964 American...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/afp20080401p957.pdf

afp20080501p1271.pdf

...neurologic event, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other brain damage. Devel- opmental stuttering can be differentiated from acquired stuttering because, with the developmental form, stuttering occurs at the beginning of words and the second- ary behaviors are more obvious...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/afp20080501p1271.pdf

afp20080501p1279.pdf

...blockers for hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease; and diuretic and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for recurrent stroke prevention in patients with hypertension. (Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(9):1279-1286, 1289. Copyright © 2008 American Academy of Family...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/afp20080501p1279.pdf

afp20080601p1553.pdf

...18. Psaty BM, Smith nL, Heckbert SR, et al. Diuretic ther- apy, the alpha-adducin gene variant, and the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in persons with treated hypertension. JAMA. 2002;287(13):1680-1689. 19. Kurland L, Melhus H, Karlsson J, et al. Aldosterone synthase...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/afp20080601p1553.pdf

afp20080615p1678.pdf

...*-There is increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with risk factors. Effectiveness is diminished in patients on beta blockers. †-Although not effective for acute treatment, they can reduce recurrence of some symptoms. Information from references 18 and 35....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0615/afp20080615p1678.pdf

afp20080715p206.pdf

...Ultrasound screening leads to carotid endarterectomies, which give rise to strokes; alternatively, screening with carotid angiography leads to strokes37 Cervical cancer Recommends against routine screening in persons older than 65 years who have a recent history of normal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/afp20080715p206.pdf

afp20080901p583.pdf

...taking combined estrogen and progestin therapy have a higher risk of myocardial infarction (Mi) and venous thromboembolism after one year, stroke after three years, and breast cancer after five years. how- ever, there is a lower incidence of fractures and colon cancer in women who...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/afp20080901p583.pdf

afp20080915p717.pdf

...to LV filling.7,8 Thus, a strong left atrial contraction is needed to provide sufficient LV diastolic filling and support adequate stroke volume.9 Increas- ing overall myocardial contractility and augmenting preload with an increased atrial kick preserve LV systolic function,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/afp20080915p717.pdf

afp20081101p1052.pdf

...by other studies.10,11 Childhood hypertension can lead to adult hypertension, an important risk factor for coronary artery disease and stroke,12 and increases the risk of early signs of atherosclerosis, although the long- term implications of this are uncertain.13 DiAbetes The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/afp20081101p1052.pdf

afp20081115p1155-s1.pdf

...Neuropathic (e.g., diabetic neuropathy; trigeminal neuralgia; postherpetic neuralgia or spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis or stroke-related neuropathy; fibromyalgia) Treatment plan Set realistic goals 1. Address lifestyle issues (e.g., weight loss, cessation of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/afp20081115p1155-s1.pdf

afp20081115p1155.pdf

...regional pain syndrome, phantom pain, metabolic); central nervous system conditions (Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, myelopathies, stroke); fibromyalgia Mixed (combination of pain patterns) Various conditions Chronic Nonmalignant Pain 1158 American Family...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/afp20081115p1155.pdf

afp20081115p1173.pdf

...edema (heart failure, liver disease, or malnutrition), poor muscle tone (advancing neurologic condition), and neurologic abnormalities (stroke or brain metastases). laboratory studies should be considered (Table 210-12), although their results affect management in only 5 percent...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/afp20081115p1173.pdf

afp20081201p1265.pdf

...Neurologic disorder (e.g., stroke, seizures) Pain Sleep deprivation Surgery Urinary catheter Withdrawal from alcohol, illicit drugs, or benzodiazepines December 1, 2008 ◆ Volume 78, Number 11 www.aafp.org/afp American Family Physician 1267 CliniCal Diagnosis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1265.pdf

afp20081201p1277.pdf

...it is 1.5 to three times more common in patients with diabetes than in those who do not have the disease.2,3 Heart disease and stroke account for 65 percent of deaths in patients with diabetes,4 and hypertension is a major risk factor for these macrovascular complications. In...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1277.pdf

afp20090201p193.pdf

...progesterone, slightly reduced the risk of hip and vertebral fractures, but found that this ben- efit did not outweigh the increased risk of stroke, venous Osteoporosis February 1, 2009 ◆ Volume 79, Number 3 www.aafp.org/afp American Family Physician 199 thromboembolism,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/afp20090201p193.pdf

afp20090315p459.pdf

...following an ICU stay. In addition to monitoring patients for well-known complications, such as myo- cardial infarction, pneumonia, and stroke, physicians should be aware of a subset of well-established disease processes specifi- cally associated with the post-ICU course (Table 1)....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/afp20090315p459.pdf

afp20090315p489.pdf

...of core body temperature to between 100.4°F (38.0°C) and 104.9°F (40.5°C). Treatment is similar to that of minor heat illness. Heat stroke, a medical emergency, presents as acute changes in mental status accompanied by a core body temperature greater than 104.9°F. It is a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/afp20090315p489.pdf

afp20090401p571.pdf

...and a 70 per- cent RR reduction for overall mortality. There also was a significant RR reduction for the fol- lowing end points: angina, stroke, heart fail- ure, pulmonary embolism, and deep venous thrombosis. These findings were independent of total cholesterol levels, systolic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/afp20090401p571.pdf

afp20090401p583.pdf

...testis, may be present on the scrotal wall, indicating infarction and necrosis. The cremasteric reflex, elicited by stroking the skin of the upper medial thigh, should always be evaluated. A normal reflex (i.e., ipsilateral cremasteric muscle contraction producing unilateral testis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/afp20090401p583.pdf

afp20090401p591.pdf

...may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cho- lesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/afp20090401p591.pdf

afp20090615p1080.pdf

...prior intracranial hemorrhage; structural cerebral vascular lesion; malignant intracra- nial neoplasm; ischemic stroke in past three months (except acute ischemic stroke in past three hours); suspected aortic dissection; active bleeding (except menses) or bleeding diathesis; or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/afp20090615p1080.pdf

afp20090701p33.pdf

...Acute Stroke Diagnosis KENNETH S. YEW, CAPT, MC, USN, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland ERIC CHENG, MD, MS, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, California T he symptoms of stroke can some- times...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p33.pdf

afp20090701p67.pdf

...of myocardial infarc- tion, but advise him that this medication will increase his risk of having a gastrointestinal bleed or hemorrhagic stroke.10 a guideline can help to estimate relative risks and ben- efits, but deciding what to do will depend on the value the patient places on...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/afp20090701p67.pdf

afp20090715p167.pdf

...Stroke Temporal lobe epilepsy Wilson disease Other conditions Chronic pyelonephritis Pancreatitis Postpartum depression Medications Analgesics (e.g., indomethacin [formerly Indocin], opiates) Antibiotics and anti-infectives (e.g., interferon)...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/afp20090715p167.pdf

afp20091015p841.pdf

...their first cardiovascular event (e.g., myocar- dial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure). There was a 62 percent higher risk of cardio- vascular events in patients with hypertension whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was less than 15 ng per mL (38 nmol per L), compared with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/afp20091015p841.pdf

afp20100101p33.pdf

...or headache with or without neurologic symptoms; suspected cervical artery dissection; transient ischemic attack, which may indicate vertebrobasilar insufficiency or carotid artery ischemia or stroke; suspected neoplasia; suspected infec- tion, such as diskitis, osteomyelitis, or...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p33.pdf

afp20100101p55.pdf

...Lack of physical activity contributes to many of the chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabe- tes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/afp20100101p55.pdf

afp20100401p863.pdf

...diabetes, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death, can be delayed or prevented with appropriate treatment of elevated blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose.1-4 In 1997, the American Diabetes Asso- ciation (ADA) introduced an...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/afp20100401p863.pdf

afp20100501p1139.pdf

...Other potential diagnoses may include tetanus, over- dose of sympathomimetic drugs, meningitis, encepha- litis, thyroid storm, heat stroke, delirium tremens, or sepsis.8,14,17,18 Laboratory tests and other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, may be ordered based on physi- cal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/afp20100501p1139.pdf

afp20100515p1229.pdf

...gastrostomy does not improve nutritional status or quality of life for residents with dementia,10,11 and residents with dysphagia after a stroke who receive tube feedings do not have a decreased risk of aspiration pneumonia.12 Feeding tubes can cause discomfort and agitation and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/afp20100515p1229.pdf

afp20100515p1250.pdf

...ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, hemiparesis, seizures [chemotherapy and XRT]); motor and sensory deficits; cerebrovascular complications (stroke, Moya Moya, occlusive cerebral; vasculopathy [XRT and surgery]); brain tumor (any XRT dose) Peripheral nervous system Plant alkaloids...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/afp20100515p1250.pdf

afp20100601p1351.pdf

...Coma; confusion; neuropathy; retinal hemorrhage; seizures; stroke; tinnitus; vision loss Psychiatric Acute psychosis; attempted suicide; hearing loss; panic attacks; suicidal ideation Other Autoimmune diseases; renal, cardiac, or pulmonary failure; worsening of hepatitis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/afp20100601p1351.pdf

afp20100701p53.pdf

...this is rofecoxib (Vioxx), which was withdrawn because of increased risk of serious thrombotic events (including myocardial infarction and stroke) following long-term use compared with placebo. Such problems may occur because licensing decisions are based on short-term clinical...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/afp20100701p53.pdf

afp20100701p61.pdf

...Stroke Vertebrobasilar insufficiency Vestibular disorders Sensory abnormalities Hearing impairment Peripheral neuropathy Visual impairment Other Other acute medical illnesses Recent hospitalization Recent surgery Use of certain medications (i.e.,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/afp20100701p61.pdf

afp20100915p621.pdf

...Contraceptives containing estrogen, which can increase thrombotic risk, should be avoided in women with a history of venous thromboembolism, stroke, cardiovascular disease, or periph- eral vascular disease. Progestin-only contraceptives are recommended for women with...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/afp20100915p621.pdf

afp20101201p1381.pdf

...disorders. In addition, several studies have reported associations between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.2-4 Identifying these oral findings may allow for early diagnosis and treatment. Family physicians should be...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1201/afp20101201p1381.pdf

afp20110115p173.pdf

...Stroke (dysphagic) Early placement of an enteral feeding tube (within the first week) has not been shown to improve long- term survival, complication rates, or length of hospitalization6 B Very low-birth- weight infants There is no evidence that early feeding affects...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/afp20110115p173.pdf

afp20110201p271.pdf

...Carotid dissection Cause of stroke; can be spontaneous or follow minor trauma or sudden neck movement; unilateral headache or face pain; ipsilateral Horner syndrome Cervical spondylosis Worse with neck movement; posterior distribution; pain is neuralgic in character and sometimes...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/afp20110201p271.pdf

afp20110215p483.pdf

...Computed tomography (CT) is the diagnos- tic standard for acute stroke even though its accuracy has not been formally established. The sensitivity of CT, which is estimated to be 12 to 92 percent, depends on the imaging features of infarction, time from onset to examination, and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/afp20110215p483.pdf

afp20110615p1403.pdf

...tia.1 Like other types of dementia, it is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Alzheimer disease is usually diagnosed in persons older than 65 years, and its prevalence increases every decade thereafter. Nearly one-half of Ameri- cans 85 years and older...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/afp20110615p1403.pdf

afp20120115p139.pdf

...associated with poorer outcomes in patients with a variety of medical con- ditions, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and stroke.8-10 Treatment of depression may reduce mortality from these conditions, as well as help prevent suicide.11-13 Therefore, accurately...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/afp20120115p139.pdf

afp20120915p521-s1.pdf

...is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)? A transient ischemic attack, or TIA, happens when a blood vessel called an artery becomes blocked. This causes less blood to get to your brain. It is sometimes called a mini stroke. The difference between TIA and stroke is that in TIA, the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/afp20120915p521-s1.pdf

afp20120915p521.pdf

...Transient Ischemic Attack: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation B. BRENT SIMMONS, MD; BARBARA CIRIGNANO, MD; and ANNETTE B. GADEGBEKU, MD Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania O ver the past 10 years, transient ischemic attack (TIA) has been redefined...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/afp20120915p521.pdf

afp20130301p337.pdf

...DKA include hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, acute renal failure, and shock. Less com­ mon problems can include rhabdomyolysis,41 throm­ bosis and stroke,42 pneumomediastinum,43 prolonged corrected QT interval,44 pulmonary edema,45 and mem­ ory loss with decreased cognitive function in...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/afp20130301p337.pdf

afp20130415p556.pdf

...used for the prevention and treatment of dis- orders such as systemic embolism associated with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). LMWH allows for the initiation of anticoagulation therapy on an outpatient basis. After decades during which warfarin was...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/afp20130415p556.pdf

afp20130515p682.pdf

...Use of illicit drugs, including cocaine and metham- phetamine, can increase the risk of intracranial bleeding or stroke. Prescription or over-the-counter medications such as aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants, and glucocorticoids increase the risk of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/afp20130515p682.pdf

afp20130601p796.pdf

...exists. Patients in the aspirin group had a lower rate of major vascular events, defined as the composite of VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death (5.2% vs. 8% per year; number needed to treat [NNT] = 36; P = .01). In addition, there was no significant increase...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/afp20130601p796.pdf

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