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hypertension

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afp20060901p756.pdf

...decompensation, character- ized by ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, or variceal bleeding from portal hypertension. Physical examination of patients with cirrhosis may reveal a variety of findings that necessitate a hepatic- or gastro-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/afp20060901p756.pdf

afp20060901p767.pdf

...and treatment. Major complica- tions of cirrhosis include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, variceal bleeding, and hepatorenal syndrome. Ascites Ascites is defined as the pathologic accumula- tion of fluid in the peritoneal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/afp20060901p767.pdf

afp20060915p971.pdf

...Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascu- lar disease (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complica- tions from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in help-...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/afp20060915p971.pdf

afp20060915p991.pdf

...Acute renal failure results when micro- thrombi are deposited in kidney parenchyma. This manifests in the form of hypertension associated with oliguria and anuria, which are early signs of acute renal failure. The central nervous system is another organ system that could become...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/afp20060915p991.pdf

afp20061001p1132.pdf

...MA, Post P, Rabiner M, et al. Adapting your practice: treatment and recommendations for homeless patients with cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, hyperlipidemia and heart failure. Nashville, Tenn.: Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians’ Network, National Health Care for the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/afp20061001p1132.pdf

afp20061001p1151.pdf

...number who have healthy eating habits have declined.18 These changes are associated with sharply higher incidences of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in this population.19 Physicians should advise their adolescent patients to strive for 30 minutes of moderate to...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/afp20061001p1151.pdf

afp20061101p1537.pdf

...examination or as an incidental finding on an imaging study. Patients at highest risk for AAA are older men who use tobacco and have hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and a family history of AAA.4,14,38-40 Smoking is the strongest independent risk factor; 90 percent of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/afp20061101p1537.pdf

afp20061101p1547.pdf

...hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and fluid retention. Baseline ophthalmologic evaluation is essential to assess any development of isch- emic optic atrophy from GCA. Most visual loss occurs early in the disease. Late visual loss while receiving therapy is uncommon.13...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/afp20061101p1547.pdf

afp20061115p1749.pdf

...syndromes, chest pain centers, acute myocardial infarction, asymptomatic patients, valvular heart disease, rhythm disturbances, and hypertension. Adjustment of the ST heart rate can identify myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with elevated cardiac risk. Intermediate- and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/afp20061115p1749.pdf

afp20070115p231.pdf

...her osteoarthritis now reports ankle edema. In your absence, a colleague had started her on a calcium channel blocker for newly diagnosed hypertension. Scenario 4: A 20-year-old woman with sinus pain who was prescribed a fluoroquin- olone by the overnight call physician called...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/afp20070115p231.pdf

afp20070301p656.pdf

...Uncontrolled systemic hypertension Intermediate Mild angina pectoris (Canadian class I or II‡) Previous MI by history or pathologic Q waves Compensated or prior heart failure Diabetes mellitus (particularly insulin-dependent) Renal insufficiency Preoperative...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/afp20070301p656.pdf

afp20070315p841.pdf

...It is common for disaster victims to require assistance in the management of chronic health problems (e.g., dia- betes, hypertension, CHF). Simple provision of medica- tion and medical supplies may be sufficient. Depending on the degree to which the disaster has impacted com- munity...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p841.pdf

afp20070315p869.pdf

...Latrodectus antivenin is indicated for patients manifesting severe regional or systemic toxicity, and for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, seizures, or respiratory arrest.10,11 One vial of antivenin diluted in 100 to 250 mL of saline should be infused intravenously over two...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p869.pdf

afp20070315p875.pdf

...of two to four hours. Because ergot alkaloid agents raise blood pressure, they are contrain- dicated in women with preclampsia or hypertension.33 Other adverse effects include nausea and vomiting.33 Prostaglandins enhance uterine contractility and cause vasoconstriction.34 The...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/afp20070315p875.pdf

afp20070401p1008.pdf

...Athletes with stage 2 hypertension (i.e., blood pressure above the 99th percentile [based on age, sex, and height] plus 5 mm Hg; or blood pressure more than 160/100 mm Hg for athletes older than 18 years) should be restricted from participation until hypertension is controlled. C...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/afp20070401p1008.pdf

afp20070415p1199.pdf

...Chronic hypertension Multiparity Multiple gestations Older age Previous cesarean delivery Tobacco use Uterine curettage Placental abruption8-10 Chronic hypertension Multiparity Preeclampsia Previous abruption Short umbilical cord Sudden...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/afp20070415p1199.pdf

afp20070415p1219.pdf

...of Patients with Suspected CAD Evaluation of patient history will reveal the presence of cardiac risk factors, including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, abnormal lipid profile, and family history in any first­degree female relative 65 years...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/afp20070415p1219.pdf

afp20070515p1487.pdf

...in patients with chronic kidney disease are listed in Table 4.4,5 Thiazide diuretics are first-line agents for treating uncompli- cated hypertension,6 but they are not recom- mended if the serum creatinine level is higher than 2.5 mg per dL (220 µmol per L) or if the creatinine...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1487.pdf

afp20070515p1503.pdf

...occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension. Many tumors are asymptomatic and may be diagnosed incidentally. Although a causal relationship has not been established, fibroid...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/afp20070515p1503.pdf

afp20070715p255.pdf

...and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home moni- toring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Glucose...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/afp20070715p255.pdf

afp20070801p391.pdf

...the following scenario: A 35-year- old white woman with panic disorder was treated with paroxetine (Paxil). She devel- oped unrelated hypertension, for which the physician prescribed 50 mg daily of extended- release metoprolol (Toprol XL). The patient became symptomatically...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p391.pdf

afp20070801p397.pdf

...future pregnancies (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, thromboembolism, autoimmune diseases); screen for ongoing chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes Medication use: Review the patient’s current medication use; avoid FDA pregnancy category X medications and most...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p397.pdf

afp20070801p405.pdf

...aortic root dilatation or dis- section can also occur, particularly in patients with a bicuspid valve, coarctation, or untreated hypertension.8,9 Patients with Turner syndrome often have an atherogenic cardiovascular risk factor profile.10 Other potential complications of Turner...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/afp20070801p405.pdf

afp20070815p539.pdf

...pressure of 88/44 mm Hg, pulse rate of 113 beats per minute, and respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal failure that did not require dialysis, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis secondary to alcohol abuse. Laboratory...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/afp20070815p539.pdf

afp20070901p658.pdf

...and sex plus two addi- tional risk factors (i.e., family history, high-risk ethnicity, acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia). Reducing overweight and impaired glucose tolerance with increased physical activity and healthier eating habits may...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/afp20070901p658.pdf

afp20070915p829.pdf

...Risk factors for CRAO include age older than 70, atherosclerosis, diabetes, endar- teritis, glaucoma, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, hypercoagulable states, and migraine.15-17 CRAO may occur in younger patients with systemic disease, such as col- lagen vascular diseases,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/afp20070915p829.pdf

afp20071001p987.pdf

...replacement, and ventilation. Other etiologies of respira- tory distress include pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and congenital malformations; treatment is disease specific. Initial evaluation for persistent or severe respiratory distress may...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/afp20071001p987.pdf

afp20071015p1141.pdf

...Angina, angioedema, arrhythmias, bronchospasm (paradoxical), hypertension, hypokalemia, QT-interval prolongation, seizures, urticaria Bad taste in the mouth, cough, throat irritation, tremor, URTI symptoms Improves breathlessness but not other patient- oriented outcomes11...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/afp20071015p1141.pdf

afp20071015p1169.pdf

...Hypertension Hyperthermia Insomnia Myocardial infarction Paranoia Psychosis Renal failure Rhabdomyolysis Seizures Sexually and parenterally transmitted infections Stroke Tachycardia Tachypnea Trauma Chronic exposure Cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/afp20071015p1169.pdf

afp20071101p1341.pdf

...study to study because of differences in the populations surveyed. In addition, many causes are interdepen- dent; for example, maternal hypertension can cause uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction.9,10 Etiologies of Second Trimester Pregnancy Loss Conditions...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/afp20071101p1341.pdf

afp20071201p1679.pdf

...of patients and can result in rupture, infection, intracystic bleeding, and obstruction of the surround- ing structures.24 Rarely, portal hypertension and gastric varices result from thrombosis of the splenic vein; this can cause pseudo- aneurysms to form, especially in the splenic...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/afp20071201p1679.pdf

afp20080201p311.pdf

...che- motherapeutic agents.16 However, effects on normal blood vessels can also occur, leading to such toxicities as bleeding, thrombosis, hypertension, and-through alterations to glomerular capillaries17-proteinuria. For example, the anti-VEGF monoclonal anti- body bevacizumab...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/afp20080201p311.pdf

afp20080215p483.pdf

...alcoholism, or uncontrolled hypertension, and in those who have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor within the past 14 days Seizures, arrhythmias, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, hallucinations, mania, suicidality, hypertension, migraines Yes; safe and mildly...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/afp20080215p483.pdf

afp20080301p621.pdf

...May have hypertension and other risk factors for atherosclerosis May have chest or back pain Obtain chest CT scan or magnetic resonance angiogram; plain chest radiography is insensitive Psychogenic (e.g., depression, anxiety)35 History of depression or anxiety Blunted...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/afp20080301p621.pdf

afp20080315p785.pdf

...relative to SSris. tCA overdose can cause respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, hypothermia, seizures, hallucinations, and hypertension for as long as five days.4 ssris and sEroTonin norEPinEPhrinE rEuPTakE inhibiTors (snris) SSris rapidly became the most popular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/afp20080315p785.pdf

afp20080415p1117.pdf

...Cushing’s disease Facial plethora; hirsutism; hyperglycemia; hypertension; poor wound healing; stria Marfan’s syndrome Enlarged aortic root; eye involvement; mitral valve prolapse; scoliosis; pectus excavatum; stretch marks; tall and slim, with long limbs and digits Vitamin C...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1117.pdf

afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

...Hypertension treated with a diuretic and lisinopril (Prinivil) Hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine Irregular periods, some hot flashes The patient is concerned because her mother, a smoker, began menopause at 47 years of age and had a myocardial infarction at 51 years of...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129-s1.pdf

afp20080415p1129.pdf

...and mortality of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers.3,4 Physical activity improves mental health and control of diabetes, hypertension, and lipid levels; prevents osteoporosis; and, especially in older patients, sustains mobil- ity, reduces disability, and decreases...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/afp20080415p1129.pdf

afp20080501p1279.pdf

...Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy Jennifer frank, MD, University of Wisconsin Department of Family Medicine, Appleton, Wisconsin C ombination therapy is treatment with two or more agents adminis- tered separately or in a fixed-dose combination pill and is required...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/afp20080501p1279.pdf

afp20080515p1403.pdf

...[Minipress]) also lower blood pressure through their action on vascular smooth muscles. although these three agents are indicated for hypertension, they are less effec- tive than thiazide diuretics and angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing adverse cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/afp20080515p1403.pdf

afp20080515p1431.pdf

...vision remains intact, and the patient does not progress to total blindness. Although the etiology of AMD is unclear, older age, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vascular insufficiency to the retina and the choroids, a history of ultra- violet (UV) light exposure, and a...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/afp20080515p1431.pdf

afp20080601p1553.pdf

...Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality.14 Despite the availability of several pharmacologic treatment options for hypertension, only 34 percent of north americans are achieving target blood pressure goals, and preventing cardiovascular...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/afp20080601p1553.pdf

afp20080715p206.pdf

...for patients with diet-related illness such as diabetes or hypertension and those with other risk factors for CHd.12,13 exerCise COunseLing physical activity is beneficial to all adults. it reduces the rate of all-cause mortality and helps to prevent osteoporosis and...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/afp20080715p206.pdf

afp20080801p347.pdf

...Hypertension Sickle cell anemia Chronic renal disease Congenital Vascular malformations and aneurysms Artifactual causes of hematuria Food (e.g., beets, berries, rhubarb) Food coloring Medications Menstrual blood *-The first five causes listed in the...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p347.pdf

afp20080801p365.pdf

...Withdrawal and rebound hypertension may occur in patients discontinuing therapy after receiving high doses for long period of time; tapering is recommended Also antispastic agent Do not use with CYP1A2 inhibitors, ciprofloxacin (Cipro) or fluvoxamine (Luvox CR) Caution...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/afp20080801p365.pdf

afp20080901p583.pdf

...Drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, and rebound hypertension Methyldopa (Aldomet; brand no longer available in the United States) 375 to 1,125 mg daily in divided dosages No No benefit over placebo SNRI = serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI = selective...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/afp20080901p583.pdf

afp20080915p717.pdf

...and those with left ventricular dysfunction. Many patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis have concurrent cardiac conditions, such as hypertension, atrial fibril- lation, and coronary artery disease, which should also be carefully managed. (Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(6):717-724,...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/afp20080915p717.pdf

afp20081015p961.pdf

...phenomenon and scleroderma (hardening of the skin) are the clinical hall- marks of the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the leading causes of death.3 Epidemiology and Classification Patients who have systemic sclerosis can be classified into...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/afp20081015p961.pdf

afp20081101p1052.pdf

...cardiovascular risk factors: larger waist- line, elevated triglyceride level, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose level.6 The same associations are emerging in overweight young persons. approximately 60 percent...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/afp20081101p1052.pdf

afp20081201p1277.pdf

...Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes KAREN L. WHALEN, PharmD, University of Florida College of Pharmacy-St. Petersburg Campus, Seminole, Florida ROBERT D. STEWART, PharmD, Bay Pines Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Bay Pines, Florida pproximately...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/afp20081201p1277.pdf

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