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Ingrown Toenail Removal - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2002 - Ingrown toenail is a common problem resulting from various etiologies including improperly trimmed nails, hyperhidrosis, and poorly fitting shoes. Patients commonly present with pain in the affected nail but with progression, drainage, infection, and difficulty walking occur. Excision ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0615/p2547.html

Inhaled Budesonide Reduces the Risk of Emergency Department Evaluation or ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2021 - Inhaled budesonide, 800 mcg twice daily, significantly reduces the likelihood that patients with early COVID-19 will require emergency department evaluation or hospitalization (number needed to treat = 7 to 8). This is a widely available, relatively inexpensive drug with the potential ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0800/p207.html

Inhaled Fluticasone-Salmeterol Better Than Fluticasone Alone for Moderate to Severe ...

Sep 1, 2016 - The combination of fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair), with the steroid dose adjusted for disease severity, reduces the number of severe asthma exacerbations more than fluticasone (Flovent) alone (number needed to treat [NNT] = 50 over 26 weeks), with no difference in terms of ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p387.html

Inhaled Steroid Use and Asthma Control in Patients with Mild Persistent Asthma - AFP ...

Jul 1, 2008 - Can patients with mild persistent asthma safely decrease or eliminate inhaled steroids? The results of these studies may not be generalizable to the average primary care patient. Patients should be appropriately classified and treated using 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention ...

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p21.html

Initial Counseling of Children with Eating Disorders and Their Families - Curbside ...

Feb 15, 2008 - It can be challenging to work with adolescents and their parents when eating disorders are involved.

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p532.html

Initial Management of Patients with HIV Infection - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a treatable chronic disease with near-normal life expectancy when patients receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Family physicians and other primary care clinicians commonly provide long-term comprehensive care for persons with HIV...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p708.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2021 - Most patients can safely begin using hormonal contraception at any point in their menstrual cycle. An evidence-based, flexible, patient-centered approach to initiating contraception promotes health and enhances patients’ reproductive autonomy. A recent Papanicolaou test is not necessary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0301/p291.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Most women can safely begin taking hormonal birth control products immediately after an office visit, at any point in the menstrual cycle. Because hormonal contraceptives do not accelerate cervical neoplasia or interfere with cervical cytology, women who have not had a recent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p105.html

Injectable Extended-Release Naltrexone Effective for Opioid Use Disorder - POEMs - ...

Jun 15, 2018 - Injectable extended-release naltrexone administered every four weeks is similar in efficacy to daily oral buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Patients using extended-release naltrexone reported higher satisfaction with treatment and were more likely to ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p819.html

Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2018 - There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failure—a designation that was defined ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p169.html

Injection Equals Physical Therapy for Shoulder Impingement - POEMs - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2015 - Both physical therapy and corticosteroid injection decrease pain and disability by about 50% within one month of beginning treatment. However, average scores will not improve beyond that over the course of the year, and the average person will have pain, disability, and an altered ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p260a.html

Insertion and Removal of Intrauterine Devices - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2005 - The intrauterine device (IUD) is an effective contraceptive for many women. The copper-releasing IUD can be used for 10 years before replacement and is a good choice for women who cannot, or choose not to, use hormone-releasing contraceptives. However, some women experience an increase ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p95.html

Insomnia: Pharmacologic Therapy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p29.html

Insulin Detemir (Levmir) for Diabetes Mellitus - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Insulin detemir is suitable as basal insulin in a basal-bolus regimen. In limited research, it has been shown to cause slightly fewer episodes of minor hypoglycemia and no weight gain in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, which is a benefit that must be balanced against its higher ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p323.html

Insulin for Glycemic Control in Acute Ischemic Stroke - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2012 - Administering insulin to maintain glycemic control does not improve the rates of mortality or dependency, or the final neurologic outcome after an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, in randomized controlled trials, patients in the intervention groups (those under tight glycemic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1008.html

Insulin Inhalation Powder (Exubera) for Diabetes Mellitus - STEPS - American Family ...

May 15, 2007 - Inhaled insulin provides an alternative route of administration for rapid-acting insulin but offers no other benefit over available insulin therapy. It may reduce, but not eliminate, the need for self-injection in patients with type 1 diabetes. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1546.html

Insulin Lispro: A Fast-Acting Insulin Analog - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 1998 - Research has established the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels near normal in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Short-acting insulin analogs are designed to overcome the limitations of regular short-acting insulins. Compared with regular human ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0115/p279.html

Insulin Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2011 - Insulin therapy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an initial A1C level greater than 9 percent, or if diabetes is uncontrolled despite optimal oral glycemic therapy. Insulin therapy may be initiated as augmentation, starting at 0.3 unit per kg, or as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0715/p183.html

Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Rescue, Augmentation, and Replacement of Beta-Cell...

Aug 1, 2004 - Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Indications for exogenous insulin therapy in patients with this condition include acute illness or surgery, pregnancy, glucose toxicity, contraindications to or failure to achieve goals with oral antidiabetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/p489.html

Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy into Management of Depression - Editorials - ...

Apr 1, 2012 - Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established, scientifically proven treatment for patients with depression. For family physicians to take full advantage of this treatment, they must be able to understand the nature and application of CBT; access professional resources that ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p686.html

Integrating Medical Acupuncture into Family Medicine Practice - Editorials - American ...

Jul 15, 2019 - Acupuncture is an evidence-based therapy to reduce pain that can meet patient demand for nonpharmacologic treatment. Now is the time to offer training in medical acupuncture to more family physicians.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p76.html

Intensive Blood Pressure Control in Older Patients Can Decrease Renal Function - POEMs ...

Jan 1, 2018 - In this post-hoc analysis of the previously published SPRINT trial, lowering the systolic blood pressure of patients who are at increased risk of cardiovascular events (average age = 66 years) will decrease their risk of cardiovascular disease but increase their likelihood of developing...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p54.html

Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Fails to Improve Patient-Oriented Outcomes in Persons ...

Dec 15, 2013 - This large, well-designed trial failed to find a statistically significant improvement in patient-oriented outcomes in patients with diabetes, despite a fairly intensive lifestyle intervention and long-term follow-up.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/od1.html

Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2004 - There is not enough evidence to support dietary or drug treatment in patients with gestational diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p866.html

Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jul 1, 2004 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jul 1, 2004 Issue Cochrane Briefs Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jul 1;70(1):84. Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes Clinical Question Does intensive management of gestational diabetes improve outcomes? Evidence-Based Answer There is...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0701/p84.html

Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy for Mild Persistent Asthma in Children and ...

Jul 1, 2016 - Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy reduces the risk of asthma exacerbations in children and adults with mild persistent asthma. Intermittent use appears to be safe in these patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p21.html

International Consensus Group Issues Recommendations for Management of Upper GI ...

Jun 15, 2010 - In response to new data that may lead to improved patient outcomes, the International Consensus Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Conference Group—a multidisciplinary group of 34 experts from 15 countries—developed international guidelines for managing nonvariceal upper GI bleeding. The ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/p1495.html

Interventional Radiology in Cancer Patients - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2000 - Procedures performed by an interventional radiology specialist are becoming increasingly important in the management of patients with cancer. Although general interventional radiology procedures such as angiography and angioplasty are used in patients with and without cancer, certain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0701/p95.html

Interventional Radiology: Indications and Best Practices - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Interventional radiology employs image-guided techniques to perform minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is often used to place central venous catheters and subcutaneous ports, with some evidence of benefit over surgical placement. Arterial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p547.html

Interventions for Impetigo - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - The topical antibiotic mupirocin is as effective or possibly more effective than oral treatment in patients with limited disease. For practical reasons, oral antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and macrolides often are used in patients with extensive disease, but there is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1680.html

Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and...

Oct 1, 2018 - Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p419.html

Interventions for Lower-Extremity Lymphedema - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ...

Aug 15, 2013 - Complete decongestive physiotherapy (i.e., a noninvasive protocol consisting of skin care, lymph drainage massage, exercises, and compression bandaging1) effectively improves edema, rates of infection, and quality of life in patients with lower-extremity lymphedema.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/od1.html

Interventions for Molluscum Contagiosum - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2006 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether treatments for molluscum are effective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1504.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Persons - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 15, 2021 - A 27-year-old patient, R.C., with a history of generalized anxiety disorder presents for a wellness examination. R.C. previously smoked a pack of cigarettes per day but has cut down to half a pack per day and started using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and is interested in ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0615/p753.html

Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Persons: ...

Jun 15, 2021 - The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to nonpregnant adults who use tobacco.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0615/od1.html

Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Aug 1, 2018 - Interventions that include combinations of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes may reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score (equivalent to BMI-for-age percentile) in overweight and obese children six to 11 years of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p151.html

Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Interventions to Facilitate Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p262.html

Interventions to Help Patients Reduce or Eliminate the Use of Smokeless Tobacco - ...

Dec 1, 2009 - Although the studies of behavior interventions were heterogeneous in this Cochrane review, behavior interventions such as mailings, oral or dental screenings, group discussions, workplace interventions, and telephone support showed the best evidence for smokeless tobacco cessation.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1201/p1226.html

Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing for Uncomplicated Acute RTIs - ...

Dec 1, 2016 - What are the effectiveness and adverse consequences of strategies for reducing antibiotic use in adults and children with uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)?

American Family Physician : Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p918.html

Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Hospital Inpatients - ...

Mar 1, 2008 - The choice of antibiotic, timing, dosage and route of administration in hospitalized patients can be improved through educational (persuasive) and restrictive measures. Although both types of interventions are effective, based on heterogeneous studies, restrictive measures appear to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p618.html

Interventions to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Hypertension - ...

Aug 1, 2007 - One large study of adults with hypertension showed that a rigorous, systematic program including regular patient review and aggressive antihypertensive drug therapy improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reduced all-cause mortality (7.8 to 6.4 percent at five years; number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p373.html

Interventions to Improve Use of CPAP Machines in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2021 - Behavioral interventions increase CPAP use compared with usual care. These interventions also increase CPAP adherence, measured by participants using their machine four or more hours per night, from 371 to 501 per 1,000 patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/1000/p356.html

Intra-articular Corticosteroid for Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for ...

Oct 1, 2005 - An injection of the knee joint with a corticosteroid may improve the patient’s symptoms for up to three weeks after the injection (number needed to treat [NNT]= 3 to 4). There is no evidence that this intervention improves function, and there is little evidence of the benefits ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1222.html

Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - FPIN's ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Intra-articular corticosteroid injections can be used to reduce pain by about 20% in the short term (one to three weeks) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p115.html

Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injections for Knee Osteoarthritis - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2000 - Knee osteoarthritis is a common but often difficult problem to manage in primary care. Traditional nonsurgical management, consisting of lifestyle modification, physical therapy and pharmacologic therapy (e.g., analgesics, anti-inflammatory medications), is often ineffective or leaves ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0801/p565.html

Intranasal Corticosteroids for Acute Bacterial Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p286.html

Intrauterine Devices: An Update - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2014 - Three intrauterine devices (IUDs) are available in the United States: the copper T 380A and two levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs, one that releases 20 mcg of levonorgestrel per 24 hours, and one that releases 14 mcg per 24 hours. All are safe and effective methods of contraception that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0315/p445.html

Intravenous Fluids for Children with Gastroenteritis - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Most children with gastroenteritis do not require intravenous fluids and will respond favorably to ORT. Intravenous fluids do not shorten the duration of gastroenteritis and are more likely to cause adverse effects than ORT.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p121.html

Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Acute Asthma Exacerbation in Children and Adults - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2021 - Patients who received intravenous magnesium sulfate for acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department had decreased hospital admissions and no serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0215/p245.html

Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Acute Asthma Exacerbations - FPIN's Clinical ...

Jan 15, 2019 - Patients presenting to the emergency department with an acute asthma exacerbation that has not responded to first-line therapy (bronchodilators and corticosteroids) can be treated effectively with intravenous magnesium sulfate.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p127.html

Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure using intravenous iron improves function, fatigue, and quality of life, and decreases risk of hospitalizations compared with placebo.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p514.html

Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2005 - What are the effects of treatments in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p525.html

Is Alarm Intervention Effective in the Treatment of Enuresis? - Cochrane for Clinicians...

May 1, 2002 - Pharmacologic treatments (desmopressin and tricyclic antidepressants) and alarm devices are effective for controlling nocturnal enuresis during treatment. There is limited evidence of lower relapse rates after stopping alarm-device treatment than after stopping medication.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0501/p1798.html

Is Fluoxetine an Effective Therapy for Weight Loss in Obese Patients? - FPIN's Clinical...

Dec 15, 2003 - Fluoxetine (Prozac) use may result in an average, short-term weight loss of up to 3.3 kg (7 lb, 4 oz) in obese patients, but the longterm effects and maintenance of weight loss after discontinuation of the drug have not been well studied. No evidence concerning other SSRIs was found.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2437.html

Is Hysterectomy Obsolete? - Editorials - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jun 15, 2000 Issue Editorials Is Hysterectomy Obsolete? ANTHONY R. SCIALLI, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jun 15;61(12):3559-3560. Related Article Each working day in the United...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3559.html

Is Intensive Blood Pressure Control Beneficial in Patients with Acute Intracerebral ...

Jan 15, 2014 - It seems to be safe to lower systolic blood pressure to a target of 140 mm Hg in those with an acute hemorrhagic stroke. However, there seems to be no clinical benefit to this approach when the data are adjusted for baseline NIH Stroke Scale scores.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p120.html

Is Leflunomide as Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis as Other ...

Sep 1, 2003 - Compared with placebo, leflunomide improves clinical outcomes and delays radiologic progression of rheumatoid arthritis. After two years of treatment, leflunomide is as safe as sulfasalazine and more effective. Leflunomide's efficacy and adverse events are similar to those of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p849.html

Is Oral Sucrose an Effective Analgesic in Neonates? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Apr 15, 2003 - The use of oral sucrose, with or without pacifiers, has been shown to relieve pain in neonates, as assessed by physiologic and behavioral pain indicators and pain scores.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1713.html

Is Oral Vitamin B12 as Effective as Intramuscular Injection? - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Jan 1, 2006 - In patients with vitaminB12 deficiency, two oral regimens have been shown to achieve neurologic and hematologic response in the short term. Effective dosages were (1) 2,000 mcg daily or (2) 1,000 mcg daily for 10 days, then weekly and monthly.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p65.html

Is Pharmacotherapy Useful in Social Phobia? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2005 - In adults, medications may improve the symptoms of social phobia in the short term, but their usefulness may be overstated because of publication bias. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy and the most favorable side-effect profile.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1700.html

Is Prasugrel More Effective Than Clopidogrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Is prasugrel better than clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome who are scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention? This study is misleading, and current practice should not change based on its results.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1252.html

Is Raloxifene the Answer to the HRT Story? - Editorials - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Sep 15, 1999 Issue Editorials Is Raloxifene the Answer to the HRT Story? BARBARA APGAR, M.D., M.S., University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan Am Fam Physician. 1999 Sep 15;60(4):1092-1095. Related Article The search...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1092.html

Is Rivaroxaban Noninferior to Standard Warfarin Therapy in Preventing Recurrent PE and ...

Jun 15, 2013 - A trial showing that one drug is noninferior to another does not mean that these drugs are equivalent. The noninferiority margin allows researchers to choose their own benchmark for what is considered a clinically significant difference between two drugs.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p872.html

Is Spinal Manipulation an Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain? No: Evidence Shows No ...

Apr 15, 2012 - No: Evidence Shows No Clinically Significant Benefit Over Watchful Waiting. The pain often improves greatly within one month, with more than 90 percent of patients no longer needing medical care within three months.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p763.html

Is Spinal Manipulation an Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain? Yes: Evidence Shows ...

Apr 15, 2012 - Yes: Evidence Shows Benefit in Most Patients. The goal of manipulation is to restore maximal, pain-free movement of the musculoskeletal system in postural balance. In the past decade, there has been a significant growth in evidence supporting the benefits of manipulation.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p756.html

Is Spinal Manipulation an Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain? Yes: Spinal ...

Apr 15, 2012 - Yes: Spinal Manipulation Is a Useful Adjunct Therapy. Spinal manipulation is one of many potential treatment options that have been used by many different types of clinicians for more than a century. Only in the past 50 years have research studies evaluated the benefits of spinal ...

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p760.html

Is the San Francisco Syncope Rule Reliable? - AFP Journal Club - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Can the San Francisco Syncope Rule successfully determine which patients can be safely discharged after an acute syncopal episode? External validation suggests that the sensitivity of the rule is lower than first reported. Physicians need to apply their clinical acumen and override the ...

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p558.html

Is Thrombolytic Therapy Effective For Pulmonary Embolism? - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2002 - Pulmonary embolism is a disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Right-sided heart failure and recurrent pulmonary embolism are the main causes of death associated with pulmonary embolism in the first two weeks after the embolic event. Thrombolysis is a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0315/p1097.html

Is Unfractionated Heparin Equivalent to Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for Venous ...

Jun 1, 2008 - Is weight-based unfractionated heparin as good as weight-based low-molecular-weight heparin for outpatient treatment of venous thromboembolism? Even though this study was underpowered to prove equivalence, treatment with subcutaneous unfractionated heparin is a viable option.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1492.html

Isoniazid Overdose: Recognition and Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1998 - Since isoniazid is increasingly being used to control the spread of tuberculosis, physicians must be aware of its potentially fatal effects. The ingestion of toxic amounts of isoniazid causes recurrent seizures, profound metabolic acidosis, coma and even death. In adults, toxicity can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0215/p749.html

IUDs: Time for a Renaissance - Editorials - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1998 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Dec 01, 1998 Issue Editorials IUDs: Time for a Renaissance DAVID A. GRIMES, M.D., and DAVID HUBACHER, PH.D., Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Am Fam Physician. 1998 Dec 1;58(9):1963-1964. Related...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1201/p1963.html

Ivabradine (Corlanor) for Heart Failure - STEPS - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - In patients with stable systolic heart failure already on maximal medication therapy, adding ivabradine may reduce the number of hospitalizations related to heart failure (NNT for two years = 20), but it does not reduce cardiovascular mortality. In addition, many patients will not ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p682.html

Ivermectin 1% Cream (Soolantra) for Inflammatory Lesions of Rosacea - STEPS - American ...

Sep 15, 2016 - Ivermectin cream is an effective treatment for moderate to severe pustular rosacea, but it is more expensive than some other available treatments and has not been studied in patients with milder forms of rosacea. Generic metronidazole cream is a less expensive alternative, and long-term...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p512.html

Ivermectin Lotion (Sklice) for Head Lice - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Topical ivermectin is safe, effective, and easy to administer because it involves only a single application-rinse cycle and does not require nit combing. However, it is significantly more expensive than nonprescription treatments and its benefits may not be worth the cost for most ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p984.html

Ivermectin Use in Scabies - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Oral ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. It may be particularly useful in the treatment of severely crusted scabies lesions in immunocompromised patients or when topical therapy has failed. Oral dosing may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1089.html

IVF Therapy for Unexplained Infertility - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2006 - Although IVF is used routinely for the treatment of unexplained infertility, there is limited evidence to show that it is more effective than expectant management, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as an alternative to other therapies such as clomiphene citrate ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p63.html

JNC 7 Express: New Thinking in Hypertension Treatment - Editorials - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2003 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jul 15, 2003 Issue Editorials JNC 7 Express: New Thinking in Hypertension Treatment LEE GREEN, M.D., M.P.H. University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, Michigan Am Fam Physician. 2003 Jul 15;68(2):228-230. Related Content In...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p228.html

JNC 8 Report on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension - POEMs - ...

Apr 1, 2014 - See the Synopsis section for a summary of the updated hypertension treatment recommendations from the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8).

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p574a.html

JNC 8: Relaxing the Standards - Editorials - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) recently issued the most anticipated hypertension guideline in some time. The most significant change in the JNC 8 guideline is relaxation of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure goals for adults 60 years and older. As a result of the new...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p449.html

JNC8 Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in Adults - Practice Guidelines - ...

Oct 1, 2014 - Hypertension is one of the most important preventable contributors to disease and death in the United States, leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure when it is not detected early and treated appropriately. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) recently ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p503.html

Joint and Soft Tissue Injection - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2002 - Injection techniques are helpful for diagnosis and therapy in a wide variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diagnostic indications include the aspiration of fluid for analysis and the assessment of pain relief and increased range of motion as a diagnostic tool. Therapeutic indications ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p283.html

Joint Guideline on Intensive Glycemic Control and the Prevention of Cardiovascular ...

Nov 15, 2009 - Recommendations from the American Diabetes Association (ADA), American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACC), and American Heart Association (AHA) for glycemic control and prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1167.html

Ketogenic Diets for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family... Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2021 - In children with drug-resistant epilepsy, a ketogenic diet decreases the risk of seizures by 50% after three to four months.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0501/p524.html

Ketorolac vs. Morphine for Pain Relief After Fractures - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Parenteral ketorolac is as effective as parenteral morphine for short-term pain relief in patients with long bone fractures, and it results in fewer adverse effects.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p495.html

Key Potentially Inappropriate Drugs in Pediatrics: The KIDs List - Practice Guidelines ... Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2021 - The Pediatric Pharmacy Association produced a list of key potentially inappropriate drugs in pediatrics, or the KIDs List, to guide physicians who treat children.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0515/p633.html

Key Practice Points in the Management of Fibromyalgia - Editorials - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2007 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jul 15, 2007 Issue Editorials Key Practice Points in the Management of Fibromyalgia CHRISTINE N. HUYNH, MD, LEANNE M. YANNI, MD, and LAURA A. MORGAN, PharmD, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia Am...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p195.html

Key Recommendations on Managing Dyslipidemia for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: ...

Apr 15, 2021 - In June 2020, the third iteration of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense guidelines on managing dyslipidemia was published. These recommendations create a simple, pragmatic, evidence-based approach that can be valuable to family physicians.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0415/p455.html

Kidney Stones - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2013 - What are the effects of interventions for the removal of asymptomatic renal or ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p441.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Kinesiology Taping for Knee Osteoarthritis Pain - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2021 - How effective is kinesiology taping (elastic tape applied to the knee to create patellar tension) for osteoarthritis pain of the knee?

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0401/p434.html

Knee Braces: Current Evidence and Clinical Recommendations for Their Use - American ...

Jan 15, 2000 - Methods of preventing and treating knee injuries have changed with the rapid development and refinement of knee braces. Prophylactic knee braces are designed to protect uninjured knees from valgus stresses that could damage the medial collateral ligaments. However, no conclusive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0115/p411.html

Knee Joint Aspiration and Injection - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Knee joint aspiration and injection are performed to aid in diagnosis and treatment of knee joint diseases. The knee joint is the most common and the easiest joint for the physician to aspirate. One approach involves insertion of a needle 1 cm above and 1 cm lateral to the superior ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1497.html

Knee Surgery Does Not Reduce Knee Catching or Locking in Patients with Meniscal Tear - ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Removing the torn bits of meniscus in middle-aged patients who have intermittent knee catches or locking does not decrease their likelihood of experiencing symptoms in the following year compared with diagnostic arthroscopy (i.e., looking but not touching). In general, meniscectomy does...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p317a.html

LABA Plus Inhaled Corticosteroid Reduces Exacerbations, But Not Hospitalizations - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Adding a LABA to an inhaled corticosteroid is safe but does not reduce the likelihood of a serious exacerbation requiring hospitalization. There is a small reduction in nonsevere asthma exacerbations, with one fewer exacerbation for every 53 patients treated for six months.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p53.html

Labor Analgesia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p447.html

Labor Induction at Term - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2016 - Oral misoprostol (Cytotec), vaginal and intracervical prostaglandins, and mechanical methods are effective for induction of labor at term. The use of intravenous oxytocin (Pitocin) increases the risk of failure to achieve vaginal delivery at 24 hours and the risk of cesarean delivery ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p266.html

Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

May 15, 2017 - The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p628.html

LASIK: A Primer for Family Physicians - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2010 - Surgical correction of vision is becoming increasingly popular. Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most popular method of corneal refractive surgery. LASIK is usually limited to adults who have stable refraction. Contraindications include the use of certain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p42.html

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