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Oral Contraceptive Use During the Menopausal Years - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Few guidelines exist for the use of estrogen, particularly low-dose oral contraceptives, during the perimenopausal years. Use of low-dose oral contraceptive pills in women over 35 years of age provides protection against unwanted pregnancy, maintains a stable hormonal environment and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1373.html

Oral Contraceptives and Antiandrogens Most Effective for Hirsutism Pharmacotherapy - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are an excellent treatment option for women desiring medical therapy for hirsutism. Based on this meta-analysis, an accompanying practice guideline recommends adding an antiandrogen, such as finasteride (Propecia), if there is an inadequate ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p55.html

Oral Contraceptives Are Not an Effective Treatment for Ovarian Cysts - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2014 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts, whether the cysts are spontaneous or associated with medically induced ovulation. Most cysts resolve without intervention within two to three months. Those that do not resolve in this time frame are more likely to be ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p623.html

Oral H1 Antihistamines as Add-on Therapy to Topical Treatment for Eczema - Cochrane for...

Nov 1, 2019 - In children with eczema, there is no evidence to support the addition of oral H1 antihistamines to standard treatment regimens. In adults, the use of fexofenadine (Allegra), 120 mg per day, improves patient-assessed eczema symptoms compared with placebo (number needed to treat = 11; 95%...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p541.html

Oral Health During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2008 - Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1139.html

Oral Immunotherapy for Egg Allergy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Providing daily, steadily increasing doses of egg protein over an extended period of time effectively diminishes the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic response among children with egg allergy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p156.html

Oral Manifestations of Commonly Prescribed Drugs - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Drugs are being prescribed with more frequency and in higher quantities. A serious adverse drug event from prescribed medications constitutes 2.4% to 16.2% of all hospital admissions. Many of the adverse drug events present intraorally or periorally in isolation or as a clinical symptom...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p613.html

Oral NSAIDs for Perineal Pain in the Early Postpartum Period - Medicine by the Numbers ...

May 1, 2017 - Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were able to adequately relieve perineal pain for many postpartum women at four hours and longer.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/od1.html

Oral Pharmacologic Management of Type 2 Diabetes - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1999 - Epidemiologic and interventional studies have led to lower treatment targets for type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes), including a glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7 percent or less and a before-meal blood glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1201/p2613.html

Oral Semaglutide (Rybelsus) for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - STEPS - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Oral semaglutide (Rybelsus) is labeled as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p627.html

Oral Steroids Not Helpful for Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Nonasthmatic ...

Jan 1, 2018 - This study found no clinically significant benefit of steroids for the treatment of acute LRTI in adults without asthma, including those presenting with wheezing or shortness of breath.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p55.html

Oseltamivir of Uncertain Benefit in Patients with Flulike Symptoms - POEMs - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - Although the authors report that compared with usual care oseltamivir shortens the duration of symptoms, the methodologic biases in this study make their conclusions suspect.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p248a.html

Oseltamivir Slightly Decreases Influenza Symptom Duration but Not Hospitalizations - ...

Oct 1, 2014 - Treatment of children with oseltamivir will decrease symptom duration by approximately one day, but will not reduce hospitalizations and does not seem to be effective in children with asthma. In adults, symptom reduction is less striking (less than one day), and hospitalization will not...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p497.html

Osteoarthritis of the Hip - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - What are the effects of nondrug, drug, and surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the hip?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p444.html

Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2008 - What are the effects of nonsurgical and surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1149.html

Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: A Primary Care Approach - Editorials - American ...

Feb 15, 2019 - Osteopathic manipulative treatment is a valuable modality that has the potential to decrease cost and improve pain/function in patients.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p214.html

Osteoporosis Management: Out of Subspecialty Practice and into Primary Care - ...

Oct 1, 2004 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Oct 1, 2004 Issue Editorials Osteoporosis Management: Out of Subspecialty Practice and into Primary Care MARGARET GOURLAY, M.D., M.P.H., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Family Medicine, Chapel Hill, North...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1219.html

Osteoporosis: Part II. Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Treatment - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2001 - Family physicians will frequently encounter patients with osteoporosis, a condition that is often asymptomatic until a fracture occurs. Treatment of the fracture can be initiated without further diagnostic testing. Thereafter, treatment of osteoporosis includes (1) prevention of further...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1121.html

Otitis Externa - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - What are the effects of empirical treatment?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1741.html

Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Use of Automated External Defibrillators - ...

Mar 15, 2006 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Mar 15, 2006 Issue Editorials Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Use of Automated External Defibrillators DEBORAH K. WITT, M.D., and CHRISTOPHER V. CHAMBERS, M.D.,Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson, Medical College, Philadelphia,...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p977.html

Outpatient Burn Care: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Most patients with burn injuries are treated as outpatients. Two key determinants of the need for referral to a burn center are burn depth and percentage of total body surface area involved. All burn injuries are considered trauma, prompting immediate evaluation for concomitant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p463.html

Outpatient Detoxification of the Addicted or Alcoholic Patient - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - Outpatient detoxification of patients with alcohol or other drug addiction is being increasingly undertaken. This type of management is appropriate for patients in stage I or stage II of withdrawal who have no significant comorbid conditions and have a support person willing to monitor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1175.html

Outpatient Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician’s office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p589.html

Outpatient Management of Anticoagulation Therapy - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - The Seventh American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy provides guidelines for outpatient management of anticoagulation therapy. The ACCP guidelines recommend short-term warfarin therapy, with the goal of maintaining an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1031.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Over-the-Counter Foot Remedies - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - Several effective and inexpensive over-the-counter treatments are available for minor but troubling foot problems. In most cases, one week of therapy with topical terbinafine is effective for interdigital tinea pedis. Treatment of plantar warts with 17 percent salicylic acid with lactic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p791.html

Over-the-Counter Medications for Acute Cough Symptoms - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2008 - It is uncertain whether OTC cough medications are effective in reducing cough symptoms in adults; in children, no trials show a statistically significant benefit in the treatment compared with the placebo groups. Overall, the quality of evidence is poor; adult studies show conflicting ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p52.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p548.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - Pregnant women commonly use over-the-counter medications. Although most over-the-counter drugs have an excellent safety profile, some have unproven safety or are known to adversely affect the fetus. The safety profile of some medications may change according to the gestational age of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2517.html

Overcoming the Challenges Facing Quality Improvement Strategies for Non-ST-Segment ...

Nov 15, 2004 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Nov 15, 2004 Issue Editorials Overcoming the Challenges Facing Quality-Improvement Strategies for Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes MATTHEW T. ROE, M.D., M.H.S., and ERIC D. PETERSON, M.D., M.P.H. Duke University...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1115/p1868.html

Overuse of Statins in Older Adults - Lown Right Care: Reducing Overuse and Underuse - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - A collaboration between AFP and the Lown Institute promotes a vision of delivering heath care that is based on the evidence, balanced in its approach, and focused on the patient.

American Family Physician : Lown Right Care: Reducing Overuse and Underuse

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p742.html

Overview of New ACC/AHA Lipid Guidelines - POEMs - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - These updated guidelines, made without any input from primary care physicians who manage most patients with hyperlipidemia, are more complex than the 2013 guidelines and will likely lead to even more recommendations for statins, ezetimibe (Zetia), and PSK9 inhibitors.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p716.html

Overview of Refractive Surgery - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2001 - Patients with myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism can now reduce or eliminate their dependence on contact lenses and eyeglasses through refractive surgery that includes radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), laser thermal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1001/p1183.html

Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride 1% Cream (Rhofade) for Persistent Facial Erythema ...

Jun 15, 2018 - Oxymetazoline cream has been shown to be safe and effective at reducing erythema in a small portion of treated patients, but research showing its effectiveness relative to other options is lacking.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p808.html

Oxytocin as First-line Uterotonic Therapy for Postpartum Hemorrhage - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2021 - Oxytocin decreases the chances of a blood transfusion and has fewer adverse effects compared with misoprostol.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0601/p656.html

Oxytocin Augmentation During Labor with Epidural Analgesia - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jun 1, 2013 - Oxytocin augmentation does not reduce the frequency of cesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, or the combined outcome of both. Oxytocin also has no effect on low five-minute Apgar scores, postpartum hemorrhage, uterine hyperstimulation, or neonatal intensive care unit ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p760.html

Ozenoxacin (Xepi) for the Treatment of Impetigo - STEPS - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 15, 2020 - Ozenoxacin is an effective and safe topical quinolone treatment for bullous and nonbullous impetigo in patients as young as two months. However, it is expensive and some patients may have limited access because it is only available through a physician or hospital.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p760.html

Pain and Anxiety Treatment in Children During Emergencies - Practice Guidelines - ...

Feb 15, 2005 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Feb 15, 2005 Issue Practice Guideline Briefs CARRIE MORANTZ BRIAN TORREY Am Fam Physician. 2005 Feb 15;71(4):810. Pain and Anxiety Treatment in Children During Emergencies The Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine and the Section...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p810.html

Palliative Care During Public Health Emergencies: Examples from the COVID-19 Pandemic -... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - In public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic, some patients—especially older patients or those who have chronic health conditions—are confronted with treatment choices as they face life-threatening illness.

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p312.html

Palliative Care in Advanced Dementia - Curbside Consultation - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - What is the best way for family physicians to determine prognosis and applicability of palliative care for patients with dementia?

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p456.html

Palliative Care: Benefits, Barriers, and Best Practices - Editorials - American Family ...

Dec 15, 2013 - Palliative care improves the quality of life for patients with a life-threatening illness and for their families. Despite documented benefits, palliative care is underutilized in the management of advanced or terminal illnesses.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p807.html

Palmoplantar Hyperhidrosis: A Therapeutic Challenge - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Excessive sweating from the palms and soles, known as palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, affects both children and adults. Diagnosis of this potentially embarrassing and socially disabling condition is based on the patient's history and visible signs of sweating. The condition usually is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1117.html

Panax ginseng - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - The herbal remedies referred to as ginseng are derived from the roots of several plants. One of the most commonly used and researched of the ginsengs is Panax ginseng, also called Asian or Korean ginseng. The main active components of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1539.html

Panic Disorder: Effective Treatment Options - American Family Physician

May 15, 1998 - Panic disorder is a distressing and debilitating condition with a familial tendency; it may be associated with situational (agoraphobic) avoidance. The diagnosis of panic disorder requires recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and at least one of the following characteristics: persistent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2405.html

Paraphimosis: Current Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2000 - Paraphimosis is a urologic emergency, occurring in uncircumcised males, in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona and forms a tight band of constricting tissue. Often iatrogenically induced, paraphimosis can be prevented by returning the prepuce to cover the glans ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1215/p2623.html

Parkinson's Disease - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - What are the effects of drug treatments in persons with early stage Parkinson's disease? What are the effects of adding other treatments in persons with motor complications from levodopa? What are the effects of surgery and nursing and rehabilitation treatments in persons with ...

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1045.html

Patching for Corneal Abrasions? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Patching is not beneficial for the treatment of simple corneal abrasions as measured by time to healing, complete healing rates at 24 to 48 hours, or pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1857.html

Patellofemoral Pain: Guidelines from the American Physical Therapy Association - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - The American Physical Therapy Association released guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patellofemoral pain.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p442.html

Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2007 - Patient-controlled opioid analgesia is safe and provides a statistically significant improvement in analgesia in postoperative patients, but the clinical significance of the improvement is marginal.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1645.html

Patients with Initial Unprovoked DVT or PE Benefit from Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin - ...

Jun 15, 2015 - Aspirin improves long-term cardiovascular and thrombotic outcomes in patients who have had an initial unprovoked episode of VTE. The risk of bleeding was no higher in the aspirin group, perhaps because those at risk of bleeding were uncovered during the initial period of anticoagulation.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0615/p872.html

Patients' Preconceptions and Convictions About Antibiotics - Curbside Consultation - ...

Nov 1, 2005 - Multiple studies have demonstrated that patients who seek care for respiratory ailments often expect to receive antibiotics, and that patients or parents who expect antibiotics receive them more often than those who do not.

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1900.html

PCI Equal to Sham PCI for Exercise Tolerance in Patients with Stable Angina Plus Severe...

Jul 1, 2018 - In patients with stable angina and severe coronary artery disease (CAD), PCI plus optimal medical treatment does not improve exercise tolerance or angina more than sham PCI plus optimal medical treatment.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p55.html

PCI Has More Benefits and Harms Than CABG for Selected Patients with Left Main Coronary...

Apr 1, 2017 - Patients undergoing PCI had fewer early myocardial infarctions, but more later deaths and later myocardial infarctions. There are other benefits to PCI, including shorter hospital stay, lower cost, and faster recovery. But patients should be informed of the tradeoffs, and it is ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p455a.html

Pediatric Advanced Life Support: A Review of the AHA Recommendations - American Family ...

Oct 15, 1999 - The etiologies of respiratory failure, shock, cardiopulmonary arrest and dysrhythmias in children differ from those in adults. In 1988, the American Heart Association implemented the pediatric advanced life support (PALS) program. Major revisions to the program were made in 1994, with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1015/p1743.html

Pediculosis and Scabies: A Treatment Update - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A no nit policy for schools and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p535.html

Pelvic Floor Exercises Modestly Improve Pelvic Floor Prolapse Symptoms - POEMs - ...

May 15, 2017 - In women with mild to moderate pelvic floor prolapse, a formal program including physiotherapist-guided pelvic floor exercises only modestly improved symptoms.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/od3.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Women - Medicine ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is common in adult women, leading to health complications such as rash and urinary tract infections. This review discusses pelvic floor muscle training for the treatment of urinary incontinence in women.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/od1.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training to Prevent and Treat Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2021 - Structured PFMT beginning early in pregnancy prevents the onset of urge incontinence later in pregnancy and in the postpartum period compared with no intervention. There is no evidence that PFMT improves urinary incontinence later in pregnancy or in the postpartum period in pregnant ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0900/p234.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training vs. Control for Urinary Incontinence in Women - Cochrane ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Use of pelvic floor muscle training to treat women with all subtypes of urinary incontinence results in improvement or cure vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.4). Treatment with pelvic floor muscle training also results in one fewer episode of leakage...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p393.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2014 - How do different antimicrobial regimens compare when treating women with confirmed PID and what are the effects of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent PID before IUD insertion?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p725.html

Peppermint Oil - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - Peppermint leaf and peppermint oil have a long history of use for digestive disorders. Recent evidence suggests that enteric-coated peppermint oil may be effective in relieving some of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A combination product including peppermint oil and caraway ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1027.html

Percutaneous Interventions for Lower Extremity Peripheral Vascular Disease - American ...

Dec 15, 2001 - Peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities is an important cause of morbidity that affects up to 10 million people in the United States. The primary care physician can easily identify patients who are at risk for the disease with a questionnaire and a relatively simple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1215/p1965.html

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: New Treatment for Vertebral Compression Fractures - ...

Aug 15, 2002 - Interventional radiologists have been performing image-guided spinal procedures for many years. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a newer technique in which a medical grade cement is injected though a needle into a painful fractured vertebral body. This stabilizes the fracture, allowing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0815/p611.html

Perioperative Bridging Anticoagulation Unhelpful for Invasive Procedures - POEMs - ...

Jan 15, 2016 - Bridging anticoagulation worsens outcomes for patients with atrial fibrillation who undergo an elective invasive procedure, resulting in more episodes of major bleeding and no difference in the rate of stroke or venous thromboembolism.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p130.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Perioperative Management of Diabetes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2003 - Maintaining glycemic and metabolic control is difficult in diabetic patients who are undergoing surgery. The preoperative evaluation of all patients with diabetes should include careful screening for asymptomatic cardiac or renal disease. Frequent self-monitoring of glucose levels is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0101/p93.html

Peripheral Arterial Disease - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - What are the effects of treatments for persons with chronic peripheral arterial disease?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p137.html

Peripheral Arterial Disease - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2002 - What are the effects of treatments for chronic peripheral arterial disease?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2321.html

Peripheral Vascular Disease: Treatment in Older Adults - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - PVD can be effectively treated with supervised exercise therapy, cilostazol, lipid-lowering therapy, and antiplatelet therapy. All of these treatments increase pain-free walking distance. Antiplatelet therapy also decreases the need for surgical revascularization. The best treatment is ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p182.html

Pessaries for Managing Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women - Cochrane for Clinicians - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2021 - Pessaries combined with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) probably improve pelvic organ prolapse symptoms in women and prolapse-specific quality of life compared with PFMT alone.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0601/p660.html

Pet Therapy: Enhancing Patient Care Through Time with Animals - Curbside Consultation -...

Nov 1, 2016 - A 16-year-old girl and her parents presented to my office for her wellness evaluation. The patient has generalized anxiety disorder with comorbid major depression, for which she has been prescribed a serotonergic antidepressant. She is a high school student, lives with her parents, and ...

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p737.html

Pet-Related Infections - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2007 - Human contact with cats, dogs, and other pets results in several million infections each year in the United States, ranging from self-limited skin conditions to life-threatening systemic illnesses. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common pet-related parasitic infections. Although ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1314.html

Peyronie's Disease: Current Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1999 - Peyronie's disease is an acquired inflammatory condition of the penis associated with penile curvature and,in some cases, pain. It primarily affects men between 45 and 60 years of age, although an age range of 18 to 80 years has been reported. If left untreated, Peyronie's disease may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0801/p549.html

Pharmacogenentics: Using DNA to Optimize Drug Therapy - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Pharmacogenetics is a growing field of research that focuses on the interaction between genetics and drug therapy. Relationships between genetic variation and drug effect have been observed for a growing number of commonly used drugs. Validation studies may soon define the use of these ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1179.html

Pharmacogenetic Gene-Drug Associations: FDA Perspective on What Physicians Need to Know...

Jul 1, 2021 - To share its perspective on the state of the science, the FDA has published a table of pharmacogenetic associations related to genetic variants that can affect drug concentrations, therapeutic responses, or adverse events.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0700/p16.html

Pharmacogenetic Testing—An Unfulfilled Promise - Editorials - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Family physicians should not naively accept a new technology because it is the latest trend. We need to assess the clinical utility of potential applications of genetic information, adopting them when they improve patient-oriented outcomes and avoiding them when they simply add costs ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p558.html

Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p588.html

Pharmacologic and Surgical Treatment of Obesity - Practice Guidelines - American Family...

Dec 1, 2004 - The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has released a new report entitled, Pharmacological and Surgical Treatment of Obesity.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2225.html

Pharmacologic Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2005 - There is no evidence that rhythm control in older patients with atrial fibrillation is more effective than rate control for improving patient-oriented outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2217.html

Pharmacologic Interventions for Apathy in Patients with Alzheimer Disease - Cochrane ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Methylphenidate may improve apathy in select patients with AD (mean difference [MD] = –4.99 on the apathy evaluation scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], –9.55 to –0.43), although the clinical significance associated with these findings remains unclear and the evidence is considered low...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p14.html

Pharmacologic Management of Adult Depression - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2008 - Major depression is a common and treatable disease. Many patients benefit from pharmacologic treatment and, because there is little variation in antidepressant effectiveness, medication choices should be made based on patient characteristics, safety, and anticipated side effects. Most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/p785.html

Pharmacologic Management of Agitation in Patients with Dementia - FPIN's Clinical ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2021 - Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risperidone are moderately effective at decreasing agitation in all types of dementia. Olanzapine and risperidone reduce dementia-related agitation much longer than placebo. Dextromethorphan/quinidine may be effective at reducing agitation in ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0700/p91.html

Pharmacologic Management of Heart Failure Caused by Systolic Dysfunction - American ...

Apr 1, 2008 - Heart failure caused by systolic dysfunction affects more than 5 million adults in the United States and is a common source of outpatient visits to primary care physicians. Mortality rates are high, yet a number of pharmacologic interventions may improve outcomes. Other interventions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p957.html

Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1277.html

Pharmacologic Management of Pain at the End of Life - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Although many patients experience debilitating pain at the end of life, there are many options to improve analgesia and quality of life. Pain assessment using a validated tool, with attention to patient function and specific goals, helps tailor individual treatment plans. The World ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p26.html

Pharmacologic Pearls for End-of-Life Care - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - As death approaches, a gradual shift in emphasis from curative and life prolonging therapies toward palliative therapies can relieve significant medical burdens and maintain a patient's dignity and comfort. Pain and dyspnea are treated based on severity, with stepped interventions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1059.html

Pharmacologic Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2004 - Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density and a deterioration in the microarchitecture of bone that increases its susceptibility to fracture. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density that is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1293.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Acute Pain - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2021 - Pharmacologic management of acute pain should be tailored for each patient, including a review of treatment expectations and a plan for the time course of prescriptions. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are first-line treatment options for most patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0700/p63.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Acute Pain - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - The approach to patients with acute pain begins by identifying the underlying cause and a disease-specific treatment. The first-line pharmacologic agent for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain is acetaminophen or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The choice ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p766.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Eustachian Tube Dysfunction - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Jun 15, 2013 - There are no medications that improve patient-oriented outcomes in children or adults with eustachian tube dysfunction. Oral corticosteroids, with or without antibiotics, improve pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry findings in the short term, but these agents have no long-term benefit.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p883.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Heart Failure - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2019 - Compared with monotherapy, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB has not been shown to improve cardiovascular or overall mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure. The combination is associated with an increased number of adverse drug effects.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p49.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Vitamin D Deficiency - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ...

Feb 15, 2013 - Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation should be used for vitamin D repletion because it may be more effective in preventing nonvertebral fractures.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/od2.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: An Update - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2003 - Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are associated with neuronal destruction, particularly in cholinergic neurons. Drugs that inhibit the degradation of acetylcholine within synapses are the mainstay of therapy. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1001/p1365.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder - FPIN's Help Desk Answers -...

Mar 1, 2019 - There is no pharmacotherapy regimen that improves the overall symptoms of borderline personality disorder. When used for six months or less, antipsychotics can improve paranoia, dissociation, mood lability, anger, and global functioning.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/od2.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Pharmacologic treatment of hyperlipidemia in conjunction with therapeutic lifestyle changes can be used for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Statins have the most convincing data for primary prevention, especially for higher risk patients. Therefore, risk...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p551.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older: A Guideline ...

May 1, 2017 - A high standard must be met when guidelines recommend lifelong preventive medications, knowing that at best, a small minority of patients will benefit and that all are risking harm.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p547.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension: ACP and AAFP Release Recommendations for ...

May 1, 2017 - The American College of Physicians (ACP) and American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) have made recommendations for all clinicians to treat hypertension in persons 60 years and older, based on the benefits and harms of higher (less than 150 mm Hg) and lower (140 mm Hg or less) ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p588.html

Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Alcohol Use Disorder - Implementing AHRQ Effective ...

Jul 15, 2016 - What are the potential benefits and adverse effects of medications used to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adult outpatients?

American Family Physician : Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p155.html

Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2013 - Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does not reduce coronary events, stroke, or mortality compared with placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p21.html

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