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Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Prolonged Febrile Illness and Fever of Unknown Origin in Adults - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Evaluation of Nail Abnormalities - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2012 - Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p779.html

Diagnosis of Urinary Incontinence - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - Urinary incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician’s office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p543.html

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and signs of volume overload, which may include peripheral edema and pulmonary rales. Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in older persons. Many conditions, such as coronary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1161.html

A Systematic Approach to the Evaluation of a Limping Child - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - A limp is defined as a deviation from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern resulting in an uneven, jerky, or laborious gait. It can be caused by pain, weakness, or deformity as a result of a variety of conditions. Transient synovitis is the most common diagnosis. Other causes of acute ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p908.html

Recognition and Management of Motor Delay and Muscle Weakness in Children - American ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in young children is often delayed for years after symptoms emerge, resulting in missed opportunities for therapy and genetic counseling. Identification of the weak child begins with careful attention to caregiver concerns and developmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p38.html

Childhood Eye Examination - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2013 - Vision screening in children is an ongoing process, with components that should occur at each well-child visit. The purpose is to detect risk factors and visual abnormalities that necessitate treatment and to identify those patients who require referral to an ophthalmologist skilled in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p241.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Biceps Tendinitis and Tendinosis - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2009 - Biceps tendinitis is inflammation of the tendon around the long head of the biceps muscle. Biceps tendinosis is caused by degeneration of the tendon from athletics requiring overhead motion or from the normal aging process. Inflammation of the biceps tendon in the bicipital groove, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p470.html

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task...

Dec 1, 2016 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued recommendations on behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and recommendations about screening for individual STIs. Clinicians should obtain a sexual history to assess for behaviors that increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p907.html

The Spiritual Assessment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - More than 80 percent of Americans perceive religion as important. Issues of belief can affect the health care encounter, and patients may wish to discuss spirituality with their physician. Many physicians report barriers to broaching the subject of spirituality, including lack of time ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p546.html

Mental Status Examination in Primary Care: A Review - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2009 - The mental status examination is an essential tool that aids physicians in making psychiatric diagnoses. Familiarity with the components of the examination can help physicians evaluate for and differentiate psychiatric disorders. The mental status examination includes historic report ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p809.html

Dyspareunia in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman’s mental and physical health, body image, relationships with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p465.html

Thyroid Nodules - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2013 - Thyroid nodules are a common finding in the general population. They may present with symptoms of pressure in the neck or may be discovered during physical examination. Although the risk of cancer is small, it is the main reason for workup of these lesions. Measurement of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p193.html

Expanded Newborn Screening: Information and Resources for the Family Physician - ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Each year, 4 to 5 million newborns receive state-mandated screening. Although the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children has identified 34 core conditions that should be incorporated into screening programs, each state manages, funds, and maintains its own ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p703.html

Stress Fractures: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p39.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2017 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman’s 10-year risk of atherosclerotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p561.html

Evaluation of Microcytosis - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2010 - Microcytosis is typically an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients who received a complete blood count for other reasons. The condition is defined as a mean corpuscular volume of less than 80 µm3 (80 fL) in adults. The most common causes of microcytosis are iron deficiency anemia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1117.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1138.html

Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Scrotal masses are caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from benign conditions to those requiring emergent surgical intervention. Painful scrotal masses require urgent evaluation. Characteristics that suggest testicular torsion include rapid symptom onset, nausea and vomiting, high...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p723.html

Preventive Health Care for Women Who Have Sex with Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Despite recent shifts in societal attitudes toward same-sex relationships, women who have sex with women face a variety of barriers to optimal health, including a history of negatively perceived interactions in clinical settings that lead them to delay or avoid health care. Women who ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p314.html

Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Cancer: A Guide for Early Recognition - American Family...

Aug 1, 2013 - Although cancer in children is rare, it is the second most common cause of childhood mortality in developed countries. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms similar to those of benign conditions, leading to delays in the diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p185.html

Evaluation of Fever in Infants and Young Children - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Febrile illness in children younger than 36 months is common and has potentially serious consequences. With the widespread use of immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, the epidemiology of bacterial infections causing fever has changed. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p254.html

Common Questions About the Evaluation of Acute Pelvic Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2016 - Acute pelvic pain is defined as lower abdominal or pelvic pain of less than three months’ duration. It is a common presentation in primary care. Evaluation can be challenging because of a broad differential diagnosis and because many associated signs and symptoms are nonspecific. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p41.html

Evaluation of Acute Abdominal Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2008 - Acute abdominal pain can represent a spectrum of conditions from benign and self-limited disease to surgical emergencies. Evaluating abdominal pain requires an approach that relies on the likelihood of disease, patient history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p971.html

Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Constipation in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2011 - Constipation is traditionally defined as three or fewer bowel movements per week. Risk factors for constipation include female sex, older age, inactivity, low caloric intake, low-fiber diet, low income, low educational level, and taking a large number of medications. Chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0801/p299.html

Diagnosis of Secondary Hypertension: An Age-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1471.html

Prostate Cancer Screening - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2015 - Among American men, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has been used to screen for prostate cancer for more than 25 years, the test has low sensitivity and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p683.html

Cancer Screening in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p659.html

Diagnostic Approach to Pleural Effusion - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2014 - Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p99.html

Detecting Elder Abuse and Neglect: Assessment and Intervention - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2014 - Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0315/p453.html

A Diagnostic Approach to Pruritus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2011 - Pruritus can be a symptom of a distinct dermatologic condition or of an occult underlying systemic disease. Of the patients referred to a dermatologist for generalized pruritus with no apparent primary cutaneous cause, 14 to 24 percent have a systemic etiology. In the absence of a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0715/p195.html

Incidentalomas: Initial Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2014 - Incidentalomas are increasingly common findings on radiologic studies, causing worry for physicians and patients. Physicians should consider the risk of discovering incidentalomas when contemplating imaging. Patients may assume that incidentalomas are cancer, and may not be aware of the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p784.html

Dermoscopy for the Family Physician - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2013 - Noninvasive in vivo imaging techniques have become an important diagnostic aid for skin cancer detection. Dermoscopy, also known as dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, incident light microscopy, or skin surface microscopy, has been shown to increase the clinician’s diagnostic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p441.html

Evaluation of Nausea and Vomiting: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2013 - In the absence of acute abdominal pain, significant headache, or recent initiation of certain medications, acute nausea and vomiting is usually the result of self-limited gastrointestinal infections. Nausea and vomiting is also a common adverse effect of radiation therapy, chemotherapy,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0915/p371.html

Transient Ischemic Attack: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - Transient ischemic attack is defined as transient neurologic symptoms without evidence of acute infarction. It is a common and important risk factor for future stroke, but is greatly underreported. Common symptoms are sudden and transient, and include unilateral paresis, speech ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p521.html

Evaluation of Occult Gastrointestinal Bleeding - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2013 - Occult gastrointestinal bleeding is defined as gastrointestinal bleeding that is not visible to the patient or physician, resulting in either a positive fecal occult blood test, or iron deficiency anemia with or without a positive fecal occult blood test. A stepwise evaluation will ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p430.html

Preventive Health Care for Men Who Have Sex with Men - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2015 - Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise at least 4% of males in the United States. MSM may describe themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. Because current medical practice does not always facilitate discussion of sexual behaviors, this group of men may face barriers to receiving...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0615/p844.html

Disability Evaluations: More Than Completing a Form - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2015 - According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 billion persons worldwide have a disability. In the United States, more than 56 million American workers have some form of disability; of these, more than 38 million persons have a severe disability. Blacks and Hispanics are among ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0115/p102.html

Evaluation of Macrocytosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2009 - Macrocytosis, generally defined as a mean corpuscular volume greater than 100 fL, is frequently encountered when a complete blood count is performed. The most common etiologies are alcoholism, vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, and medications. History and physical examination, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/p203.html

Erythema Nodosum: A Sign of Systemic Disease - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Erythema nodosum, a painful disorder of the subcutaneous fat, is the most common type of panniculitis. Generally, it is idiopathic, although the most common identifiable cause is streptococcal pharyngitis. Erythema nodosum may be the first sign of a systemic disease such as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p695.html

Newborn Skin: Part I. Common Rashes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Rashes are extremely common in newborns and can be a significant source of parental concern. Although most rashes are transient and benign, some require additional work-up. Erythema toxicum neonatorum, acne neonatorum, and transient neonatal pustular melanosis are transient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p47.html

Gynecologic Procedures: Colposcopy, Treatments of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, ...

Jun 15, 2013 - Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p836.html

Uveitis: The Collaborative Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2014 - Uveitis, or inflammation of the uveal tract (i.e., iris, ciliary body, and choroid), results from a heterogeneous collection of disorders of varying etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms. Uveitis is caused by a systemic disease in 30% to 45% of patients. Primary care physicians may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p711.html

Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2009 - Adnexal masses represent a spectrum of conditions from gynecologic and nongynecologic sources. They may be benign or malignant. The initial detection and evaluation of an adnexal mass requires a high index of suspicion, a thorough history and physical examination, and careful attention ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p815.html

Health Maintenance in Women - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html

Revised AAP Guideline on UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2012 - In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a revision of its 1999 clinical practice guideline on urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children two to 24 months of age. The new clinical practice guideline has several important updates based on evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html

When to Suspect a Genetic Syndrome - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2012 - Family physicians should be able to recognize findings on physical examination and history that suggest the presence of a genetic syndrome to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of potentially affected patients, as well as subspecialty referral. General themes that can alert family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1101/p826.html

Screening for Cancer: Concepts and Controversies - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2014 - Early detection of cancer is a core task in family medicine, and patients have come to expect screening tests, sometimes out of proportion to what evidence can justify. To understand the controversies surrounding screening and to provide sound advice to patients, family physicians ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p625.html

The Role of BNP Testing in Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are simple and objective measures of cardiac function. These measurements can be used to diagnose heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction, and using them has been shown to save money in the emergency department setting. The high negative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1893.html

Evaluation of Acute Pelvic Pain in Women - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symptoms and signs are insensitive and nonspecific. As the first priority, urgent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, ruptured ovarian cyst) and fertility-threatening conditions (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p141.html

Diagnostic Approach to Pleural Effusion in Adults - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - The first step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. An exudative effusion is diagnosed if the patient meets Light's criteria. The serum to pleural fluid protein or albumin gradients may help better ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1211.html

Left Lower-Quadrant Pain: Guidelines from the American College of Radiology ...

Oct 1, 2010 - The differential diagnosis of left lower-quadrant pain includes gastrointestinal, gynecologic, and renal/ureteric pathology. Imaging is helpful in evaluating left lower-quadrant pain, and is generally guided by the clinical presentation. Acute sigmoid diverticulitis should be suspected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1001/p766.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Chronic Cough - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - Initial evaluation of the patient with chronic cough (i.e., of more than eight weeks’ duration) should include a focused history and physical examination, and in most patients, chest radiography. Patients who are taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor should switch to a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p887.html

Adolescent Health Screening and Counseling - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2012 - Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1109.html

The Adult Well Male Examination - American Family Physician

May 15, 2012 - The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p964.html

Diagnosis of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2012 - Venous thromboembolism manifests as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism, and has a mortality rate of 6 to 12 percent. Well-validated clinical prediction rules are available to determine the pretest probability of DVT and pulmonary embolism. When the likelihood of DVT is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p913.html

Evaluation of Primary Immunodeficiency Disease in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - One in 2,000 children younger than 18 years is thought to have a primary immunodeficiency disease. Antibody, combined B-cell and T-cell, phagocytic, and complement disorders are the most common types. Children with these diseases tend to have bacterial or fungal infections with unusual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p773.html

Recognition and Evaluation of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Ruptured ...

Oct 1, 2013 - Swift diagnosis and treatment are critical for good outcomes in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is usually caused by a ruptured aneurysm. This type of stroke often results in death or disability. Rates of misdiagnosis and treatment delays for subarachnoid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p451.html

The Limping Child: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2009 - Deviations from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. In most children, limping is caused by a mild, self-limiting event, such as a contusion, strain, or sprain. In some cases, however, a limp can be a sign of a serious or even ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/p215.html

Diagnosis of Ear Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2008 - Many patients in primary care present with ear pain (otalgia). When the ear is the source of the pain (primary otalgia), the ear examination is usually abnormal. When the ear is not the source of the pain (secondary otalgia), the ear examination is typically normal. The cause of primary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p621.html

Urinalysis: A Comprehensive Review - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - A complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical, and microscopic examinations. Midstream clean collection is acceptable in most situations, but the specimen should be examined within two hours of collection. Cloudy urine often is a result of precipitated phosphate crystals in alkaline...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1153.html

Proteinuria in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2010 - Proteinuria is common in children and may represent a benign condition or a serious underlying renal disease or systemic disorder. Proteinuria may occur secondary to glomerular or tubular dysfunction. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended, it may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p645.html

Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p343.html

Understanding and Interpreting the Serum Protein Electrophoresis - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Serum protein electrophoresis is used to identify patients with multiple myeloma and other serum protein disorders. Electrophoresis separates proteins based on their physical properties, and the subsets of these proteins are used in interpreting the results. Plasma protein levels ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p105.html

Evidence to Avoid Overtesting and Overuse in Diabetes Mellitus and Other Diseases - ...

Nov 15, 2020 - What can physicians do to avoid overuse? Start by asking the right questions.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p583.html

Common Oral Lesions: Part I. Superficial Mucosal Lesions - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - Common superficial oral lesions include candidiasis, recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, erythema migrans, hairy tongue, and lichen planus. Recognition and diagnosis require taking a thorough history and performing a complete oral examination. Knowledge of clinical...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p501.html

Evaluation of Nausea and Vomiting - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2007 - A comprehensive history and physical examination can often reveal the cause of nausea and vomiting, making further evaluation unnecessary. Acute symptoms generally are the result of infectious, inflammatory, or iatrogenic causes. Most infections are self-limiting and require minimal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p76.html

Evaluation of Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - As the proportion of persons in the United States older than 65 years increases, the prevalence of dementia will increase as well. Risk factors for dementia include age, family history of dementia, apolipoprotein E4 genotype, cardiovascular comorbidities, chronic anticholinergic use, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p895.html

Fever in Returning Travelers: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Overall, 3% to 19% of travelers to the developing world will return to the United States with fever or will develop fever within weeks of their return. When evaluating the returning traveler with fever, it is important to know which pretravel immunizations the patient received; which ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p524.html

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Children and adolescents whose heights and growth velocities deviate from the normal percentiles on standard growth charts present a special challenge to physicians. Height that is less than the 3rd percentile or greater than the 97th percentile is deemed short or tall stature, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p597.html

Screening for Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Nov 15, 2018 - The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in women 65 years and older.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/od1.html

Breast Cancer Screening Update - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p274.html

Evaluation of First Nonfebrile Seizures - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Nonfebrile seizures may indicate underlying disease or epilepsy. The patient history can often distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic disorders by identifying the events directly preceding the convulsion, associated conditions, and details of the seizure, including triggers, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p334.html

Differential Diagnosis of the Swollen Red Eyelid - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2007 - The differential diagnosis of eyelid erythema and edema is broad, ranging from benign, self-limiting dermatoses to malignant tumors and vision-threatening infections. A definitive diagnosis usually can be made on physical examination of the eyelid and a careful evaluation of symptoms ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1215/p1815.html

Chronic Shouler Pain Part I: Evaluation and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2008 - Shoulder pain is defined as chronic when it has been present for longer than six months. Common conditions that can result in chronic shoulder pain include rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Rotator cuff disorders include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p453.html

Pain In the Quiet (Not Red) Eye - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Although eye pain is often accompanied by redness or injection, pain can also occur with a quiet eye. Pain in a quiet eye can be the first sign of a vision-threatening condition, a more benign ophthalmologic condition, or a nonophthalmologic condition. Acute narrow-angle glaucoma is an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p69.html

Overview of Changes to Asthma Guidelines: Diagnosis and Screening - American Family ...

May 1, 2009 - The Expert Panel Report 3 of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program represents a major advance in the approach to asthma care by emphasizing the monitoring of clinically relevant aspects of care and the importance of planned primary care, and by providing patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p761.html

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive ...

May 15, 2020 - The USPSTF recommends 1-time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with ultrasonography in men aged 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/od1.html

The Case Against Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Cardiovascular Disease Risk ...

Dec 15, 2019 - Although coronary artery calcium testing may slightly improve future risk prediction, this theoretical benefit is outweighed by its potential harms.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p734.html

Appropriate and Safe Use of Diagnostic Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2013 - Risks of diagnostic imaging include cancer from radiation exposure and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The increase in volume of imaging between 1980 and 2006 has led to a sixfold increase in annual per capita radiation exposure. It is predicted that 2 percent of future cancers will be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p494.html

Fatigue: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - Fatigue, a common presenting symptom in primary care, negatively impacts work performance, family life, and social relationships. The differential diagnosis of fatigue includes lifestyle issues, physical conditions, mental disorders, and treatment side effects. Fatigue can be classified...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1173.html

An Approach to Interpreting Spirometry - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Spirometry is a powerful tool that can be used to detect, follow, and manage patients with lung disorders. Technology advancements have made spirometry much more reliable and relatively simple to incorporate into a routine office visit. However, interpreting spirometry results can be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1107.html

Common Oral Lesions: Part II. Masses and Neoplasia - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - Certain common oral lesions appear as masses, prompting concern about oral carcinoma. Many are benign, although some (e.g., leukoplakia) may represent neoplasia or cancer. Palatal and mandibular tori are bony protuberances and are benign anomalies. Oral pyogenic granulomas may appear in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p509.html

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis and Screening - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Based on etiology, diabetes is classified as type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of youth, and miscellaneous causes. The diagnosis is based on measurement of A1C level, fasting or random blood glucose level, or oral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p863.html

Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in older patients. Presentation may differ from that of the younger patient and is often complicated by coexistent disease, delays in presentation, and physical and social barriers. The physical examination can be misleadingly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1537.html

Assessment of Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Microscopic hematuria, a common finding on routine urinalysis of adults, is clinically significant when three to five red blood cells per high-power field are visible. Etiologies of microscopic hematuria range from incidental causes to life-threatening urinary tract neoplasm. The lack ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1748.html

Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels in the Asymptomatic Patient - American Family...

Mar 15, 2005 - Mild elevations in liver chemistry tests such as alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase can reveal serious underlying conditions or have transient and benign etiologies. Potential causes of liver transaminase elevations include viral hepatitis, alcohol use, medication use, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1105.html

Evaluating Acutely Injured Patients for Internal Derangement of the Knee - American ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Although historical findings have some value in diagnosing internal derangement of the knee, a thorough physical examination can often rule out fracture and ligamentous and meniscal injuries. The Ottawa Knee Rule can help physicians determine which patients require radiography. Positive...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p247.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening: ACP Guidance Statements - Practice Guidelines - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - The American College of Physicians developed a consensus statement for colorectal cancer screening of average-risk adults based on their review of six independent guidelines and supporting evidence.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p250.html

Bleeding and Bruising: A Diagnostic Work-up - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2008 - Primary care physicians are often asked about easy bruising, excessive bleeding, or risk of bleeding before surgery. A thorough history, including a family history, will guide the appropriate work-up, and a physical examination may provide clues to diagnosis. A standardized bleeding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1117.html

Outpatient Approach to Palpitations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Palpitations are a common problem seen in family medicine; most are of cardiac origin, although an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, is also common. Even if a psychiatric comorbidity does exist, it should not be assumed that palpitations are of a noncardiac etiology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p63.html

A Clinical Approach to Diagnosing Wrist Pain - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - A detailed history alone may lead to a specific diagnosis in approximately 70 percent of patients who have wrist pain. Patients who present with spontaneous onset of wrist pain, who have a vague or distant history of trauma, or whose activities consist of repetitive loading could be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1753.html

Jaundice in the Adult Patient - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Jaundice in an adult patient can be caused by a wide variety of benign or life-threatening disorders. Organizing the differential diagnosis by prehepatic, intrahepatic, and posthepatic causes may help make the work-up more manageable. Prehepatic causes of jaundice include hemolysis and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p299.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Lumbar puncture is frequently performed in primary care. Properly interpreted tests can make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a key tool in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Proper evaluation of CSF depends on knowing which tests to order, normal ranges for the patient's age, and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html

The Generalized Rash: Part II. Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2010 - Although it is important to begin the evaluation of generalized rash with an inclusive differential diagnosis, the possibilities must be narrowed down by taking a focused history and looking for key clinical features of the rash. Part I of this two-part article lists the common, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p735.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Muscle Weakness - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2005 - Muscle weakness is a common complaint among patients presenting to family physicians. Diagnosis begins with a patient history distinguishing weakness from fatigue or asthenia, separate conditions with different etiologies that can coexist with, or be confused for, weakness. The pattern ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1327.html

Update on ASCCP Consensus Guidelines for Abnormal Cervical Screening Tests and Cervical...

Jul 15, 2009 - New data have emerged since publication of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology's 2001 consensus guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. The 2006 guidelines include recommendations for special populations (i.e., adolescents and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/p147.html

Approach to the Adult Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2003 - Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is defined as a temperature higher than 38.3 degrees C (100.9 degrees F) that lasts for more than three weeks with no obvious source despite appropriate investigation. The four categories of potential etiology of FUO are classic, nosocomial, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2223.html

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