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Low Glycemic Diets for Obesity Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2008 - Compared with high glycemic index diets or conventional energy-restricted weight loss diets, low glycemic index diets better reduce body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The weighted mean difference showed that patients lost an additional 1 to 2 BMI units ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1534.html

Use of Inhaled Corticosteroids to Treat Stable COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jun 1, 2008 - Although the use of inhaled corticosteroids for COPD will not reduce mortality or affect long-term disease progression, inhaled corticosteroids can be useful for reducing COPD exacerbations and slowing declines in quality of life.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1532.html

Subclinical Hypothyroidism - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2008 - Although there is evidence that thyroid hormone therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism may improve lipid profiles, cognitive function, and echographic left ventricular function, there is no evidence that this will decrease morbidity or mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p953.html

Medical Treatments in the Short-term Management of Reflux Esophagitis - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2008 - Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective short-term treatment for reflux esophagitis. Histamine H2 blockers are also effective compared with placebo, but are inferior to PPIs. There is limited evidence about adverse events with these therapies, but long-term therapy with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p620.html

Aspirin Combined with Clopidogrel (Plavix) Decreases Cardiovascular Events in Patients ...

Dec 1, 2007 - A combination of aspirin and clopidogrel decreased cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease and in those with acute coronary syndrome. However, the risk of major bleeding events outweighed the benefits in all high-risk patients except those with acute ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1643.html

Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Hospital Inpatients - ...

Mar 1, 2008 - The choice of antibiotic, timing, dosage and route of administration in hospitalized patients can be improved through educational (persuasive) and restrictive measures. Although both types of interventions are effective, based on heterogeneous studies, restrictive measures appear to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p618.html

Are Long-acting Insulin Analogues Better Than Isophane Insulin? - Cochrane for ...

Feb 15, 2008 - Based on poor quality evidence, this review suggests that insulin glargine and insulin detemir have no advantage over isophane insulin in reducing A1C levels. In one study, isophane insulin reduced A1C levels slightly more than insulin detemir. However, patients on insulin glargine and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p447.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2007 - Studies comparing ACE inhibitors or ARBs with placebo found no mortality benefit in patients with diabetic kidney disease. A subgroup analysis of five studies (2,034 total patients) found that, when given at full or maximally tolerated doses, ACE inhibitors reduce all-cause mortality ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p68.html

Are Beta Blockers Effective First-line Treatments for Hypertension? - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2007 - Current evidence does not support the use of beta blockers as initial therapy for hypertension.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1306.html

Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2007 - Patient-controlled opioid analgesia is safe and provides a statistically significant improvement in analgesia in postoperative patients, but the clinical significance of the improvement is marginal.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1645.html

Effectiveness of Insulin Sensitizing Drugs for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Cochrane for...

Nov 1, 2007 - Insulin sensitizing drugs are more effective than oral contraceptives alone at improving fasting insulin levels in patients with PCOS. Compared with metformin (Glucophage) alone, oral contraceptives alone better control irregular menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels. There is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1308.html

Does Pioglitazone Benefit Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2007 - Pioglitazone produces a reduction in A1C levels similar to that produced by other drugs. One trial found that although pioglitazone, used as an adjunct to other antihyperglycemic medications, may lead to a statistically significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in patients with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p969.html

Adenosine vs. Calcium Channel Blockers for Supraventricular Tachycardia - Cochrane for ...

Jun 1, 2007 - Adenosine and verapamil (Calan, Isoptin SR) are equally effective for treating acute supra-ventricular tachycardia in adults. Patients treated with adenosine have a higher rate of minor, transient adverse effects than patients treated with verapamil; however, rare but serious adverse ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1653.html

Tramadol Relieves Neuropathic Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Tramadol is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain. One out of four patients who take the medication achieves at least 50 percent pain relief.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1335.html

Exercise for Older Patients Who Are Acutely Hospitalized - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2007 - The effects of exercise interventions on functional outcomes are unclear, but there is a trend toward functional improvement. Multidisciplinary interventions that include exercise also show several other benefits, including reduction in length of hospitalization and hospital costs; ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p69.html

Occupational Therapy Improves Activities of Daily Living After Stroke - Cochrane for ...

Jun 1, 2007 - Compared with standard rehabilitation, ADL-based occupational therapy significantly decreases death or institutionalization and deterioration in the ability to perform ADL after stroke. The optimal length and type of therapy is not well defined.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1651.html

Exercise is an Effective Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients - Cochrane for ...

May 1, 2007 - Exercise leads to a weight loss of 1 lb, 2 oz to 16 lb, 12 oz (0.5 to 7.6 kg), compared with a 3-oz (0.1-kg) weight loss to a weight gain of 1 lb, 9 oz (0.7 kg) with no treatment. Patients participating in higher-intensity exercise lose 3 lb, 5 oz (1.5 kg) more than those participating ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1333.html

Nonpharmacologic vs. Anticholinergic Therapies for Overactive Bladder - Cochrane for ...

May 1, 2007 - Anticholinergic medications are more effective than bladder training in reducing the number of voids per day. Combining an anti-cholinergic medication with bladder training is more effective than either therapy alone.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1336.html

Are Opioids Effective in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain? - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Apr 1, 2007 - Eight to 60 days of opioid therapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain effectively reduces pain scores as measured by a visual analog scale. A lack of response to opioids in the first 24 hours should not be used to predict whether longer-term opioid therapy might be beneficial. There ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p999.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2007 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - Children with otitis media with effusion do not benefit from decongestants or antihistamines. Common adverse effects of these therapies are gastrointestinal upset, irritability, drowsiness, and dizziness (number needed to harm = 9).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1001.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2007 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - Topical salicylic or lactic acid and cryotherapy are effective treatments for nongenital warts. Although cryotherapy is somewhat more effective, it is associated with more pain and blistering than salicylic or lactic acid. The spontaneous cure rate of nongenital warts is 50 to 70 ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1001a.html

Effectiveness of Dressings for Healing Venous Leg Ulcers - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2007 - No single dressing or type of dressing appears to be superior to others in the complete healing of ulcers or in healing rate.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p649.html

Are Oral Betamimetics Effective Maintenance Therapies After Threatened Preterm Labor? -...

Mar 1, 2007 - There is no evidence to support the use of oral betamimetics for maintenance therapy after treatment for threatened preterm labor, and there is a risk of adverse effects with these drugs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p648.html

Telephone Counseling Improves Smoking Cessation Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2007 - Telephone counseling can improve long-term smoking cessation rates. Multiple proactive calls are more effective than a single reactive call.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p650.html

The Role of Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2007 - Regular exercise reduces A1C levels, adiposity, and triglyceride levels. However, no research has definitively proved a benefit of exercise on patient-oriented outcomes such as diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p335.html

Expectant Management vs. Surgical Treatment for Miscarriage - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Oct 1, 2006 - Expectant management and surgical treatment are safe and effective for first-trimester miscarriage. Among patients who choose expectant management, there is a lower rate of pelvic infection but higher rates of mild bleeding, need for unplanned surgical treatment, and incomplete ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1125.html

Early Invasive Therapy or Conservative Management for Unstable Angina or NSTEMI? - ...

Jan 1, 2007 - Compared with conservative management, early invasive treatment of patients with UA or NSTEMI using coronary angiography with or without revascularization reduces rehospitalization and refractory angina within the first year and significantly reduces mortality and myocardial infarction ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p47.html

Opioids for Management of Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2006 - Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC [Actiq]), a rapid-acting opioid, has been shown to be an effective treatment for breakthrough cancer pain. Other opioids, including immediate-release oral morphine (MSIR), also may be effective; however, evidence comparing these agents with OTFC ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1855.html

Humidified Air for Croup? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2007 - Available data do not support a clinically important benefit of humidified air for symptomatic treatment of children with croup. However, it does not appear to be harmful.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p50.html

Interventions for Molluscum Contagiosum - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2006 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether treatments for molluscum are effective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1504.html

Beta-Blocker Use in Patients with COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2006 - In 20 studies of cardioselective beta blockers in patients with COPD, participants had no adverse pulmonary or respiratory effects. Because of their salutary cardiovascular effects, cardioselective beta blockers should not be withheld from patients with COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1858.html

Patching for Corneal Abrasions? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Patching is not beneficial for the treatment of simple corneal abrasions as measured by time to healing, complete healing rates at 24 to 48 hours, or pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1857.html

Antidepressants in Older Persons - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - In older persons with depression, three classes of antidepressants are equally effective: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and tricyclic-like compounds. More patients taking classic tricyclic antidepressants stopped their medications because of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1503.html

Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal and Perimenopausal Women - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2006 - Relatively healthy women taking combined continuous hormone therapy have higher risks of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism after one year, stroke after three years, and breast cancer after five years. In women who take hormone therapy continuously for five years, there is...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1501.html

Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2006 - Cholinesterase inhibitors produce a small benefit on several cognitive and noncognitive function scales. Although data for patients with severe dementia are sparse, there is no evidence to suggest a difference in effectiveness among patients with mild, moderate, or severe dementia. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p747.html

Laxatives for Hemorrhoids? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2006 - Fiber has a consistent beneficial effect in the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids for up to three months' follow-up as measured by overall symptoms and bleeding.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p413.html

Exercises for Mechanical Neck Disorders - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2006 - There is some evidence that a variety of exercises help patients with mechanical neck pain. Evidence is strongest for a multimodal approach that includes exercise and mobilization or manipulation of the cervical spine, although this research has been criticized for having an imperfect ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1126.html

Diuretics for Treatment of Patients with Heart Failure? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2006 - Compared with other active medications, diuretics can improve exercise capacity in patients with heart failure by about 30 percent. Withdrawal of diuretic therapy from patients with heart failure may increase the risk of hospital readmission or death. About eight deaths are prevented ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p411.html

Antibiotics for Exacerbations of COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2006 - There is consistent evidence from a small number of studies that antibiotics significantly reduce mortality (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8) and treatment failure (NNT = 3) in more severely ill patients with COPD who are hospitalized because of an exacerbation. Two smaller studies ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p749.html

Antioxidants and Minerals for Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2006 - Supplementation with a combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc modestly reduces the progression of ARMD in patients with disease in one or both eyes. High-dose vitamin supplements should not be recommended for patients without ARMD because of the possible harmful ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p750.html

Antidepressants for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jun 1, 2006 - Tricyclic antidepressants, particularly amitriptyline, are effective for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy and post herpetic neuralgia, and may be beneficial in other neuropathic pain syndromes, but they should be used with caution in patients at increased risk of adverse ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1933.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jul 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Intravenous lidocaine and oral mexiletine provide a modest reduction in neuropathic pain with no indication of serious adverse effects. However, safety data are limited because most studies were of relatively short duration and fewer than 400 patients have been studied in total for each...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p79.html

Are Atypical Antipsychotics Safe in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease? - Cochrane for ...

Aug 1, 2006 - Although the atypical antipsychotic medications risperidone (Risperdal) and olanzapine (Zyprexa) are modestly efficacious in reducing aggression, routine use is not justified. Both drugs are associated with serious adverse cerebrovascular events and extrapyramidal symptoms. Use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p414.html

Cyclic vs. Continuous or Extended- Cycle Combined Contraceptives - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2006 - Evidence shows no difference in safety or effectiveness between cyclic and continuous or extended-cycle combined contraceptives. There are fewer menstrual symptoms with extended-cycle contraceptives. Patients’ satisfaction and adherence is similar for all types.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p804.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jul 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Induction of labor in patients with PROM does not increase the rates of cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery. Among patients who are induced there is a slightly lower incidence of chorioamnionitis (relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.97) and a ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p79a.html

Carbamazepine for Acute and Chronic Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2006 - Two small trials have shown carbamazepine to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain. Carbamazepine shows similar clinical effect to gabapentin (Neurontin) and phenytoin (Dilantin), but there have been no head-to-head trials directly comparing these drugs. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1549.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - For adult patients who are taking a minimum maintenance dosage of inhaled corticosteroid for asthma, adding a long-acting beta2 agonist permits reduction of the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid by 253 mcg beclomethasone equivalent per day without worsening the patient's symptoms. In ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1935a.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - An antidepressant such as imipramine (Tofranil) or sertraline (Zoloft), possibly with the addition of an antipsychotic, is the preferred initial pharmacologic treatment for psychotic depression.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1935.html

Glucosamine Treatment for Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2006 - This review shows that, compared with placebo, glucosamine sulfate produces a moderate, clinically significant reduction in pain and improvement in function for patients with osteoarthritis. However, study results were not consistent. Most studies in the review used preparations of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1189.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Benzodiazepines are safe and effective for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, particularly for the prevention of withdrawal seizures, although their superiority to anticonvulsants has not been demonstrated convincingly. There is no clear benefit of one benzodiazepine over another or ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1191.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - The single clinical trial on this topic found that inhaled beta agonists do not reduce cough frequency or improve symptoms in children with chronic, nonspecific cough.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1191a.html

Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Mar 1, 2006 - Although oral appliances provide improved subjective sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is more effective. Oral appliances should not be used as a first-line treatment but rather should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate CPAP ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p801.html

Anticholinergic Drugs for Overactive Bladder - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2006 - Tolterodine (Detrol) is as effective as immediate-release oxybutynin (Ditropan) and causes less dry mouth. A dose of 1 mg tolterodine twice daily is as effective as higher dosages of tolterodine. Extended-release preparations have less risk of dry mouth but are more expensive.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p66.html

Are Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors Effective for Control of Type 2 Diabetes? - Cochrane ...

Feb 1, 2006 - The use of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors has a modest effect on intermediate diabetes-control endpoints such as postprandial blood glucose, postprandial insulin levels, and A1C levels. There is no evidence, however, of improvement in mortality, morbidity, or quality of life. In ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p433.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Feb 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2006 - At high dosages, gabapentin is moderately effective for neuropathic pain, although adverse effects are experienced as often as benefit.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p435.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Feb 1, 2006 - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2006 - Combined with methotrexate, subcutaneous adalimumab at a dosage of 40 mg every two weeks slows the progression of rheumatoid arthritis at one year. The combination is more effective than adalimumab monotherapy. Limited evidence suggests that adalimumab is also safe and effective when ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p435a.html

Systemic Corticosteroids for Acute Exacerbations of COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2005 - Systemic corticosteroids improve symptoms of acute COPD exacerbations at three days and reduce the likelihood of treatment failure. There is no evidence that they reduce mortality or prevent recurrence at 30 days, but the existing studies may be too small to detect such a benefit. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0801/p437.html

IVF Therapy for Unexplained Infertility - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2006 - Although IVF is used routinely for the treatment of unexplained infertility, there is limited evidence to show that it is more effective than expectant management, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as an alternative to other therapies such as clomiphene citrate ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p63.html

Antibiotics for Acute Laryngitis in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2005 - Two small trials of antibiotic treatment in acute laryngitis do not support routine use of antibiotics in these patients. Most patients will feel better in five to seven days, and it is unlikely that they will experience a clinically important benefit from antibiotics.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p76.html

Pharmacologic Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2005 - There is no evidence that rhythm control in older patients with atrial fibrillation is more effective than rate control for improving patient-oriented outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2217.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Dec 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Three days of antibiotic therapy is as effective as longer courses for treatment of uncomplicated UTIs in women.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2219.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Dec 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - In patients with moderate or severe COPD, tiotropium reduces exacerbations, hospitalizations, and symptom scores and improves health-related quality of life compared with placebo and ipratropium (Atrovent). However, more study is needed to determine tiotropium’s role in the treatment of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2219a.html

Psychological Interventions for Noncardiac Chest Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2005 - Noncardiac chest pain can be caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), panic disorder, or a number of other psychological conditions. Psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavior therapy, has been shown to reduce the number of days with chest pain significantly over a ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1701.html

Acute Treatment of Hyperkalemia - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - According to disease-oriented evidence, insulin and intravenous glucose, inhaled albuterol (Ventolin), and dialysis are the best treatment options; the first two may be given in combination. Bicarbonate or resins are not recommended for routine use, particularly without one of the more ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1703.html

Corticosteroids for Pulmonary Sarcoidosis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2005 - Patients who take oral corticosteroids are more likely to show improvement in their chest radiographs than those taking placebo, although improvements in symptoms and lung function are less certain. The typical dosage used in randomized trials was 20 mg daily or 40 mg every two days ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1702.html

Intra-articular Corticosteroid for Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for ...

Oct 1, 2005 - An injection of the knee joint with a corticosteroid may improve the patient’s symptoms for up to three weeks after the injection (number needed to treat [NNT]= 3 to 4). There is no evidence that this intervention improves function, and there is little evidence of the benefits ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1222.html

Short-Acting Insulin Analogues vs. Human Insulin for Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Sep 1, 2005 - For patients with type 2 diabetes, regular insulin and short-acting insulin analogues are equally effective in the treatment of diabetes and in lowering A1C levels. For patients with type 1 diabetes, short-acting analogues produce a slightly greater reduction of A1C levels than regular ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0901/p805.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Oct 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - There is limited, weak evidence that a low glycemic index diet improves risk factors for CHD, but there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a reduction in morbidity or mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1224.html

Do Tympanostomy Tubes for OME Prevent Hearing Loss? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2005 - In children with typical hearing and language development, immediate placement of tympanostomy tubes for OME does not improve important long-term outcomes compared with a period of watchful waiting and placement of tubes only if there is no improvement.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0901/p807.html

Room Air vs. Oxygen for Resuscitating Infants at Birth - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2005 - Based on limited evidence, it appears that mortality is lower in infants resuscitated with room air than in those given 100 percent oxygen. However, these results should be treated with caution because one fourth of studies used back-up supplementary oxygen.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0901/p808.html

NSAIDs Alone or with Opioids as Therapy for Cancer Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2005 - Short-term trials indicate that cancer pain can be reduced with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as initial monotherapy. NSAIDs combined with opioids can result in slight short-term improvement in pain compared with either agent alone. Long-term efficacy and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0801/p436.html

Is Leflunomide as Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis as Other ...

Sep 1, 2003 - Compared with placebo, leflunomide improves clinical outcomes and delays radiologic progression of rheumatoid arthritis. After two years of treatment, leflunomide is as safe as sulfasalazine and more effective. Leflunomide's efficacy and adverse events are similar to those of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p849.html

Anticonvulsant Medications for Migraine Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

May 1, 2005 - Good evidence supports the use of anticonvulsants as a class with overall reduction in number of headaches per month and overall increase in patients achieving 50 percent reduction of headache frequency. Of the medications within this heterogeneous group, valproic acid and divalproex ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1699.html

Follow-up After Surgically Treated Breast Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jul 1, 2005 - The best available evidence supports clinical breast examinations every three to six months for five years and annual mammography for asymptomatic breast cancer survivors. More intensive follow-up and subspecialist visits do not improve survival.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p77.html

Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for Initial Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism - Cochrane...

Jul 1, 2005 - LMWH is safer and more effective than unfractionated heparin for initial treatment of venous thromboembolism.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p75.html

Improving Adherence to Treatment for Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jun 1, 2005 - The most effective strategy to improve patient compliance with antihypertensive medication is to simplify the dosing regimen. There is more limited evidence to support a variety of motivational strategies. Patient education alone is ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2089.html

Antibiotics for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Apr 1, 2005 - Prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the number of recurrent UTIs in nonpregnant women while they are taking the medication (relative risk [RR], 0.21; number needed to treat [NNT], 2). No antibiotic was significantly better than others at decreasing the number of UTIs, and all ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1301.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Thickened feeds and metoclopramide reduce symptoms of GER in normally developing infants. However, elevating the head of the crib appears to have no effect.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2091.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Many patients request delayed umbilical cord clamping in their birth plans. Delayed cord clamping allows continued perfusion while the baby transitions to newborn circulation. However, when an infant is high risk, physicians frequently clamp and cut the cord early to allow the neonatal ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2091a.html

Is Pharmacotherapy Useful in Social Phobia? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2005 - In adults, medications may improve the symptoms of social phobia in the short term, but their usefulness may be overstated because of publication bias. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy and the most favorable side-effect profile.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1700.html

Antiplatelet Therapy and Anticoagulation in Patients with Hypertension - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2005 - Antiplatelet agents should not be used in patients with hypertension and no previous history of heart attack or stroke. However, these agents are recommended for use in hypertensive patients who already have vascular disease. Anticoagulants should not be used for prevention of vascular ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p897.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2005 - Based on three good studies of 462 patients, discontinuing epidural analgesia in the second stage of labor does not significantly change rates of instrumented delivery or other delivery outcomes, but it increases rates of inadequate pain relief.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1303.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2005 - For empiric treatment of GERD or endoscopy-negative reflux disease, a short trial of a proton pump inhibitor increases the chance of remission. Histamine H2-receptor antagonists are less expensive and work well in many patients, particularly those with less severe symptoms or ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1303a.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Mar 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - NPH insulin and metformin taken at bedtime appears to be the most favorable combination studied, but this conclusion is based on poor-quality, inconsistent studies that measure disease-oriented outcomes. There are no data on the effect of these drug combinations on patient-oriented ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p899.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Mar 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Treatment with betamimetics decreases the number of women with preterm labor who give birth within 48 hours, but it does not decrease the number of births within seven days. Limited evidence suggests that treatment with beta-mimetics does not decrease perinatal death or morbidity.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p899a.html

Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2005 - In the short term, manipulative therapy is as effective for acute or chronic low back pain as other treatments such as analgesics, physical therapy, exercises, back school, and routine care from a primary care physician. Radiation of pain, type of manipulation, and use of multiple ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p464.html

Delaying Antibiotics for Respiratory Infections - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2005 - Delayed prescribing appears to be a reasonable and safe option in patients with cough and in those who do not appear very ill, but it cannot be recommended for children with sore throat unless streptococcal pharyngitis has been ruled out. Delayed prescribing of antibiotics results in a ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p466.html

Antidepressants and Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Bupropion and nortriptyline increase the likelihood of smoking cessation, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) do not.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p67.html

NSAIDs vs. Opiates for Pain in Acute Renal Colic - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Nov 1, 2004 - Data from randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs with opiates show that NSAIDs are associated with lower pain scores, less need for additional rescue medication, and less vomiting (particularly when compared with meperidine).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1682.html

Optimal Dosage of Tricyclic Antidepressants - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Oct 1, 2004 - Although the quality of the data limits the strength of the recommendation, current evidence shows that 75 to 100 mg per day of a tricyclic antidepressant is more effective than placebo. Higher dosages are not more effective and are associated with more dropouts because of side effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1270.html

Glucocorticoids for Treatment of Croup - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Compared with placebo, treatment with glucocorticoids results in reduced symptoms, less need for treatment with racemic epinephrine, fewer readmissions to emergency departments, and shorter hospital stays.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p66.html

Hormonal Contraceptives and Weight Gain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2005 - There is no causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p68.html

Tegaserod in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2004 - Tegaserod offers modest improvement in global gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in women with constipation-predominant IBS, without having significant effect on symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2107.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Dec 1, 2004 - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Combined evidence from two clinical trials of calcium supplementation lasting for several years revealed a reduced rate of recurrent colorectal adenoma. However, evidence is insufficient to recommend supplementation with dietary calcium for patients who have never had an adenoma.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2109.html

Home Oxygen Therapy for Treatment of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ...

Sep 1, 2004 - There is good evidence that the addition of home long-term continuous oxygen therapy for COPD increases survival rates in patients with severe hypoxemia (i.e., O2 saturation of less than 90 percent or partial pressure of arterial oxygen [PaO2] of less than 8 kPa per 60 mm Hg) but not in...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p864.html

Donepezil in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Nov 1, 2004 - Donepezil in a dosage of 10 mg daily provides a small benefit in patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia and generally is well tolerated.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1681.html

Interventions for Impetigo - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - The topical antibiotic mupirocin is as effective or possibly more effective than oral treatment in patients with limited disease. For practical reasons, oral antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and macrolides often are used in patients with extensive disease, but there is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1680.html

Drug Treatments for Patients with Dysthymia - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Oct 1, 2004 - All antidepressants studied have similar efficacy in the treatment of patients with dysthymia. Side effect profiles vary. The largest comparisons support the use of tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1269.html

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2004 - Although land-based exercise improves physical function, there is no evidence that high-intensity cycling offers benefits over low-intensity cycling for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p865.html

Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2004 - There is not enough evidence to support dietary or drug treatment in patients with gestational diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p866.html

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