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Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p720.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2009 - Numerous conditions can cause hoarseness, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to more serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions involving the larynx. Evaluation of a patient with hoarseness includes a careful history, physical examination, and in many cases, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0815/p363.html

HPV Testing in the Evaluation of the Minimally Abnormal Papanicolaou Smear - American ...

May 15, 1999 - Minor cytologic abnormalities of the cervix, such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), are vastly more common than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or invasive cancer. Current guidelines for the management of ASCUS include repeating the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0515/p2794.html

Human Papillomavirus: Clinical Manifestations and Prevention - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Human papillomaviruses cause the most common sexually trans- mitted infection in the world and are responsible for nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Genital human papillomavirus infection can be divided into low-risk infections (causing genital warts) and high-risk infections ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1209.html

Hyperbilirubinemia in the Term Newborn - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2002 - Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common problems encountered in term newborns. Historically, management guidelines were derived from studies on bilirubin toxicity in infants with hemolytic disease. More recent recommendations support the use of less intensive therapy in healthy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p599.html

Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors. Acute episodes of hyperkalemia commonly are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p283.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2021 - Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorders are the most common symptomatic joint hypermobility conditions seen in clinical practice. The 2017 International Classification of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes replaced previous terms for symptomatic joint ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0415/p481.html

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p729.html

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State - American Family Physician

May 1, 2005 - Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolarity, and little or no ketosis. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the aging population, this condition may be encountered more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1723.html

Hyperparathyroidism - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia in ambulatory patients. The condition is most common in postmenopausal women, although it can occur in persons of all ages, including pregnant women. If symptoms are present, they are attributable to hypercalcemia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p333.html

Hyperparathyroidism - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - Hyperparathyroidism is a common cause of hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia usually is discovered during a routine serum chemistry profile. Often, there has been no previous suspicion of this disorder. In most patients initially believed to be asymptomatic, previously unrecognized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1795.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2008 - The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy has defined four categories of hypertension in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. A maternal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p93.html

Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p363.html

Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2005 - The proper treatment of hyperthyroidism depends on recognition of the signs and symptoms of the disease and determination of the etiology. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. Other common causes include thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenomas, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0815/p623.html

Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Management of abnormalities in water homeostasis is frequently challenging. Because age-related changes and chronic diseases are often associated with impairment of water metabolism in elderly patients, it is absolutely essential for clinicians to be aware of the pathophysiology of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3623.html

Hypothermia and Cold Weather Injuries - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Hypothermia, frostbite, and nonfreezing cold injuries predominantly affect older adults, homeless or intoxicated people, adventurers, and military personnel. Prevention begins with clothing that is clean, layered, and loose to promote circulation. Base layers made of moisture-wicking ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p680.html

Hypothyroidism: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2012 - Hypothyroidism is a clinical disorder commonly encountered by the primary care physician. Untreated hypothyroidism can contribute to hypertension, dyslipidemia, infertility, cognitive impairment, and neuromuscular dysfunction. Data derived from the National Health and Nutrition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/p244.html

Identification and Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection - American Family Physician

May 15, 2009 - Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a condition in which a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but does not currently have active tuberculosis disease. An estimated 10 to 15 million persons in the United States have LTBI. Because 5 to 10 percent of persons with LTBI ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/p879.html

Identification and Management of Tuberculosis - American Family Physician

May 1, 2000 - Although the resurgence of tuberculosis in the early 1990s has largely been controlled, the risk of contracting this disease remains high in homeless persons, recent immigrants and persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Purified protein derivative testing should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2667.html

Identifying and Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in an estimated 8% of men and 20% of women who are exposed to traumatic events. PTSD is a trauma- and stress-related disorder associated with significant psychosocial morbidity, substance abuse, and other negative physical health outcomes. The...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p827.html

Identifying and Managing Preparatory Grief and Depression at the End of Life - American...

Mar 1, 2002 - Grief and depression present similarly in patients who are dying. Conventional symptoms (e.g., frequent crying, weight loss, thoughts of death) used to assess for depression in these patients may be imprecise because these symptoms are also present in preparatory grief and as a part of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p883.html

IDSA Releases Guidelines for Management of Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis - Practice ...

Mar 15, 2013 - The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has released a guideline for the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults in the community or emergency department settings. Each recommendation includes a quality of evidence grade (i.e., strong or weak) and a...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p445.html

IDSA Releases Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections - ...

Apr 1, 2005 - Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections have been developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). In persons with diabetes, foot infections can cause substantial morbidity and are the most common nontraumatic cause of amputations.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1429.html

Imaging for Suspected Appendicitis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2005 - Acute appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery and must be distinguished from other causes of abdominal pain. Family physicians play a valuable role in the early diagnosis and management of this condition. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy achieved ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p71.html

Infant Formula - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2009 - Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/p565.html

Infantile Colic: Recognition and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Infantile colic is a benign process in which an infant has paroxysms of inconsolable crying for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for longer than three weeks. It affects approximately 10% to 40% of infants worldwide and peaks at around six weeks of age, with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html

Initial Evaluation of the Patient with Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2005 - Dementia is a common disorder among older persons, and projections indicate that the number of patients with dementia in the United States will continue to grow. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia account for the majority of cases of dementia. After a thorough history and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1745.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2021 - Most patients can safely begin using hormonal contraception at any point in their menstrual cycle. An evidence-based, flexible, patient-centered approach to initiating contraception promotes health and enhances patients’ reproductive autonomy. A recent Papanicolaou test is not necessary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0301/p291.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Most women can safely begin taking hormonal birth control products immediately after an office visit, at any point in the menstrual cycle. Because hormonal contraceptives do not accelerate cervical neoplasia or interfere with cervical cytology, women who have not had a recent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p105.html

Insomnia: Pharmacologic Therapy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p29.html

Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Rescue, Augmentation, and Replacement of Beta-Cell...

Aug 1, 2004 - Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Indications for exogenous insulin therapy in patients with this condition include acute illness or surgery, pregnancy, glucose toxicity, contraindications to or failure to achieve goals with oral antidiabetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/p489.html

Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome - American Family Physician

May 15, 2011 - Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome affects more than 1 million persons in the United States, but the cause remains unknown. Most patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are women with symptoms of suprapubic pelvic and/or genital area pain, dyspareunia, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0515/p1175.html

Interventions to Facilitate Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p262.html

Intestinal Obstruction: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when the forward flow of intestinal contents is interrupted or impaired by a mechanical cause. It is most commonly induced by intra-abdominal adhesions, malignancy, and herniation. The clinical presentation generally includes nausea, emesis, colicky ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p362.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed in the 1960s to assist in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia during labor. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal seizures, but there has been no beneficial effect in decreasing cerebral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1388.html

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Identification and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common diagnosis in obstetrics and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Identification of IUGR is crucial because proper evaluation and management can result in a favorable outcome. Certain pregnancies are at high ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p453.html

Iron Deficiency and Other Types of Anemia in Infants and Children - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2016 - Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent in infants and children worldwide. The evaluation of a child with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p270.html

Iron Deficiency Anemia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 2 percent in adult men, 9 to 12 percent in non-Hispanic white women, and nearly 20 percent in black and Mexican-American women. Nine percent of patients older than 65 years with iron deficiency anemia have a gastrointestinal cancer when ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p671.html

Iron Deficiency Anemia: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2013 - Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide and accounts for approximately one-half of anemia cases. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia is confirmed by the findings of low iron stores and a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below normal. Women should be...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p98.html

Jaundice in the Adult Patient - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Jaundice in an adult patient can be caused by a wide variety of benign or life-threatening disorders. Organizing the differential diagnosis by prehepatic, intrahepatic, and posthepatic causes may help make the work-up more manageable. Prehepatic causes of jaundice include hemolysis and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p299.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

May 15, 2017 - The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p628.html

Late Pregnancy Bleeding - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Effective management of vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy requires recognition of potentially serious conditions, including placenta previa, placental abruption, and vasa previa. Placenta previa is commonly diagnosed on routine ultrasonography before 20 weeks' gestation, but in nearly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1199.html

Leukemia: An Overview for Primary Care - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Leukemia is a clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The four broad subtypes most likely to be encountered by primary care physicians are acute lymphoblastic, acute myelogenous, chronic lymphocytic, and chronic myelogenous. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p731.html

Liver Disease in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p829.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Difficult Insertions and Removals - American ...

Sep 1, 2018 - The use of long-acting reversible contraception is on the rise across the United States and has contributed to a decrease in teen pregnancies. With the increased use of long-acting reversible contraception, physicians may encounter difficult insertions and removals of intrauterine ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p304.html

Low-Molecular Weight Heparin in Preventing and Treating DVT - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Low-molecular-weight heparin is a relatively recent addition to the list of therapies for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). As a prophylactic, low-molecular-weight heparin is as effective as standard heparin or warfarin and does not require monitoring of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1607.html

Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin in Treatment of DVT - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - Patients with a diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis have traditionally been hospitalized and treated with unfractionated heparin followed by oral anticoagulation therapy. Several clinical trials have shown that low-molecular-weight heparin is at least as safe and effective as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p945.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2007 - Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with an average five-year survival rate of 15 percent. Smoking remains the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancers are categorized as small cell carcinoma or non-small cell carcinoma (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p56.html

Lymphadenopathy and Malignancy - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2002 - The majority of patients presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy have easily identifiable causes that are benign or self-limited. Among primary care patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, the prevalence of malignancy has been estimated to be as low as 1.1 percent. The critical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2103.html

Lymphadenopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Although the finding of lymphadenopathy sometimes raises fears about serious illness, it is, in patients seen in primary care settings, usually a result of benign infectious causes. Most patients can be diagnosed on the basis of a careful history and physical examination. Localized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1313.html

Management of Active Tuberculosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Although the overall incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in the United States, it remains an important public health concern, particularly among immigrants, homeless persons, and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Patients who present with symptoms of active ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2225.html

Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. Criteria for exacerbation severity are based on symptoms and physical examination parameters, as well as lung function and oxygen saturation. In patients with a peak expiratory flow of 50 to 79 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p40.html

Management of Acute Renal Failure - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1739.html

Management of Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus focus on three areas: intensive lifestyle intervention that includes at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity, weight loss with an initial goal of 7 percent of baseline weight, and a low-fat, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p29.html

Management of Blood Glucose with Noninsulin Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes - American ...

Jul 1, 2015 - A comprehensive, collaborative approach is necessary for optimal treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment guidelines focus on nutrition, exercise, and pharmacologic therapies to prevent and manage complications. Patients with prediabetes or new-onset diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p27.html

Management of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Chronic constipation is common in adults older than 60 years, and symptoms occur in up to 50% of nursing home residents. Primary constipation is also referred to as functional constipation. Secondary constipation is associated with chronic disease processes, medication use, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p500.html

Management of Crohn's Disease--A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2003 - Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that affects up to 480,000 persons in the United States. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise, and arthralgias, and cause considerable morbidity. Speculation about genetic, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p707.html

Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1999 - Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0801/p455.html

Management of Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p305.html

Management of Falls in Older Persons: A Prescription for Prevention - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1267.html

Management of Genital Warts - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - Genital warts caused by human papillomavirus infection are encountered commonly in primary care. Evidence guiding treatment selection is limited, but treatment guidelines recently have changed. Biopsy, viral typing, acetowhite staining, and other diagnostic measures are not routinely ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2335.html

Management of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2001 - Bacteria are responsible for approximately 5 to 10 percent of pharyngitis cases, with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci being the most common bacterial etiology. A positive rapid antigen detection test may be considered definitive evidence for treatment; a negative test should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1557.html

Management of Heatstroke and Heat Exhaustion - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Heat exhaustion and heatstroke are part of a continuum of heat-related illness. Both are common and preventable conditions affecting diverse patients. Recent research has identified a cascade of inflammatory pathologic events that begins with mild heat exhaustion and, if uninterrupted, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2133.html

Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluating Suitability for Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2004 - Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a common and serious disease. Although an estimated 2.7 million persons in the United States have this disease, most have not yet been diagnosed. Recent advances in treatment provide successful cure in 50 to 80 percent of cases. Current drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1429.html

Management of Hip Fracture: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase as the population ages. One in five persons dies in the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, and those who survive past one year may have significant functional limitation. Although surgery is the main treatment for hip ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2195.html

Management of Histologic Abnormalities of the Cervix - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology sponsored a consensus conference in 2001 to develop evidence-based guidelines for women with histologic abnormalities of the cervix. The options for management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 2, and 3 are ranked ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p105.html

Management of Hospitalized Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family ...

Mar 1, 1998 - Subopitmal glycemic control in hospitalized patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus can have adverse consequences, including increased neurologic ischemia, delayed wound healing and an increased infection rate. Poor glycemic control can also affect the outcome of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1079.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and acute pancreatitis. Along with lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lowering triglyceride levels in high-risk patients (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1365.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: Common Questions and Answers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as fasting serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per dL or higher, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Severely elevated triglyceride levels (500 mg per dL or higher) increase the risk of pancreatitis. Common risk factors for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p347.html

Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p525.html

Management of Pregnancy Beyond 40 Weeks' Gestation - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - A post-term or prolonged pregnancy is one that reaches 42 weeks' gestation; approximately 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies are post-term. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of pregnancies considered post-term when early ultrasound dating is performed. Maternal and fetal risks ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1935.html

Management of Sickle Cell Disease: Recommendations from the 2014 Expert Panel Report - ...

Dec 15, 2015 - Family physicians are the primary and sometimes only health care resource for families affected by sickle cell disease. Recently published guidelines provide important recommendations for health maintenance, acute care, and monitoring of disease-modifying therapy in persons with this ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1069.html

Management of Spontaneous Abortion - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Spontaneous abortion, which is the loss of a pregnancy without outside intervention before 20 weeks' gestation, affects up to 20 percent of recognized pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion can be subdivided into threatened abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, missed abortion,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1243.html

Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2005 - Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. Strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin are now recognized. Increasing incidence of unrecognized community-acquired ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2474.html

Management of the Ingrown Toenail - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2009 - Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, most commonly affects the great toenail. Many anatomic and behavioral factors are thought to contribute to ingrown toenails, such as improper trimming, repetitive or inadvertent trauma, genetic predisposition, hyperhidrosis, and poor foot hygiene. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0215/p303.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - More than 70% of adults treated for primary hypertension will eventually require at least two antihypertensive agents, either initially as combination therapy or as add-on therapy if monotherapy and lifestyle modifications do not achieve adequate blood pressure control. Four main ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p341.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1279.html

Maternal Serum Triple Analyte Screening in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2002 - According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, it has become standard in prenatal care to offer screening tests for neural tube defects and genetic abnormalities. There have been some changes in the recommended method of prenatal screening over the past few years,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p915.html

Medical Management of Common Urinary Calculi - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p86.html

Medical Management of Obesity - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2000 - Obesity is one of the most common medical problems in the United States and a risk factor for illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, degenerative arthritis and myocardial infarction. It is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and generates great social and financial costs. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0715/p419.html

Medications for Migraine Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - Sufficient evidence and consensus exist to recommend propranolol, timolol, amitriptyline, divalproex, sodium valproate, and topiramate as first-line agents for migraine prevention. There is fair evidence of effectiveness with gabapentin and naproxen sodium. Botulinum toxin also has ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p72.html

Metastatic Carcinoma of the Long Bones - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - Breast, prostate, renal, thyroid, and lung carcinomas commonly metastasize to bone. Managing skeletal metastatic disease can be complex. Pain is the most common presenting symptom and requires thorough radiographic and laboratory evaluation. If plain-film radiography is not sufficient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1489.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels in the Asymptomatic Patient - American Family...

Mar 15, 2005 - Mild elevations in liver chemistry tests such as alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase can reveal serious underlying conditions or have transient and benign etiologies. Potential causes of liver transaminase elevations include viral hepatitis, alcohol use, medication use, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1105.html

Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p373.html

Multiple Sclerosis: A Primary Care Perspective - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2014 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common permanently disabling disorder of the central nervous system in young adults. Relapsing remitting MS is the most common type, and typical symptoms include sensory disturbances, Lhermitte sign, motor weakness, optic neuritis, impaired ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p644.html

Muscle Weakness in Adults: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2020 - Although the prevalence of muscle weakness in the general population is uncertain, it occurs in about 5% of U.S. adults 60 years and older. Determining the cause of muscle weakness can be challenging. True muscle weakness must first be differentiated from subjective fatigue or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p95.html

My Needlestick - Resident and Student Voice - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jul 01, 1999 Issue Resident and Student Voice My Needlestick RONA SCHWARTZ, M.D., Second-Year Family Practice Resident, Georgetown University/Providence Hospital Family Practice Residency, Washington, D.C. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Jul...

American Family Physician : Resident and Student Voice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p329.html

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Releases New Guidelines for the Treatment of ...

Jan 15, 1998 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jan 15, 1998 Issue Special Medical Reports National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Releases New Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypertension Am Fam Physician. 1998 Jan 15;57(2):362-366. Related Editorial Nearly half of 50 million...

American Family Physician : Special Medical Reports

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0115/p362.html

Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2003 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, commonly known as 'morning sickness,' affects approximately 80 percent of pregnant women. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact cause remains unclear. Recent research has implicated Helicobacter pylori as one possible cause. Nausea and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0701/p121.html

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html

Navigating the Changes in Pneumococcal Immunizations for Adults - Editorials - American...

Sep 15, 2015 - New guidelines in pneumococcal immunization policy reflect evidence for the expansion of PCV13 to persons older than 65 years and to some high-risk younger adults, and afford the opportunity to improve the health of adults.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p456.html

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