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Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products: Indications and Complications - American ...

Mar 15, 2011 - Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient’s clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0315/p719.html

Administrative Simplification -- FPM Topic Collection

Feb 13, 2020 - The documentation, paperwork, and quality reporting burden on physicians is immense. What can physicians do to reduce their administrative hassles, and what are organizations doing on their behalf? This FPM topic collection explores these issues. The documentation, paperwork, and ...

Family Practice Management : Topic Collections

https://www.aafp.org/fpm/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=112

Addison Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Principles - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, has many causes, the most common of which is autoimmune adrenalitis. Autoimmune adrenalitis results from destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to deficiencies in glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens. In ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p563.html

Genital Herpes: A Review - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2016 - Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p928.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part II. Counseling Recommendations - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - School-aged children (five to 12 years) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, during health maintenance visits, it is important to counsel families on healthy lifestyle practices. Children should eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p219.html

Delirium in Older Persons: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating syndrome of altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It is common in older persons in the hospital and long-term care facilities and may indicate a life-threatening condition. Assessment for and prevention of delirium should occur at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p150.html

Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Heat-related illnesses comprise a spectrum of syndromes resulting from disruption of thermoregulation in people exposed to high environmental heat. Symptoms range from heat edema and exercise-associated muscle cramps to exercise-associated collapse, heat exhaustion, and life-threatening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p482.html

Management of Chronic Tendon Injuries - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Chronic tendon injuries are common athletic and occupational injuries that account for many physician visits. Tendons have a complex biology that provides a unique combination of strength, flexibility, and elasticity but also predisposes them to injury. The term tendinopathy is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p147.html

Beware of False-Positive Results with SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Tests - Letters to the Editor...

Jul 1, 2020 - Letters to the Editor from regarding false-positive results with SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests.

American Family Physician : Letter

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p5a.html

Delivering Bad or Life-Altering News - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2018 - Delivering serious, bad, or life-altering news to a patient is one of the most difficult tasks physicians encounter. Broadly defined as information that may alter a patient’s view of his or her future, bad news may include information related to a chronic disease (e.g., diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p99.html

Common Finger Fractures and Dislocations - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2012 - Finger fractures and dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by family physicians. A systematic physical examination is imperative to avoid complications and poor outcomes following these injuries. Radiography (commonly anteroposterior, true lateral, and oblique views) ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p805.html

Epilepsy: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2017 - The occurrence of a single seizure does not always require initiation of antiepileptic drugs. Risk of recurrent seizures should guide their use. In adults, key risk factors for recurrence are two unprovoked seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart, epileptiform abnormalities on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/p87.html

Bone Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Principles - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Primary bone cancers include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. They account for less than 1% of diagnosed cancers each year and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis is challenging because of late patient presentation, nonspecific ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p205.html

Primary Care for Persons Who Inject Drugs - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p109.html

Common Questions About Wound Care - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2015 - Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0115/p86.html

Inguinal Hernias: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2013 - Inguinal hernias are one of the most common reasons a primary care patient may need referral for surgical intervention. The history and physical examination are usually sufficient to make the diagnosis. Symptomatic patients often have groin pain, which can sometimes be severe. Inguinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p844.html

Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Although proteinuria is usually benign in the form of transient or orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria may be associated with more serious renal diseases. Proteinuria may be an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Mechanisms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p248.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2011 - Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/p409.html

Common Foot Problems: Over-the-Counter Treatments and Home Care - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Most foot disorders do not require podiatry referral or complex interventions. After the clinical diagnosis is made, these conditions can typically be managed with over-the-counter (OTC) and home remedies, with guidance from the primary care physician. Stretching and strengthening ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p298.html

Ear and Hearing Disorders - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis externa, otitis media, and tinnitus. This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=98

Evaluation of Chronic Diarrhea - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1119.html

AFP By Topic - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2020 - Editors' Choice of Best Available Content

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewAll.htm

Nocturnal Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p350.html

Buprenorphine Therapy for Opioid Use Disorder - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2018 - Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p313.html

Acute Shoulder Injuries in Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute shoulder injuries in adults are often initially managed by family physicians. Common acute shoulder injuries include acromioclavicular joint injuries, clavicle fractures, glenohumeral dislocations, proximal humerus fractures, and rotator cuff tears. Acromioclavicular joint ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p119.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Hypertension is one of the most common conditions encountered in primary care. Nonpharmacologic strategies have been shown to help lower blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications are recommended for all patients with hypertension. The American Heart Association/American College of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p772.html

Infantile Colic: Recognition and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Infantile colic is a benign process in which an infant has paroxysms of inconsolable crying for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for longer than three weeks. It affects approximately 10% to 40% of infants worldwide and peaks at around six weeks of age, with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails that causes discoloration, thickening, and separation from the nail bed. Onychomycosis occurs in 10% of the general population, 20% of persons older than 60 years, and 50% of those older than 70 years. It is caused by a variety of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p762.html

Interventional Radiology: Indications and Best Practices - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Interventional radiology employs image-guided techniques to perform minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is often used to place central venous catheters and subcutaneous ports, with some evidence of benefit over surgical placement. Arterial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p547.html

Dental Problems in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2018 - Oral health directly affects overall health and quality of life. More Americans lack dental insurance than medical insurance. Patients with poor oral health are more likely to have respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and diabetes mellitus. Early ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p654.html

Insulin Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2011 - Insulin therapy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an initial A1C level greater than 9 percent, or if diabetes is uncontrolled despite optimal oral glycemic therapy. Insulin therapy may be initiated as augmentation, starting at 0.3 unit per kg, or as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0715/p183.html

Atypical Moles: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p762.html

Top POEMs of 2018 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - In this article, we discuss the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2018 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. We selected these POEMs through a crowdsourcing strategy of the daily POEMs information service for Canadian Medical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p290.html

The Preparticipation Sports Evaluation - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2015 - The preparticipation physical evaluation is a commonly requested medical visit for amateur and professional athletes of all ages. The overarching goal is to maximize the health of athletes and their safe participation in sports. Although studies have not found that the preparticipation ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p371.html

The Geriatric Assessment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person’s functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socioenvironmental circumstances. It is usually initiated when the physician identifies a potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p48.html

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It is a complex disorder with a variety of manifestations and symptom dimensions, some of which are underrecognized. Early recognition and treatment with OCD-specific therapies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p896.html

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the United States with 90% being attributed to renal cell carcinoma. Men, especially black men, are more likely to be affected than women. Renal masses, either cystic or solid, are best detected with contrast-enhanced, triple-phase ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p179.html

Electronic Cigarettes: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2019 - Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular devices designed to heat a liquid solution, often containing nicotine, that generates an inhaled aerosol, or vapor. e-Cigarettes have been marketed as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarettes. Thus, most adult users are current or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p227.html

Common Running Injuries: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2018 - Running is a common form of exercise but predisposes athletes to several running-related injuries. Most running injuries are due to overuse and respond to conservative treatment. Tendinopathies in the patellar, Achilles, and hamstring tendons are common, and are primarily treated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p510.html

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Diagnosis and Management - American Family...

Sep 15, 2010 - Recurrent urinary tract infections, presenting as dysuria or irritative voiding symptoms, are most commonly caused by reinfection with the original bacterial isolate in young, otherwise healthy women with no anatomic or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract. Frequency of sexual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p638.html

Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2011 - Rheumatoid arthritis is the most commonly diagnosed systemic inflammatory arthritis. Women, smokers, and those with a family history of the disease are most often affected. Criteria for diagnosis include having at least one joint with definite swelling that is not explained by another ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1245.html

Charcot Foot: Clinical Clues, Diagnostic Strategies, and Treatment Principles - ...

May 1, 2018 - Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle is often difficult to diagnose because of limited findings in the patient history, physical examination, imaging, and laboratory studies. Delay in treatment results in the development of rigid foot and ankle deformities, increasing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p594.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Acute low back pain is one of the most common reasons for adults to see a family physician. Although most patients recover quickly with minimal treatment, proper evaluation is imperative to identify rare cases of serious underlying pathology. Certain red flags should prompt aggressive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p343.html

Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p463.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 2% to 4% of adolescents. The incidence of scoliosis is about the same in males and females; however, females have up to a 10-fold greater risk of curve progression. Although most youths with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p193.html

Outpatient Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2013 - Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p177.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Cervical Cancer: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p449.html

Heart Failure Due to Reduced Ejection Fraction: Medical Management - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Heart failure is an increasingly common condition resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. For patients who have heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, randomized clinical trials demonstrate consistent mortality benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p13.html

Diagnosis and Management of Osteomyelitis - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2011 - The incidence of chronic osteomyelitis is increasing because of the prevalence of predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease. The increased availability of sensitive imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy, has ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p1027.html

Evaluation and Management of Neck Masses in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p353.html

Manipulative Therapies: What Works - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2019 - Manipulative therapies include osteopathic manipulative treatment and many other forms of manual therapies used to manage a variety of conditions in adults and children. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term improvement in patients with acute or chronic low back pain, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p248.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Infertility - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2015 - Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p308.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2018 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - In 2018, through regular surveillance of more than 110 English-language research journals, 255 research studies met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Using a validated tool, physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p565.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Diagnosis of Heel Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - Heel pain is a common presenting symptom in ambulatory clinics. There are many causes, but a mechanical etiology is most common. Location of pain can be a guide to the proper diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, a condition that leads to medial plantar heel pain, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p909.html

Causes and Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p173.html

Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. Criteria for exacerbation severity are based on symptoms and physical examination parameters, as well as lung function and oxygen saturation. In patients with a peak expiratory flow of 50 to 79 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p40.html

Prostate Disorders - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - This collection features content on prostates disorders and related issues, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, hematospermia, and prostatitis. This collection features content on prostates disorders and related issues, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, hematospermia, and ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=97

Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Heart murmurs are common in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease. Historical elements that suggest pathology include family history of sudden cardiac death or congenital heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Breast Disorders - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, breast masses, breast pain, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and mastitis. This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=96

Preoperative Testing Before Noncardiac Surgery: Guidelines and Recommendations - ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Preoperative testing (e.g., chest radiography, electrocardiography, laboratory testing, urinalysis) is often performed before surgical procedures. These investigations can be helpful to stratify risk, direct anesthetic choices, and guide postoperative management, but often are obtained ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p414.html

Causes and Evaluation of Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2011 - Mild elevations in levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase are commonly discovered in asymptomatic patients in primary care. Evidence to guide the diagnostic workup is limited. If the history and physical examination do not suggest a cause, a stepwise...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p1003.html

Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - Underuse and overuse of medical interventions, failure to use interventions known to be effective, and provision of tests or interventions in which benefits do not exceed harms are types of low-value care. The Lown Institute’s Right Care Alliance Children’s Health Council identified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p376.html

Testicular Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2018 - Testicular cancer is the most common solid tumor among males 15 to 34 years of age, with an estimated 8,850 new cases and 410 deaths during 2017 in the United States. With effective treatment, the overall five-year survival rate is 97%. Risk factors for testicular cancer include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p261.html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p538.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p720.html

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. This increase has coincided with the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p590.html

Diagnosis and Management of Genital Ulcers - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2012 - Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p254.html

Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Difficult Insertions and Removals - American ...

Sep 1, 2018 - The use of long-acting reversible contraception is on the rise across the United States and has contributed to a decrease in teen pregnancies. With the increased use of long-acting reversible contraception, physicians may encounter difficult insertions and removals of intrauterine ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p304.html

Testicular Torsion: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - Testicular torsion is a twisting of the spermatic cord and its contents and is a surgical emergency affecting 3.8 per 100,000 males younger than 18 years annually. It accounts for 10% to 15% of acute scrotal disease in children, and results in an orchiectomy rate of 42% in boys ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p835.html

Braces and Splints for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2018 - Braces and splints can immobilize and protect joints, reduce pain, decrease swelling, and facilitate healing of acute injuries. They are also used for injury prevention and chronic pain reduction, and to alter the function of a joint. The medial unloading (valgus) knee brace is an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/p570.html

School Absenteeism in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - Frequent school absenteeism has immediate and long-term negative effects on academic performance, social functioning, high school and college graduation rates, adult income, health, and life expectancy. Previous research focused on distinguishing between truancy and anxiety-driven ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p738.html

Clinical Decision Tools -- FPM Toolbox

Apr 27, 2016 - Download algorithms, calculators, and other tools to help you treat hypertension, adjust warfarin levels, and more.

Family Practice Management : FPM Toolbox : Clinical Decision Tools

https://www.aafp.org/fpm/toolBox/viewToolType.htm?toolTypeId=29

Hip Fracture: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Secondary Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Hip fractures cause significant morbidity and are associated with increased mortality. Women experience 80% of hip fractures, and the average age of persons who have a hip fracture is 80 years. Most hip fractures are associated with a fall, although other risk factors include decreased ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p945.html

Alzheimer Disease: Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Cognitive and ...

Jun 15, 2017 - Alzheimer disease comprises a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. Treatments should target cognitive and functional symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and a combination of a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine have produced statistically significant...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p771.html

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common hip disorder in adolescents, occurring in 10.8 per 100,000 children. SCFE usually occurs in those eight to 15 years of age and is one of the most commonly missed diagnoses in children. SCFE is classified as stable or unstable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p779.html

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p972.html

Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p187.html

Inborn Errors of Metabolism: From Preconception to Adulthood - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), although individually rare, occur in 1 out of every 1,500 births. The first opportunity to detect IEM occurs during preconception counseling, when pregnant women and couples considering future pregnancies can undergo carrier screening. For individuals ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p25.html

Thrombocytopenia - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2012 - Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 103 per µL. It is often discovered incidentally when obtaining a complete blood count during an office visit. The etiology usually is not obvious, and additional investigation is required. Patients with platelet counts ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p612.html

Care of Incarcerated Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2018 - The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any nation in the world. Approximately 870 of every 100,000 U.S. citizens are currently in jails or prisons. U.S. inmates are disproportionately young males, racial and ethnic minorities, and persons of low socioeconomic status. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/p577.html

Anxiety Disorders - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2020 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Anxiety Disorders Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on anxiety disorders and related issues, including acute stress disorder, depressive disorders, excessive...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=85

Intimate Partner Violence - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent worldwide health problem, affecting women more commonly than men. IPV is underreported and underrecognized by health care professionals. Even when IPV is recognized, it remains an underaddressed issue. In addition to physical injury and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p646.html

Allergy Testing: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2018 - An estimated 10% to 30% of the global population has an allergic disease. Clinical presentations of allergic diseases, respiratory infections, and autoimmune conditions have similar features. Allergy and immunologic testing can help clarify the diagnosis and guide treatment. Immediate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p34.html

Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p810.html

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

Prolonged Febrile Illness and Fever of Unknown Origin in Adults - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include acute onset, profound hypoxemia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and the absence of left atrial hypertension. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p352.html

Treating Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p227.html

Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p676.html

The Generalized Rash: Part I. Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2010 - Physicians often have difficulty diagnosing a generalized rash because many different conditions produce similar rashes, and a single condition can result in different rashes with varied appearances. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is critically important to make treatment decisions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p726.html

Screening for Depression - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2012 - In the United States, depression affects up to 9 percent of patients and accounts for more than $43 billion in medical care costs. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening in adolescents and adults in clinical practices that have systems in place to ensure accurate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p139.html

Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Bladder cancer is the sixth most prevalent malignancy in the United States and causes more than 16,000 deaths annually. The most common clinical presentation is asymptomatic hematuria, which should prompt evaluation with cystoscopy, renal function testing, and upper urinary tract ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p507.html

Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2012 - Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative disorder of the articular cartilage associated with hypertrophic bone changes. Risk factors include genetics, female sex, past trauma, advancing age, and obesity. The diagnosis is based on a history of joint pain worsened by movement, which can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p49.html

Infectious Endocarditis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

May 15, 2012 - Infectious endocarditis results from bacterial or fungal infection of the endocardial surface of the heart and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include the presence of a prosthetic heart valve, structural or congenital heart disease, intravenous drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p981.html

Evaluation and Mangement of Intestinal Obstruction - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when there is an interruption in the forward flow of intes- tinal contents. This interruption can occur at any point along the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and clinical symptoms often vary based on the level of obstruction. Intestinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p159.html

Acute Pericarditis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Acute pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, is found in approximately 5% of patients admitted to the emergency department for chest pain unrelated to acute myocardial infarction. It occurs most often in men 20 to 50 years of age. Acute pericarditis has a number of potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p553.html

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