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Neonatal Resuscitation: An Update - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2011 - Appropriate resuscitation must be available for each of the more than 4 million infants born annually in the United States. Ninety percent of infants transition safely, and it is up to the physician to assess risk factors, identify the nearly 10 percent of infants who need ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0415/p911.html

Neuroimaging in Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2002 - Patients commonly present to family physicians with low back pain. Because the majority of patients fully or partially recover within six weeks, imaging studies are generally not recommended in the first month of acute low back pain. Exceptions include patients with suspected cauda ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2299.html

Neuropsychological Evaluation in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2010 - Referring a patient to a neuropsychologist for evaluation provides a level of rigorous assessment of brain function that often cannot be obtained in other ways. The neuropsychologist integrates information from the patient’s medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies; an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p495.html

Newborn Respiratory Distress - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p994.html

NIAID Releases Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy - Practice ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Food allergy can be difficult to diagnose. Because diagnosis and management options vary, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) helped develop guidelines to provide physicians with best practices for diagnosing and treating patients with food allergy.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1492.html

NICE Updates Guidelines on Management of Chronic Heart Failure - Practice Guidelines - ...

Apr 15, 2012 - Heart failure is associated with poor prognosis and quality of life, as well as high health care costs. In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) updated its previous guideline on the management of chronic heart failure in adults. This update focuses on ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p832.html

Nocturnal Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p350.html

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: Important Diagnosis or Dietary Fad? - Editorials - ...

Jan 15, 2014 - The popularity and increased availability of gluten-free foods allow patients with celiac disease to lead a more normal lifestyle. It is important to understand that in the absence of gluten-related symptoms, a gluten-free diet is not synonymous with healthy and may only add increased ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p82.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common condition associated with metabolic syndrome. It is the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes in U.S. adults, and is diagnosed after ruling out other causes of steatosis (fatty infiltration of liver), particularly infectious hepatitis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1961.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Common Questions and Answers on Diagnosis and ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease in the United States, affecting up to 30% of adults. There are two forms of NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), defined as 5% or greater hepatic steatosis without hepatocellular injury or fibrosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p603.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p35.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Identifying Patients at Risk of Inflammation or ...

Jun 15, 2017 - NAFLD is defined as hepatic steatosis on imaging or histology in the absence of other etiologies for secondary fat accumulation. It is usually identified during the evaluation of elevated transaminase levels in a patient without heavy alcohol intake, or found incidentally on imaging ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p796.html

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Noninvasive cardiac imaging can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. It is central to the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or acute coronary syndromes with or without ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1219.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1058.html

Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Return To Work - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Nonspecific low back pain refers to a condition without a distinct etiology to explain its associated symptoms. This pain may become chronic and is a major cause of work loss around the world. Without a specific explanation for a patient’s symptoms, the family physician is charged with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p697.html

Nonsurgical Management of Knee Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - The role of the family physician in managing knee pain is expanding as recent literature supports nonsurgical management for many patients. Effective treatment depends on the etiology of knee pain. Oral analgesics—most commonly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen—are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p875.html

Normocytic Anemia - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - Anemia is a common problem that is often discovered on routine laboratory tests. Its prevalence increases with age, reaching 44 percent in men older than 85 years. Normocytic anemia is the most frequently encountered type of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease, the most common normocytic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2255.html

Nursing Home Care: Part II. Clinical Aspects - American Family Physician

May 15, 2010 - Understanding the distinctions between the management of clinical problems in nursing homes compared with the community setting helps improve the overall care of nursing home residents. Liberalizing diets helps avoid unintentional weight loss in nursing home residents, although the use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1229.html

Obesity: Assessment and Management in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2001 - Obesity is a complex, multifactorial condition in which excess body fat may put a person at health risk. National data indicate that the prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in children and adults. Reversing these trends requires changes in individual behavior and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0601/p2185.html

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2009 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It often goes unrecognized and is undertreated. Primary care physicians should be familiar with the various ways obsessive-compulsive disorder can present and should be able to recognize clues to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/p239.html

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It is a complex disorder with a variety of manifestations and symptom dimensions, some of which are underrecognized. Early recognition and treatment with OCD-specific therapies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p896.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1147.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children - Practice Guidelines - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2002 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has developed a practice guideline on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children. This syndrome occurs in children of all ages, but it is thought to be most common in preschool-aged children.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1338.html

Office Management of Early Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html

Office Spirometry: Indications and Interpretation - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - High-quality, office-based spirometry provides diagnostic information as useful and reliable as testing performed in a pulmonary function laboratory. Spirometry may be used to monitor progression of lung disease and response to therapy. A stepwise approach to spirometry allows for ease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p362.html

Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails that causes discoloration, thickening, and separation from the nail bed. Onychomycosis occurs in 10% of the general population, 20% of persons older than 60 years, and 50% of those older than 70 years. It is caused by a variety of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p762.html

Oral Analgesics for Acute Nonspecific Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Physicians most often recommend or prescribe oral medication for relief of acute pain. This review of the available evidence supports the use of acetaminophen in doses up to 1,000 mg as the initial choice for mild to moderate acute pain. In some cases, modest improvements in analgesic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p913.html

Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2003 - Orthostatic hypotension is a physical finding defined by the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology as a systolic blood pressure decrease of at least 20 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2393.html

Osteoarthritis: Current Concepts in Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2000 - Most patients with osteoarthritis seek medical attention because of pain. The safest initial approach is to use a simple oral analgesic such as acetaminophen (perhaps in conjunction with topical therapy). If pain relief is inadequate, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1795.html

Osteoarthritis: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2018 - Osteoarthritis (OA) should be suspected in patients with pain in the fingers, shoulders, hips, knees, or ankles, especially if they are older than 40 years. Patients older than 50 years who have joint pain, minimal morning stiffness, and functional impairment likely have OA. Radiography...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p523.html

Osteochondritis Dissecans: A Diagnosis Not to Miss - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2000 - Osteochondritis dissecans is the most common cause of a loose body in the joint space in adolescent patients. Because clinical findings are often subtle, diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Limited range of motion may be the only notable clinical sign. The diagnosis is made by...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0101/p151.html

Osteoporosis: Part I. Evaluation and Assessment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2001 - Osteoporosis afflicts 75 million persons in the United States, Europe and Japan and results in more than 1.3 million fractures annually in the United States. Because osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic until a fracture occurs, family physicians must identify the appropriate timing and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0301/p897.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Outpatient Approach to Palpitations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Palpitations are a common problem seen in family medicine; most are of cardiac origin, although an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, is also common. Even if a psychiatric comorbidity does exist, it should not be assumed that palpitations are of a noncardiac etiology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p63.html

Outpatient Management of COVID-19: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2020 - Common presenting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 include fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. However, patients may have a wide range of symptoms representing a spectrum of mild to severe illness. Symptoms in children tend to be milder and may include fever, cough, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/p478.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Paget Disease of Bone for Primary Care - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - Paget disease of bone is a benign disorder characterized by focal areas of increased bone turnover in one or more skeletal sites. It usually affects older adults, and men are at a higher risk than women. Any bone may be affected, but the disease has a high preference for the pelvis, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p224.html

Pain In the Quiet (Not Red) Eye - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Although eye pain is often accompanied by redness or injection, pain can also occur with a quiet eye. Pain in a quiet eye can be the first sign of a vision-threatening condition, a more benign ophthalmologic condition, or a nonophthalmologic condition. Acute narrow-angle glaucoma is an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p69.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Parathyroid Disorders - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2013 - Disorders of the parathyroid glands most commonly present with abnormalities of serum calcium. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, the most common cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, are often asymptomatic or may have bone disease, nephrolithiasis, or neuromuscular symptoms. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p249.html

Parkinson Disease - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2020 - Parkinson disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with significant morbidity and mortality. Most patients consult with their primary care physician about Parkinson disease symptoms before seeking care from a specialist. The diagnosis of Parkinson disease is clinical, and key...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1201/p679.html

Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2006 - Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that can cause significant disability and decreased quality of life. The cardinal physical signs of the disease are distal resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and asymmetric onset. Levodopa is the primary treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2046.html

Pediatric Emergency Preparedness in the Office - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - Pediatric office emergencies occur more commonly than is usually perceived by family physicians, and most offices are not optimally prepared to deal with these situations. Obtaining specific training in pediatric emergencies and performing mock

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3333.html

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection and Reflux - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1472.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Peptic Ulcer Disease - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - Peptic ulcer disease usually occurs in the stomach and proximal duodenum. The predominant causes in the United States are infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease include epigastric discomfort (specifically, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p1005.html

Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2012 - Cardiovascular complications are the most common cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive stress testing is rarely helpful in assessing risk, and for most patients there is no evidence that coronary revascularization provides more protection against perioperative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p239.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Peripheral Neuropathy: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Peripheral neuropathy has a variety of systemic, metabolic, and toxic causes. The most common treatable causes include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and nutritional deficiencies. The diagnosis requires careful clinical assessment, judicious laboratory testing, and electrodiagnostic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p887.html

Peripheral Neuropathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2020 - Peripheral neuropathy, a common neurologic problem encountered by family physicians, can be classified clinically by the anatomic pattern of presenting symptoms and, if indicated, by results of electrodiagnostic studies for axonal and demyelinating disease. The prevalence of peripheral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1215/p732.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Persistent Night Sweats: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Night sweats are a nonspecific symptom that patients commonly experience but rarely discuss with their physicians without prompting. Although many life-threatening causes such as malignancies or infections have been described, most patients who report persistent night sweats in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p427.html

Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1277.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: An Update - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2003 - Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are associated with neuronal destruction, particularly in cholinergic neurons. Drugs that inhibit the degradation of acetylcholine within synapses are the mainstay of therapy. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1001/p1365.html

Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2004 - Sore throat is one of the most common reasons for visits to family physicians. While most patients with sore throat have an infectious cause (pharyngitis), fewer than 20 percent have a clear indication for antibiotic therapy (i.e., group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection). ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1465.html

Pituitary Adenomas: An Overview - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas are the most common types of pituitary adenomas. Patients with pituitary adenomas may present initially with symptoms of endocrine dysfunction such as infertility, decreased libido, and galactorrhea, or with neurologic symptoms such as headache ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p319.html

Pleurisy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Pleuritic chest pain is a common presenting symptom and has many causes, which range from life-threatening to benign, self-limited conditions. Pulmonary embolism is the most common potentially life-threatening cause, found in 5 to 20 percent of patients who present to the emergency ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1357.html

Pleuritic Chest Pain: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p306.html

Polycythemia Vera - American Family Physician

May 1, 2004 - Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass. The resultant hyperviscosity of the blood predisposes such patients to thrombosis. Polycythemia vera should be suspected in patients with elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit levels, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0501/p2139.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

Postexposure Prophylaxis Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Family physicians often encounter situations in which postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral medications against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be indicated. When the exposure source's HIV status is unknown and testing of the source is possible, use of a rapid HIV ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p161.html

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Postpartum Major Depression - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2010 - Postpartum major depression is a disorder that is often unrecognized and must be distinguished from baby blues. Antenatal depressive symptoms, a history of major depressive disorder, or previous postpartum major depression significantly increase the risk of postpartum major depression. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p926.html

Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p487.html

Practical Steps to Smoking Cessation for Recovering Alcoholics - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - Smoking rates among persons with a history of alcohol abuse are triple that of the general public. Strong evidence indicates that the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease is higher in recovering alcoholics than in peers who smoke, but do not drink alcohol. Yet these persons often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1869.html

Premenstrual Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Premenstrual syndrome, a common cyclic disorder of young and middle-aged women, is characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with more severe affective symptoms are classified as having premenstrual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1743.html

Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2002 - Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. An important subset of heart disease is perioperative myocardial infarction, which affects approximately 50,000 persons each year. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1115/p1889.html

Preoperative Testing Before Noncardiac Surgery: Guidelines and Recommendations - ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Preoperative testing (e.g., chest radiography, electrocardiography, laboratory testing, urinalysis) is often performed before surgical procedures. These investigations can be helpful to stratify risk, direct anesthetic choices, and guide postoperative management, but often are obtained ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p414.html

Preparation of the Cardiac Patient for Noncardiac Surgery - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Approximately 20 to 40 percent of patients at high risk of cardiac-related morbidity develop myocardial ischemia perioperatively. The preferred approach to diagnostic evaluation depends on the interactions of patient-specific risk factors, surgery-specific risk factors, and exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p656.html

Pressure Ulcers: Prevention, Evaluation, and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, as a result of unrelieved pressure. Predisposing factors are classified as intrinsic (e.g., limited mobility, poor nutrition, comorbidities, aging skin) or extrinsic (e.g., pressure,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1186.html

Preterm Labor - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 1999 - Preterm labor is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is characterized by cervical effacement and/or dilatation and increased uterine irritability before 37 weeks of gestation. Women with a history of preterm labor are at greatest risk. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0201/p593.html

Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2006 - Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0215/p659.html

Preventing Bacterial Endocarditis: American Heart Association Guidelines - American ...

Feb 1, 1998 - The American Heart Association recently revised its guidelines for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis. These guidelines are meant to aid physicians, dentists and other health care providers, but they are not intended to define the standard of care or to serve as a substitute for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0201/p457.html

Preventing Falls in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Prevention and Treatment of Drowning - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2016 - Nearly 4,000 drowning deaths occur annually in the United States, with drowning representing the most common injury-related cause of death in children one to four years of age. Drowning is a process that runs the spectrum from brief entry of liquid into the airways with subsequent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p576.html

Prevention and Treatment of Overweight in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Overweight in childhood and adolescence is an important public health issue because of its rapidly increasing prevalence and associated adverse medical and social consequences. Recent studies have estimated that 15 percent of children in the United States are at risk for overweight, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2591.html

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Universal screening for GBS among women at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation is more effective than administration of intrapartum antibiotics based on risk factors. Lower vaginal and rectal cultures for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p903.html

Prevention of Malaria in Travelers - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2003 - Malaria is a major international public health problem, responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality around the world each year. As travel to tropical locations increases, U.S. physicians are being asked more frequently to provide recommendations for malaria prevention. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0801/p509.html

Prevention of Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Infection - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 1998 - Neonatal group B streptococcal infection is the primary cause of neonatal morbidity related to infection. It can often be prevented by identifying and treating pregnant women who carry group B streptococci or who are at highest risk of transmitting the bacteria to newborns. Increasing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0601/p2713.html

Prevention of Osteoporosis and Fractures - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Osteoporosis and low bone density are associated with a risk of fracture as a result of even minimally traumatic events. The estimated lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is as high as 50 percent, especially in white and Asian women. The use of caffeine, tobacco and steroids is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p194.html

Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Updated CDC Guideline - American...

Jul 1, 2012 - Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p59.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injury - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Unintentional injury accounts for one-third of deaths in children and adolescents each year, primarily from motor vehicle crashes. Children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the back seat, and infants and toddlers should remain rear-facing until at least two years of age. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p411.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injury - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2013 - Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p502.html

Preventive Health Care for Men Who Have Sex with Men - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2015 - Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise at least 4% of males in the United States. MSM may describe themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. Because current medical practice does not always facilitate discussion of sexual behaviors, this group of men may face barriers to receiving...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0615/p844.html

Primary Brain Tumors in Adults: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Primary intracranial tumors of the brain structures, including meninges, are rare with an overall five-year survival rate of 33.4%; they are collectively called primary brain tumors. Proven risk factors for these tumors include certain genetic syndromes and exposure to high-dose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p211.html

Primary Immunodeficiencies - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2003 - Primary immunodeficiencies include a variety of disorders that render patients more susceptible to infections. If left untreated, these infections may be fatal. The disorders constitute a spectrum of more than 80 innate defects in the body's immune system. Primary immunodeficiencies ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1115/p2001.html

Primary Prevention of CHD: Nine Ways to Reduce Risk - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1455.html

Prolonged Febrile Illness and Fever of Unknown Origin in Adults - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Prostatitis ranges from a straightforward clinical entity in its acute form to a complex, debilitating condition when chronic. It is often a source of frustration for the treating physician and patient. There are four classifications of prostatitis: acute bacterial, chronic bacterial, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p397.html

Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2000 - Proteinuria is a common finding in adults in primary care practice. An algorithmic approach can be used to differentiate benign causes of proteinuria from rarer, more serious disorders. Benign causes include fever, intense activity or exercise, dehydration, emotional stress and acute ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0915/p1333.html

Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Although proteinuria is usually benign in the form of transient or orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria may be associated with more serious renal diseases. Proteinuria may be an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Mechanisms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p248.html

Pruritus - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Pruritus is a common manifestation of dermatologic diseases, including xerotic eczema, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. Effective treatment of pruritus can prevent scratch-induced complications such as lichen simplex chronicus and impetigo. Patients, particularly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1135.html

Psoriasis - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is often associated with systemic manifestations. It affects about 2 percent of U.S. adults, and can significantly impact quality of life. The etiology includes genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis is based on the typical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p626.html

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family...

Aug 15, 2010 - Pulmonary arterial hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 25 mm Hg at rest or 30 mm Hg during physical activity. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is classified into subgroups, including idiopathic, heritable, and pulmonary arterial hypertension ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p370.html

Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p463.html

Radiologic Bone Assessment in the Evaluation of Osteoporosis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2002 - Osteoporosis affects nearly 28 million elderly Americans. Its major clinical manifestation is fragility fractures of the spine, hip, and distal radius. Low bone mass is the most important risk factor for a fragility fracture. In 1994, the World Health Organization defined osteoporosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1357.html

Recognition and Evaluation of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Ruptured ...

Oct 1, 2013 - Swift diagnosis and treatment are critical for good outcomes in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is usually caused by a ruptured aneurysm. This type of stroke often results in death or disability. Rates of misdiagnosis and treatment delays for subarachnoid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p451.html

Recognition and Management of Exercise-Induced Brochospasm - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2003 - Exercise-induced bronchospasm is an obstruction of transient airflow that usually occurs five to 15 minutes after physical exertion. Although this condition is highly preventable, it is still underrecognized and affects aerobic fitness and quality of life. Diagnosis is based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p769.html

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