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Evaluation and Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Breast Disorders - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, breast masses, breast pain, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and mastitis. This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=96

Allergy Testing: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2018 - An estimated 10% to 30% of the global population has an allergic disease. Clinical presentations of allergic diseases, respiratory infections, and autoimmune conditions have similar features. Allergy and immunologic testing can help clarify the diagnosis and guide treatment. Immediate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p34.html

Prevention and Treatment of Motion Sickness - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Motion sickness is a common syndrome that occurs upon exposure to certain types of motion. It is thought to be caused by conflict between the vestibular, visual, and other proprioceptive systems. Although nausea is the hallmark symptom, it is often preceded by stomach awareness, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p41.html

Insulin Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2011 - Insulin therapy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an initial A1C level greater than 9 percent, or if diabetes is uncontrolled despite optimal oral glycemic therapy. Insulin therapy may be initiated as augmentation, starting at 0.3 unit per kg, or as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0715/p183.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Infectious Endocarditis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

May 15, 2012 - Infectious endocarditis results from bacterial or fungal infection of the endocardial surface of the heart and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include the presence of a prosthetic heart valve, structural or congenital heart disease, intravenous drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p981.html

Diagnosis and Management of Genital Ulcers - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2012 - Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p254.html

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common hip disorder in adolescents, occurring in 10.8 per 100,000 children. SCFE usually occurs in those eight to 15 years of age and is one of the most commonly missed diagnoses in children. SCFE is classified as stable or unstable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p779.html

Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - Underuse and overuse of medical interventions, failure to use interventions known to be effective, and provision of tests or interventions in which benefits do not exceed harms are types of low-value care. The Lown Institute’s Right Care Alliance Children’s Health Council identified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p376.html

Substance Abuse - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2021 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Substance Abuse Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on substance abuse and related issues, including addiction, drug dependence, and urine drug screening. New...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=27

Evaluation of Chronic Diarrhea - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1119.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2018 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - In 2018, through regular surveillance of more than 110 English-language research journals, 255 research studies met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Using a validated tool, physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p565.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Acute Shoulder Injuries in Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute shoulder injuries in adults are often initially managed by family physicians. Common acute shoulder injuries include acromioclavicular joint injuries, clavicle fractures, glenohumeral dislocations, proximal humerus fractures, and rotator cuff tears. Acromioclavicular joint ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p119.html

Dyspareunia in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman’s mental and physical health, body image, relationships with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p465.html

Evaluation of Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2010 - Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of less than the 5th percentile for age. Causes vary by age. Most children with anemia are asymptomatic, and the condition is detected on screening laboratory evaluation. Screening is recommended only for high-risk children. Anemia is classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/p1462.html

Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. Criteria for exacerbation severity are based on symptoms and physical examination parameters, as well as lung function and oxygen saturation. In patients with a peak expiratory flow of 50 to 79 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p40.html

Care of Incarcerated Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2018 - The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any nation in the world. Approximately 870 of every 100,000 U.S. citizens are currently in jails or prisons. U.S. inmates are disproportionately young males, racial and ethnic minorities, and persons of low socioeconomic status. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/p577.html

Nongenital Herpes Simplex Virus - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2010 - Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1075.html

Acute Pericarditis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Acute pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, is found in approximately 5% of patients admitted to the emergency department for chest pain unrelated to acute myocardial infarction. It occurs most often in men 20 to 50 years of age. Acute pericarditis has a number of potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p553.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Hypertension is one of the most common conditions encountered in primary care. Nonpharmacologic strategies have been shown to help lower blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications are recommended for all patients with hypertension. The American Heart Association/American College of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p772.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Cervical Cancer: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p449.html

Causes and Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p173.html

Alzheimer Disease: Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Cognitive and ...

Jun 15, 2017 - Alzheimer disease comprises a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. Treatments should target cognitive and functional symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and a combination of a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine have produced statistically significant...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p771.html

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p972.html

Stimulant and Designer Drug Use: Primary Care Management - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2018 - Approximately 10% of the U.S. population 12 years and older reported using illicit substances in 2015. This article reviews the clinical effects and treatment of persons who use cocaine, methamphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), synthetic cannabinoids, and synthetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p85.html

Recreational Waterborne Illnesses: Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

May 1, 2017 - Illness after recreational water activities can be caused by a variety of agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, algae, and even chlorine gas. These illnesses are more common in summer. Waterborne illnesses are underreported because most recreational activity occurs in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p554.html

Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p810.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 2% to 4% of adolescents. The incidence of scoliosis is about the same in males and females; however, females have up to a 10-fold greater risk of curve progression. Although most youths with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p193.html

Evaluation of Nail Abnormalities - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2012 - Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p779.html

Evaluation and Management of Corneal Abrasions - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2013 - Corneal abrasions are commonly encountered in primary care. Patients typically present with a history of trauma and symptoms of foreign body sensation, tearing, and sensitivity to light. History and physical examination should exclude serious causes of eye pain, including penetrating ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p114.html

Thrombocytopenia - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2012 - Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 103 per µL. It is often discovered incidentally when obtaining a complete blood count during an office visit. The etiology usually is not obvious, and additional investigation is required. Patients with platelet counts ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p612.html

The Generalized Rash: Part I. Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2010 - Physicians often have difficulty diagnosing a generalized rash because many different conditions produce similar rashes, and a single condition can result in different rashes with varied appearances. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is critically important to make treatment decisions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p726.html

Evaluation and Management of Neck Masses in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p353.html

Approach to Acute Headache in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2013 - Approximately one-half of the adult population worldwide is affected by a headache disorder. The International Headache Society classification and diagnostic criteria can help physicians differentiate primary headaches (e.g., tension, migraine, cluster) from secondary headaches (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/p682.html

General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues - ...

May 15, 2018 - Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p642.html

Outpatient Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2013 - Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p177.html

Diagnosis and Management of Endometrial Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States after breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. Risk factors are related to excessive unopposed exposure of the endometrium to estrogen, including unopposed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p468.html

Occupational Health - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2021 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Occupational Health Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on occupational health, including back pain and injuries, impairment and disability evaluations,...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=89

Preoperative Testing Before Noncardiac Surgery: Guidelines and Recommendations - ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Preoperative testing (e.g., chest radiography, electrocardiography, laboratory testing, urinalysis) is often performed before surgical procedures. These investigations can be helpful to stratify risk, direct anesthetic choices, and guide postoperative management, but often are obtained ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p414.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Prolonged Febrile Illness and Fever of Unknown Origin in Adults - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Evaluation and Mangement of Intestinal Obstruction - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when there is an interruption in the forward flow of intes- tinal contents. This interruption can occur at any point along the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and clinical symptoms often vary based on the level of obstruction. Intestinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p159.html

Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p380.html

Thyroiditis: An Integrated Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2014 - Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/p389.html

Intimate Partner Violence - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent worldwide health problem, affecting women more commonly than men. IPV is underreported and underrecognized by health care professionals. Even when IPV is recognized, it remains an underaddressed issue. In addition to physical injury and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p646.html

Beers Criteria for Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Patients: An Update from the ...

Jan 1, 2020 - The 2019 American Geriatrics Society update of the Beers Criteria uses the five criteria outlined in 2015; these include medications that should typically be avoided in most older patients, medications that should be avoided in older patients with certain conditions, medications that ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p56.html

Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p187.html

Gynecomastia - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p716.html

The Geriatric Assessment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person’s functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socioenvironmental circumstances. It is usually initiated when the physician identifies a potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p48.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

Dizziness: A Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Dizziness accounts for an estimated 5 percent of primary care clinic visits. The patient history can generally classify dizziness into one of four categories: vertigo, disequilibrium, presyncope, or lightheadedness. The main causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p361.html

Mental Status Examination in Primary Care: A Review - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2009 - The mental status examination is an essential tool that aids physicians in making psychiatric diagnoses. Familiarity with the components of the examination can help physicians evaluate for and differentiate psychiatric disorders. The mental status examination includes historic report ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p809.html

Diagnosis and Management of Contact Dermatitis - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2010 - Contact dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythematous and pruritic skin lesions that occur after contact with a foreign substance. There are two forms of contact dermatitis: irritant and allergic. Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p249.html

Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p281.html

Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2011 - Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1234.html

Caring for Latino Patients - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p48.html

Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Heart murmurs are common in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease. Historical elements that suggest pathology include family history of sudden cardiac death or congenital heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illness - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2015 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, one in six Americans will experience a foodborne illness. The most common causes in the United States are viruses, such as norovirus; bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria; and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p358.html

Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2012 - Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative disorder of the articular cartilage associated with hypertrophic bone changes. Risk factors include genetics, female sex, past trauma, advancing age, and obesity. The diagnosis is based on a history of joint pain worsened by movement, which can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p49.html

Pharyngitis (Sore Throat) - American Family Physician

Jul 29, 2019 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Pharyngitis (Sore Throat) Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on pharyngitis, sore throat, and strep throat. New research may affect the interpretation and...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=110

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

Schizophrenia - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2014 - Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic disease, with a global prevalence of less than 1%. It affects all ethnicities and is slightly more common in men. Patients with schizophrenia commonly experience debilitating social and occupational impairments, but some are able to function ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p775.html

Opioid Epidemic - Key Resources - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2020 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Opioid Epidemic - Key Resources Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on the opioid epidemic and related issues, including chronic opioid therapy, chronic pain...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=106

Nutrition - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2020 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC Nutrition Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as identified by the AFP editors, on nutrition and related issues, including diets, physical activity, prevention of cardiovascular disease,...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=86

Sexual Behaviors in Children: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Sexual behaviors in children are common, occurring in 42 to 73 percent of children by the time they reach 13 years of age. Developmentally appropriate behavior that is common and frequently observed in children includes trying to view another person’s genitals or breasts, standing too ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1233.html

Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2011 - Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis are the most common infectious causes of vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the normal lactobacilli of the vagina are replaced by mostly anaerobic bacteria. Diagnosis is commonly made using the Amsel criteria, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p807.html

Management of Blood Glucose with Noninsulin Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes - American ...

Jul 1, 2015 - A comprehensive, collaborative approach is necessary for optimal treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment guidelines focus on nutrition, exercise, and pharmacologic therapies to prevent and manage complications. Patients with prediabetes or new-onset diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p27.html

Parathyroid Disorders - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2013 - Disorders of the parathyroid glands most commonly present with abnormalities of serum calcium. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, the most common cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, are often asymptomatic or may have bone disease, nephrolithiasis, or neuromuscular symptoms. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p249.html

Approach to Septic Arthritis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious arthritis can help prevent significant morbidity and mortality. The acute onset of monoarticular joint pain, erythema, heat, and immobility should raise suspicion of sepsis. Constitutional symptoms such as fever, chills, and rigors are poorly...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p653.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Plantar fasciitis, a self-limiting condition, is a common cause of heel pain in adults. It affects more than 1 million persons per year, and two-thirds of patients with plantar fasciitis will seek care from their family physician. Plantar fasciitis affects sedentary and athletic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p676.html

Diabetes Self-Management: Facilitating Lifestyle Change - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2017 - Healthy eating and increased physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes mellitus and facilitate diabetes management. Current guidelines recommend long-term weight loss of 5% to 7% of body weight and 150 minutes of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0915/p362.html

Top POEMs of 2017 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Jul 15, 2018 - This article discusses the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2017 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. A POEM is a synopsis of a research study that reports patient-oriented outcomes, such as improvement in symptoms, quality ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p93.html

Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2016 - Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p290.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2016 - Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.html

Screening for Depression - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2012 - In the United States, depression affects up to 9 percent of patients and accounts for more than $43 billion in medical care costs. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening in adolescents and adults in clinical practices that have systems in place to ensure accurate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p139.html

Appropriate Use of Medical Interpreters - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - More than 25 million Americans speak English less than very well, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p476.html

Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2011 - Migraine headache is a common and potentially debilitating disorder often treated by family physicians. Before diagnosing migraine, serious intracranial pathology must be ruled out. Treating acute migraine is challenging because of substantial rates of nonresponse to medications and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p271.html

Hip Fracture: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Secondary Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Hip fractures cause significant morbidity and are associated with increased mortality. Women experience 80% of hip fractures, and the average age of persons who have a hip fracture is 80 years. Most hip fractures are associated with a fall, although other risk factors include decreased ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p945.html

Enuresis in Children: A Case Based Approach - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep in a child at least five years of age. Approximately 5% to 10% of all seven-year-olds have enuresis, and an estimated 5 to 7 million children in the United States have enuresis. The pathophysiology of primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p560.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2017 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Based on systematic surveillance of more than 110 medical journals, 247 studies met criteria as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) in 2017. Members of the Canadian Medical Association identified 20 of these POEMs as most relevant to practice. This article reviews the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p581.html

Common Tongue Conditions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2010 - Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0301/p627.html

Diagnosis of Acute Stroke - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Stroke can be categorized as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Awakening with or experiencing the abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits is the hallmark of the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The most common presenting symptoms of ischemic stroke ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p528.html

Gait and Balance Disorders in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p61.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

Preventive Health Care for Women Who Have Sex with Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Despite recent shifts in societal attitudes toward same-sex relationships, women who have sex with women face a variety of barriers to optimal health, including a history of negatively perceived interactions in clinical settings that lead them to delay or avoid health care. Women who ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p314.html

Expanded Newborn Screening: Information and Resources for the Family Physician - ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Each year, 4 to 5 million newborns receive state-mandated screening. Although the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children has identified 34 core conditions that should be incorporated into screening programs, each state manages, funds, and maintains its own ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p703.html

Hemoptysis: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the lung parenchyma or airways. The initial step in the evaluation is determining the origin of bleeding. Pseudohemoptysis is identified through the history and physical examination. In adults, acute respiratory tract infections (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p243.html

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and signs of volume overload, which may include peripheral edema and pulmonary rales. Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in older persons. Many conditions, such as coronary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1161.html

Splints and Casts: Indications and Methods - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2009 - Management of a wide variety of musculoskeletal conditions requires the use of a cast or splint. Splints are noncircumferential immobilizers that accommodate swelling. This quality makes splints ideal for the management of a variety of acute musculoskeletal conditions in which swelling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p491.html

Care of the Colorectal Cancer Survivor - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2018 - Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the United States and has a five-year survival rate of 65%. The American Cancer Society and other experts have released guidelines on surveillance, health promotion, screening for other malignancies, and management of treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p331.html

Peripheral Neuropathy: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Peripheral neuropathy has a variety of systemic, metabolic, and toxic causes. The most common treatable causes include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and nutritional deficiencies. The diagnosis requires careful clinical assessment, judicious laboratory testing, and electrodiagnostic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p887.html

A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part II. Skin, Trunk, Extremities, Neurologic - American ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p297.html

Shave and Punch Biopsy for Skin Lesions - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2011 - Shave and punch biopsies are essential procedures for physicians who manage skin conditions. These office-based procedures can diagnose questionable dermatologic lesions, including possible malignancies. Approaches include the superficial shave biopsy, saucerization excision, punch ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p995.html

Common Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Oct 15, 2010 - The most common types of supraventricular tachycardia are caused by a reentry phenomenon producing accelerated heart rates. Symptoms may include palpitations (pulsation in the neck), chest pain, lightheadedness or dizziness, and dyspnea. It is unusual for supraventricular tachycardia to...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p942.html

Esophageal Cancer - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2017 - Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate, with an estimated 16,910 new cases and 15,910 deaths projected in 2016 in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma account for more than 95% of esophageal cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p22.html

Cervical Radiculopathy: Nonoperative Management of Neck Pain and Radicular Symptoms - ...

Jan 1, 2010 - Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. This impingement typically produces neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities. Magnetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p33.html

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