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Abstinence-Plus Programs for Prevention of HIV - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 1, 2008 - Abstinence-plus is sex education that includes information on abstinence, condom use, and contraception. Compared with a variety of controls—including usual care, no intervention, or other programs—there is no evidence of increased rates of pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p955.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2007 - Studies comparing ACE inhibitors or ARBs with placebo found no mortality benefit in patients with diabetic kidney disease. A subgroup analysis of five studies (2,034 total patients) found that, when given at full or maximally tolerated doses, ACE inhibitors reduce all-cause mortality ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p68.html

Acellular Vaccines for Preventing Pertussis in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2011 - Multicomponent (i.e., three or more) acellular vaccines are as effective as whole-cell vaccines at preventing pertussis and mild pertussis disease (e.g., cold symptoms, cough without classic whoop or cough paroxysms) in children. Adverse effects are similar to those from placebo and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p504.html

Acupuncture for Migraine Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that whole-body acupuncture is effective for migraine prevention. Compared with usual care, acupuncture is more effective at reducing headache frequency by at least 50% (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p23.html

Advance Provision for Emergency Oral Contraception - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Sep 1, 2007 - Providing oral emergency contraceptives in advance to fertile women for use after unprotected sexual intercourse (i.e., advance provision) does not affect pregnancy rates, condom use, sexually transmitted infection rates, or type of contraception used. Advance provision more than ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p654.html

Aerobic Activity for Cognitive Function - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2009 - Physical activity improves cardiovascular fitness in persons older than 55 years. Cognitive speed and auditory and visual attention are increased in healthy older adults who exercise.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0401/p562.html

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors May Reduce the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes - Cochrane for ...

Aug 1, 2007 - The literature shows that acarbose can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unclear whether the drug stops or delays the development of the disease or masks the diagnosis. There is no evidence that ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p374.html

Amiodarone for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Although not a substitute for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), amiodarone is effective for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death when compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 100), but it does not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p692.html

Antenatal Perineal Massage to Prevent Birth Trauma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Mar 1, 2014 - Antenatal digital perineal massage in the final month of pregnancy is safe and well tolerated. Women who have not had a previous vaginal delivery and perform digital perineal massage in the final month of pregnancy experience less perineal birth trauma, mostly through fewer ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p335.html

Antibiotics for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Apr 1, 2005 - Prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the number of recurrent UTIs in nonpregnant women while they are taking the medication (relative risk [RR], 0.21; number needed to treat [NNT], 2). No antibiotic was significantly better than others at decreasing the number of UTIs, and all ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1301.html

Anticonvulsant Medications for Migraine Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

May 1, 2005 - Good evidence supports the use of anticonvulsants as a class with overall reduction in number of headaches per month and overall increase in patients achieving 50 percent reduction of headache frequency. Of the medications within this heterogeneous group, valproic acid and divalproex ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1699.html

Antihypertensive Agents for Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2006 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the only antihypertensive agents with proven effectiveness for the primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy (defined as an albumin excretion of less than 30 mg per day on three serial measurements) caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes....

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p77.html

Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis for Preventing HIV Infection in High-Risk ...

Aug 1, 2013 - For some groups of patients at greater risk of HIV infection (e.g., serodiscordant partners, men who have sex with men and engage in high-risk behaviors, persons with multiple concurrent sex partners, persons who exchange sex for money), preexposure prophylaxis decreased the risk of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p172.html

Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Aug 1, 2007 - The literature shows that acarbose can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unclear whether the drug stops or delays the development of the disease or masks the diagnosis. There is no evidence that ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p375.html

Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Transmission in HIV-Discordant Couples - Cochrane for...

Mar 1, 2012 - Rates of HIV transmission are at least three times lower in HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is receiving antiretroviral therapy, compared with HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is not receiving therapy. Among HIV-discordant couples in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p445.html

Appropriate Use of Polypharmacy for Older Patients - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Apr 1, 2013 - Multidisciplinary interventions that address polypharmacy decrease inappropriate prescribing and medication-related problems in patients 65 years and older, but it is not clear if they reduce hospital admissions or improve quality of life. Most interventions studied were led by ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p483.html

Are Cranberry Products Effective for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections? - ...

Dec 1, 2013 - Cranberry products are not effective and should not be recommended for the prevention of UTIs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p745.html

Are Neuraminidase Inhibitors Effective for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Healthy...

Oct 1, 2012 - Treating previously healthy patients with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reduces the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately 21 hours, but it does not reduce the risk of hospitalization in this population.1 The data are insufficient to determine whether oseltamivir reduces the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p624.html

Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy - Cochrane ...

Oct 1, 2015 - High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p570.html

Calcium Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jun 15, 2004 - Calcium supplementation has a beneficial effect on bone density and may reduce vertebral fractures. It has no clear effect on nonvertebral fractures, although the number of patients studied may be too small to predict this outcome.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2822.html

Can Melatonin Prevent or Treat Jet Lag? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2002 - Daily doses of 0.5 to 5 mg of melatonin, taken at the target bedtime at the destination for two to five days after arrival, lessen the effects of jet lag.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2087.html

Can Reduced or Modified Dietary Fat Prevent Cardiovascular Disease? - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2002 - Reducing or modifying the amount or type of fat in a patient's diet and replacing it with polyunsaturated fats will not significantly reduce the risk of death from all causes of cardiovascular disease but could reduce the risk of an important cardiovascular disease event by 16 percent. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0101/p53.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Dec 1, 2004 - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Combined evidence from two clinical trials of calcium supplementation lasting for several years revealed a reduced rate of recurrent colorectal adenoma. However, evidence is insufficient to recommend supplementation with dietary calcium for patients who have never had an adenoma.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2109.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Oct 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Although no difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated in existing trials, too few patients have been studied to detect small but clinically important differences in pregnancy rates. Low-dose estrogen pills have higher rates of discontinuation and bleeding disturbances.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1224a.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Oct 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - There is limited, weak evidence that a low glycemic index diet improves risk factors for CHD, but there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a reduction in morbidity or mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1224.html

Contraceptive Education for Women After Childbirth - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Jun 1, 2013 - Postpartum education may increase contraceptive use and reduce unplanned repeat pregnancies, although the evidence is mixed. The optimal timing and content of educational programs are not known.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p761.html

Culture-Specific Asthma Education Programs for Minority Groups - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2018 - In children from minority groups, culture-specific asthma education programs (CAEPs) reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improve asthma control as measured by the Childhood Asthma Control Test but not the Asthma Control Questionnaire. CAEPs ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p572.html

Dietary Advice to Lower Cardiovascular Risk - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2006 - Dietary advice to lower fat and salt intake and increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and fiber produces modest improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. More intensive counseling yields greater effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1551.html

Dietary Fat Modification and the Risk of Future Cardiovascular Events and Mortality - ...

May 1, 2013 - According to the authors of this Cochrane review, reducing or modifying a patient's dietary fat intake did not lower the rates of either total or cardiovascular-related mortality when compared with usual or control diets. Reducing the intake of total or saturated fats decreased the risk...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p609.html

Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Direct oral anticoagulants are as likely as warfarin to prevent all strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 3. They do not increase the risk of major bleeding events. The evidence remains insufficient to make recommendations for the use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p422.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2018 - In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p311.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Factor Xa Inhibitors in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation -...

Oct 1, 2019 - Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibitor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and all-cause mortality (OR = ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p405.html

Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Migraine Prophylaxis - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jan 1, 2010 - Acupuncture appears to be effective for prophylaxis of migraine headaches, and may be slightly better than pharmacotherapy. Sham acupuncture is just as effective as real acupuncture.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p29.html

Effectiveness of B-Complex Vitamins for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - Cochrane ...

Apr 1, 2010 - Eight randomized clinical trials that included 24,210 patients did not show a reduction in MI, stroke, or all-cause mortality with B-complex vitamin therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p850.html

Effectiveness of Condoms in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV - Cochrane for ...

Oct 1, 2004 - Evidence indicates that male condoms reduce the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by 80 percent.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1268.html

Effectiveness of PPAR Gamma Agonists in Preventing Recurrent Stroke and Other Vascular ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - PPAR gamma agonists are probably effective in preventing recurrent stroke in people with previous stroke or TIA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p271.html

Efficacy of Antioxidants in GI Cancer Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2005 - There is no evidence that supplementation with beta carotene or vitamins A, C, or E prevents GI cancer. Data for selenium is inconsistent and based on poor-quality studies, and supplementation with this mineral should not be recommended routinely. Most importantly, combinations of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p465.html

Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Feb 1, 2016 - Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p178.html

Emergency Contraception: Safety and Effectiveness - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Oral mifepristone (Mifeprex), ulipristal (Ella), levonorgestrel-releasing emergency contraception (Plan B One-Step), ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel, and the copper intrauterine device (IUD; Paragard) are safe and effective for emergency contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p651.html

Fluoride Varnish for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and Adolescents - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2016 - Topically applied fluoride varnishes are safe and effective in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. There is little information about adverse effects or treatment acceptability. Family physicians should consider incorporating fluoride varnish into childhood preventive ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p743.html

Gabapentin for the Prophylaxis of Episodic Migraine in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians...

May 1, 2014 - Gabapentin does not decrease the frequency of migraine headaches and is not recommended for prophylactic therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p714.html

General Health Checks in Adults for Reducing Disease-Related Morbidity and Mortality - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - General health check visits have no benefit on cardiovascular morbidity or on total, cardiovascular, or cancer-related mortality. There is also no evidence that they cause patient harm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p676.html

Gowning in Newborn and Special-Care Nurseries - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jul 1, 2004 - There is no evidence that gowning in newborn nurseries and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) improves clinically important outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0701/p83.html

Hepatitis B Vaccine for Infants of HBsAg-Positive Mothers - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jan 1, 2007 - Hepatitis B vaccine, hepatis B immune globulin, and the combination of both reduce the risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus from mother to newborn, especially in newborns of mothers positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The combination of vaccine and immune globulin is more ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p49.html

Impact of Breastfeeding Support - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2013 - Proactive support in many forms, provided by health care professionals or laypersons, increases the duration of any breastfeeding (including partial and exclusive) and exclusive breastfeeding. Face-to-face support is superior to telephone-based interventions. Support for continued ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p176.html

Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

Influenza Vaccination of Health Care Personnel Working with Older Patients - Cochrane ...

Oct 1, 2010 - Currently, there is no high-quality evidence to support the immunization of health care personnel in long-term care facilities to reduce the spread of seasonal influenza to older residents. Immunization of personnel did reduce influenza-like illness and all-cause mortality in the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1001/p763.html

Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Nov 1, 2015 - Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p775.html

Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p152.html

Interventions for Reducing Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Individual dietary interventions alone fail to change body mass index or the standardized BMI z-score across all age groups. The impact of regular physical activity or combined dietary and physical activity interventions is modest at best.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p394.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2012 - Overall, children up to 12 years of age benefited from school-based obesity prevention interventions; this effect was not demonstrated among adolescents 13 years and older. Although the overall effect size was small, interventions that promoted physical activity, alone or in combination...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p30.html

Leg Compression and Pharmacologic Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in ...

Feb 1, 2010 - Based on high-quality evidence, the Cochrane review showed that combining IPC with pharmacologic prophylaxis was more effective than a single preventative measure for preventing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and more effective than IPC alone for preventing pulmonary embolism (PE).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p284.html

Magnesium Sulfate for Prevention of Preterm Birth - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 1, 2015 - Magnesium sulfate does not delay delivery when used in patients with preterm labor. Although magnesium sulfate is not associated with any serious adverse maternal outcomes, it may be associated with an increase in total fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p444.html

Mefloquine for Preventing Malaria in Nonimmune Adult Travelers - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2004 - Mefloquine prevents malaria in military personnel, but its effectiveness in a heterogeneous population of civilian travelers is poorly studied. Evidence of side effects is based on spontaneous reports and may underestimate their frequency.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p521.html

OnabotulinumtoxinA for Prevention of Migraine in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - OnabotulinumtoxinA reduces the number of migraine days per month by two days compared with placebo in adults with chronic migraines.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p144.html

Oral Anticoagulants vs. Antiplatelet Therapy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

May 1, 2008 - Compared with antiplatelet therapy, oral anticoagulation significantly reduces stroke at an average follow-up of one to three years, but does not reduce mortality. Intracranial or extracranial hemorrhage is more common with anticoagulation and must be weighed against its therapeutic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1250.html

Pre-employment Examinations for Preventing Occupational Injury and Disease - Cochrane ...

Jun 1, 2011 - There is limited evidence that task-focused examinations reduce sick leave and the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries; however, general pre-employment examinations have no effect on health outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0601/p1270.html

Preventing or Delaying Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diet and Exercise - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) defined by an abnormal 75-g two-hour glucose tolerance test, implementing changes in diet and adding physical activity together can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p643.html

Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Among adolescents, educational interventions increase reported condom use at most recent intercourse, whereas contraceptive-promoting interventions increase use of hormonal contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p422.html

Prevention of Herpes Zoster in Older Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Nov 1, 2013 - The herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing shingles in older adults. Vaccination benefit was greater in persons 60 to 69 years of age than in those 70 years and older. Local injection site reactions were common.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p578.html

Prophylactic Antibiotics for the Prevention of COPD Exacerbation - Cochrane for ...

Jun 1, 2014 - Continuous prophylactic antibiotic therapy significantly decreases COPD exacerbations for up to three years. However, it does not decrease mortality, and it puts the patient at risk of antibiotic-resistant colonization and infection.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p870.html

Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and ...

Jan 1, 2019 - HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p15.html

Prophylaxis for Invasive Dental Procedures in At-Risk Patients - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2009 - A single observational study found no evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of bacterial endocarditis in high-risk patients about to undergo an invasive dental procedure. It is also uncertain if the potential harms and costs of antibiotics outweigh any benefit. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p939.html

Psychosocial and Psychological Interventions for Preventing Postpartum Depression - ...

Jun 1, 2014 - A range of prevention strategies can reduce the risk of postpartum depression, but more study is needed to determine which interventions are most effective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p871.html

Should We Use Multiple Risk Factor Interventions for the Primary Prevention of Coronary...

Jul 15, 2002 - In hypertensive patients at high risk for coronary artery disease, multiple risk factor reduction interventions reduce risk factors and mortality. In other patients, multiple risk factor reduction interventions reduce total cholesterol levels, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p245.html

Smoking Cessation with Text Messaging and App-Based Interventions - Cochrane for ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Automated text messaging interventions are more effective than minimal smoking cessation support (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 3%; 95% CI, 1% to 5%).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p148.html

Statins for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Oct 1, 2011 - Trials to date have found that statins reduce all-cause mortality, composite cardiovascular outcomes, and revascularization. However, most trials included large numbers of persons with known CVD. Clear evidence of the effectiveness of statins to prevent a first cardiovascular event is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p767.html

The Effect of Statins on Dementia and Cognitive Decline - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Statins given in later life to patients at risk of vascular disease do not prevent dementia or cognitive decline compared with placebo. Adverse effects are similar between groups.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p151.html

The Impact of Contraception on Lactation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Use of hormonal contraception does not appear to shorten breastfeeding duration or negatively impact infant growth, based on inconsistent evidence of moderate quality. It is unclear if hormonal contraception negatively impacts breast milk volume or composition. Overall, there was ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p356.html

Topiramate for the Prophylaxis of Episodic Migraine in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Jul 1, 2014 - Topiramate in a dosage of 100 mg per day is effective for decreasing the frequency of headaches in adults with episodic migraine.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p24.html

Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p436.html

Vaccines for Postexposure Prophylaxis Against Varicella (Chicken Pox) - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2009 - Varicella vaccine appears to be effective in preventing or modifying the severity of the disease in healthy unvaccinated children if administered within three days of exposure. Data are insufficient to support or refute the use of the vaccine as postexposure prophylaxis in adults and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p455.html

Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2006 - Influenza vaccines have good efficacy (i.e., prevention of influenza) in children older than two years, and live, attenuated vaccine is more efficacious than trivalent, inactivated vaccine. Effectiveness (i.e., prevention of influenza-like illness, perhaps a clinically more important ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1123.html

Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults...

Aug 1, 2019 - Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html

Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Older Patients - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2007 - According to data obtained primarily from poor-quality observational studies, influenza vaccination in older persons living in long-term care facilities appears to prevent approximately 45 percent of pneumonia cases, hospital admissions, and influenza-related deaths. In older persons ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p337.html

Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation for Maintaining Cognitive Functioning in ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Vitamin and mineral supplementation has little to no beneficial effect on preserving cognitive functioning or preventing dementia in cognitively healthy adults 40 years and older.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p272.html

Vitamin D Supplementation for Women During Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2013 - In several small, low-quality trials, vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy was associated with a statistically nonsignificant trend toward a decreased risk of low birth weight. There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p314.html

Which Interventions Help to Prevent Falls in the Elderly? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jun 1, 2002 - Beneficial interventions include individually prescribed programs of muscle strengthening, balance retraining, tai chi exercise, and home hazard assessment, limiting use of psychotropic medications, and team-approach multiple health and environmental risk factor reduction programs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2259.html

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