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Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Mifepristone and Misoprostol for Early Pregnancy Loss and Medication Abortion - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2021 - Medication regimens using mifepristone and misoprostol are safe and effective for outpatient treatment of early pregnancy loss for up to 84 days’ gestation and for medication abortion up to 77 days’ gestation. Gestational age is determined using ultrasonography or menstrual history. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0415/p473.html

Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p100.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p548.html

Fetal Aneuploidy: Screening and Diagnostic Testing - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Aneuploidy is the presence of one or more extra chromosomes or the absence of one or more chromosomes. The risk of fetal aneuploidy rises with increasing maternal age. Because fetal aneuploidy can affect any pregnancy, all pregnant women should be offered screening. First-trimester ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p481.html

COVID-19 - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2021 - Advertisement AFP BY TOPIC COVID-19 Editors' Choice of Best Available Content COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by an enveloped single-stranded RNA novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that was declared a pandemic by the World...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=117

Dyspareunia in Women - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2021 - Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual intercourse that causes distress. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia may be superficial, causing pain with attempted vaginal insertion, or deep. Women with sexual pain are at increased risk of sexual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0515/p597.html

Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Issues - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2021 - This collection features AFP content on labor, delivery, and postpartum issues and related topics, including breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, labor pain management, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm labor and birth, shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord blood storage, and vaginal ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=16

Out-of-Hospital Birth - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2021 - Since the 1970s, most births in the United States have been planned to occur in a hospital. However, a small percentage of Americans choose to give birth outside of a hospital. The number of out-of-hospital births has increased, with one in every 61 U.S. births (1.64%) occurring out of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0601/p672.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Newborn Circumcision Techniques - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p680.html

Shoulder Dystocia: Managing an Obstetric Emergency - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 15, 2020 - Shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency in which normal traction on the fetal head does not lead to delivery of the shoulders. This can cause neonatal brachial plexus injuries, hypoxia, and maternal trauma, including damage to the bladder, anal sphincter, and rectum, and postpartum ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0715/p84.html

Labor Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2021 - Dystocia (abnormally slow or protracted labor) accounts for 25% to 55% of primary cesarean deliveries. The latent phase of labor begins with onset of regular, painful contractions and continues until 6 cm of cervical dilation. Current recommendations are to avoid admission to labor and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0115/p90.html

Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Palpable breast masses, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are commonly encountered symptoms in outpatient practice, causing significant patient anxiety and precipitating medical consultation. The initial workup includes a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p505.html

Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2020 - Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside of the uterine cavity. In the United States, the estimated prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 1% to 2%, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy accounts for 2.7% of pregnancy-related deaths. Risk factors include a history of pelvic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p599.html

Breast Cancer Screening: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2021 - Breast cancer is the most common nonskin cancer in women and accounts for 30% of all new cancers in the United States. The highest incidence of breast cancer is in women 70 to 74 years of age. Numerous risk factors are associated with the development of breast cancer. A risk assessment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0101/p33.html

Health Maintenance for Women of Reproductive Age - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2021 - Health maintenance for women of reproductive age includes counseling and screening tests that have been demonstrated to prevent disease and improve health. This article focuses mainly on conditions that are more common in women or have a unique impact on female patients. Family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0215/p209.html

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family...

Apr 1, 2015 - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.html

Endometrial Biopsy: Tips and Pitfalls - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2020 - Endometrial biopsy is a safe and efficient method to evaluate the endometrium for a variety of indications, most commonly abnormal uterine bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding. Endometrial biopsy is highly specific for diagnosing atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/p551.html

Cervical Cancer Screening - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Screening in women has decreased the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Precancerous cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias) and cervical carcinomas are strongly associated with sexually-transmitted high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which causes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p441.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Common Benign Chronic Vulvar Disorders - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2020 - Common benign chronic vulvar conditions include genitourinary syndrome of menopause (formerly called vulvovaginal atrophy), lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, lichen simplex chronicus, and vulvodynia. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause results from the hypoestrogenic state that leads to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/p550.html

Pregnancy Myths and Practical Tips - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - For many patients, pregnancy is a highly anticipated and exciting phase of life, but it can also be anxiety provoking. Family physicians can resolve some of this anxiety and promote maternal and fetal health by making specific recommendations at prenatal visits. A daily prenatal vitamin...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p420.html

Postpartum Care: An Approach to the Fourth Trimester - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 15, 2019 - The postpartum period, defined as the 12 weeks after delivery, is an important time for a new mother and her family and can be considered a fourth trimester. Outpatient postpartum care should be initiated within three weeks after delivery in person or by phone, and may require multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p485.html

Menopause - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on menopause and related issues, including estrogen and progestogen therapy, hormone therapy, hot flashes, mood symptoms, sexual difficulties, and postmenopause. This collection features AFP content on menopause and related issues, including estrogen...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=59

Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2016 - The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p884.html

Preterm Labor: Prevention and Management - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - In the United States, preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and is the most common reason for hospitalization during pregnancy. The rate of preterm delivery (before 37 weeks’ gestation) has been declining since 2007. Clinical diagnosis of preterm labor is made if ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p366.html

The Pregnant Patient: Managing Common Acute Medical Problems - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Women often see their primary care physicians for common acute conditions during pregnancy. These conditions may be caused by pregnancy (obstetric problems) or worsened by pregnancy (obstetrically aggravated problems), or they may require special consideration during pregnancy because ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2014 - Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age, and when untreated during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, placental abruption, hypertensive disorders, and growth restriction. Current guidelines recommend ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0215/p273.html

Pelvic Organ Prolapse - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Pelvic organ prolapse is the descent of one or more of the anterior vaginal wall, posterior vaginal wall, the uterus (cervix), or the apex of the vagina (vaginal vault or cuff scar after hysterectomy). Prevalence increases with age. The cause of prolapse is multifactorial but is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p179.html

Breastfeeding: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - All major health organizations recommend breastfeeding as the optimal source of infant nutrition, with exclusive breastfeeding recommended for the first six months of life. After six months, complementary foods may be introduced. Most organizations recommend breastfeeding for at least ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p368.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p676.html

Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p560.html

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html

Breast Disorders - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, breast masses, breast pain, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and mastitis. This collection features content on breast disorders and related issues, including breast cyst aspiration, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=96

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Trauma in Pregnancy: Assessment, Management, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2014 - Trauma complicates one in 12 pregnancies, and is the leading nonobstetric cause of death among pregnant women. The most common traumatic injuries are motor vehicle crashes, assaults, falls, and intimate partner violence. Nine out of 10 traumatic injuries during pregnancy are classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p717.html

Cervical Cancer: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p449.html

Diagnosis and Management of Endometrial Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States after breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. Risk factors are related to excessive unopposed exposure of the endometrium to estrogen, including unopposed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p468.html

Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p380.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2016 - Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.html

Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2017 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman’s 10-year risk of atherosclerotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p561.html

Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p281.html

Dyspareunia in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman’s mental and physical health, body image, relationships with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p465.html

Common Questions About the Evaluation of Acute Pelvic Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2016 - Acute pelvic pain is defined as lower abdominal or pelvic pain of less than three months’ duration. It is a common presentation in primary care. Evaluation can be challenging because of a broad differential diagnosis and because many associated signs and symptoms are nonspecific. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p41.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

Management of Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2015 - Most of the nearly 4 million births in the United States annually are normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. In the first stage of labor, normal birth outcomes can be improved by encouraging the patient to walk and stay in upright positions, waiting until at least 6 cm dilation to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p202.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ectopic Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Ectopic pregnancy affects 1% to 2% of all pregnancies and is responsible for 9% of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. When a pregnant patient presents with first-trimester bleeding or abdominal pain, physicians should consider ectopic pregnancy as a possible cause. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p34.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. Although hirsutism is generally associated with hyperandrogenemia, one-half of women with mild symptoms have normal androgen levels. The most common cause of hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p373.html

Cesarean Delivery: Counseling Issues and Complication Management - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Nearly one-third of all deliveries in the United States are cesarean deliveries. Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions that decrease the chance of a cesarean delivery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p178.html

Options for Women with Unintended Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Unintended pregnancy refers to unwanted, unplanned, or mistimed pregnancies. One-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and family physicians are often asked to provide counseling, support, and resources for women with unintended pregnancies. Options include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p544.html

Recommendations for Preconception Counseling and Care - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Given that nearly one-half of pregnancies are unintended, preconception care should be considered an integral part of primary care for women of reproductive age. Common issues in preconception care include family planning, achieving a healthy body weight, screening and treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p499.html

Health Maintenance in Women - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Gynecologic Procedures: Colposcopy, Treatments of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, ...

Jun 15, 2013 - Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p836.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed in the 1960s to assist in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia during labor. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal seizures, but there has been no beneficial effect in decreasing cerebral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1388.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Endometriosis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2013 - Endometriosis, which affects up to 10 percent of reproductive-aged women, is the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It is more common in women with pelvic pain or infertility (25 to 40 percent and 70 to 90 percent, respectively). Some women with endometriosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p107.html

Clinical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Most cases of urinary incontinence in women fall under one of three major subtypes: urge, stress, or mixed. A stepped-care approach that advances from least invasive (behavioral modification) to more invasive (surgery) interventions is recommended. Bladder retraining and pelvic floor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p634.html

Office Management of Early Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html

Common Skin Conditions During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2007 - Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p211.html

Breast Cancer Screening Update - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p274.html

Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2006 - Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0215/p659.html

Misoprostol Dosing for First-Trimester Abortion - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Vaginal, oral, and sublingual misoprostol in single doses of 600 to 800 mcg are equally effective for promoting completed abortion in patients with an incomplete first-trimester spontaneous abortion.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/od1.html

Labor Analgesia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p447.html

Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System for Regression of Endometrial Hyperplasia ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2021 - A Cochrane review compared the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system with progesterone for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0700/p26.html

Methods for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor - American Family Physician

May 15, 2003 - Induction of labor is common in obstetric practice. According to the most current studies, the rate varies from 9.5 to 33.7 percent of all pregnancies annually. In the absence of a ripe or favorable cervix, a successful vaginal birth is less likely. Therefore, cervical ripening or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2123.html

Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Updated CDC Guideline - American...

Jul 1, 2012 - Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p59.html

Managing Chronic Hypertension in Pregnant Women: ACOG Releases Updated Practice ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released an updated practice bulletin to outline diagnosis, effects on pregnancy outcomes, and approaches for management based on new evidence.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p782.html

Managing Adverse Birth Outcomes: Helping Parents and Families Cope - American Family ...

May 1, 2012 - Unexpected adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes (e.g., stillbirth, birth trauma, congenital anomalies) present a crisis for the family and the medical care team. In cases of stillbirth, the family physician should be flexible in supporting the parents’ choices, validate the loss, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p900.html

Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2003 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, commonly known as 'morning sickness,' affects approximately 80 percent of pregnant women. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact cause remains unclear. Recent research has implicated Helicobacter pylori as one possible cause. Nausea and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0701/p121.html

Postpartum Major Depression - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2010 - Postpartum major depression is a disorder that is often unrecognized and must be distinguished from baby blues. Antenatal depressive symptoms, a history of major depressive disorder, or previous postpartum major depression significantly increase the risk of postpartum major depression. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p926.html

Treatment of Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment. This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers. Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment. Ductal carcinoma ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1339.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - Pregnant women commonly use over-the-counter medications. Although most over-the-counter drugs have an excellent safety profile, some have unproven safety or are known to adversely affect the fetus. The safety profile of some medications may change according to the gestational age of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2517.html

Oxytocin as First-line Uterotonic Therapy for Postpartum Hemorrhage - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2021 - Oxytocin decreases the chances of a blood transfusion and has fewer adverse effects compared with misoprostol.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0601/p656.html

Screening for Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Nov 15, 2018 - The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in women 65 years and older.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/od1.html

Promoting Safety in Community-Based Birth Settings - Editorials - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2021 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Nurse-Midwives, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine released a joint statement asserting that hospitals and community birth centers, with the appropriate ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0601/p650.html

Testosterone Therapy for Age-Related Low Testosterone: Guidelines from the ACP - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2021 - The American College of Physicians published guidelines for testosterone therapy in cis gender men with age-related low testosterone based on a systematic review.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0101/p60.html

Active vs. Expectant Management in the Third Stage of Labor - Cochrane for Clinicians -... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2021 - Very low-quality evidence suggests that active management of the third stage of labor reduces the risk of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage greater than 1,000 mL.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0401/p404.html

Health Effects of Prenatal Radiation Exposure - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2010 - Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p488.html

Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy, and the most common causative organism is Escherichia coli. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to the development of cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria and subsequently treated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p713.html

Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: ACOG Updates Recommendations - Practice Guidelines - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2021 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has new recommendations for managing chronic pelvic pain.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0201/p186.html

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Breast Cancer Screening - Diagnostic Tests: What ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2021 - There is currently not enough evidence to replace digital mammography with digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer screening in women at average or high risk.

American Family Physician : Diagnostic Tests: What Physicians Need to Know

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0401/p430.html

Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - American Family Physician

May 1, 1999 - Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is commonly used to assess fetal well-being during labor. Although detection of fetal compromise is one benefit of fetal monitoring, there are also risks, including false-positive tests that may result in unnecessary surgical intervention. Since ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0501/p2487.html

Bone Mineral Density Testing: One and Done - POEMs - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2021 - Rechecking bone mineral density (BMD) after three years does not add additional prognostic information. Serial BMD testing is not useful in estimating fracture risk and assessing the need for treatment because BMD does not change much within three years.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0301/p311.html

Alopecia in Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2003 - Alopecia can be divided into disorders in which the hair follicle is normal but the cycling of hair growth is abnormal and disorders in which the hair follicle is damaged. Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss in women. Other disorders include alopecia areata, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p1007.html

Misoprostol Alone is Associated with High Rate of Successful First-Trimester Abortion -...

Jul 15, 2019 - Misoprostol alone was associated with a nearly 80% success rate in the first trimester of pregnancy on meta-analysis.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p119.html

Twenty-Year Follow-Up of Women's Health Initiative Trials: Lower Breast Cancer ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2021 - The cumulative 20-year follow-up report from the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials found significantly lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among postmenopausal women who previously took conjugated equine estrogen (CEE; Premarin) alone (with a prior hysterectomy) ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0115/od1.html

Screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Patient-Collected HPV Samples - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2021 - How useful are patient-collected human papillomavirus vaginal swabs as a screening test for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0201/p181.html

Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: A Practice Bulletin from ACOG - Practice ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the main causes of maternal death. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice bulletin to outline diagnosis and treatment recommendations for these conditions.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p649.html

Antepartum Perineal Massage for Intrapartum Lacerations - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2021 - Digital antepartum and intrapartum perineal massage did not decrease perineal lacerations compared with a control group.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0115/p115.html

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Identification and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common diagnosis in obstetrics and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Identification of IUGR is crucial because proper evaluation and management can result in a favorable outcome. Certain pregnancies are at high ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p453.html

Increasing Share of Practicing Female Family Physicians, 2010-2020 - Graham Center ...

Jan 1, 2021 - The growing role of women in family medicine is increasingly apparent—more than 50% of U.S. medical students are women, and higher shares of women are entering and graduating from family medicine residency programs.

American Family Physician : Graham Center Policy One-Pagers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0101/p12.html

Mechanical Methods of Induction of Labor - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2020 - Mechanical induction of labor with single or double balloon catheters is similar to induction with vaginal prostaglandin E2 in rates of vaginal delivery achieved within 24 hours, and it has a more favorable safety profile.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/p530.html

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2005 - To complement the 2005 Annual Clinical Focus on medical genomics, AFP will be publishing a series of short reviews on genetic syndromes. This series was designed to increase awareness of these diseases so that family physicians can recognize and diagnose children with these disorders ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p279.html

Breast Cancer Screening: ACP Releases Guidance Statements - Practice Guidelines - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - The American College of Physicians reviewed guidelines from other organizations and developed four statements to provide advice to clinicians about breast cancer screening for women who are at average risk.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p184.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Operative Vaginal Delivery - Medicine by the Numbers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Current guidelines from the World Health Organization do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/od2.html

Management of Spontaneous Abortion - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Spontaneous abortion, which is the loss of a pregnancy without outside intervention before 20 weeks' gestation, affects up to 20 percent of recognized pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion can be subdivided into threatened abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, missed abortion,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1243.html

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