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ADHD in Children: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multidimensional chronic neurodevelopmental condition that affects 8.4% of U.S. children between two and 17 years of age and may pose long-term morbidity if untreated. The evaluation for ADHD begins when parents or caregivers present ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p592.html

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2015 - Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p43.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Lead Poisoning in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Asymptomatic lead poisoning has become more common in children. Blood lead levels of less than 5 µg per dL are associated with impairments in neurocognitive and behavioral development that are irreversible. Risk factors for lead poisoning include age younger than five years, low ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p24.html

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (IgA Vasculitis): Rapid Evidence Review - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - Henoch-Schönlein purpura, now called immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, is a systemic, immune complex–mediated, small-vessel leukocytoclastic vasculitis characterized by nonthrombocytopenic palpable purpura, arthritis, and abdominal pain. It is the most common vasculitis in children but...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p229.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injury - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Unintentional injury accounts for one-third of deaths in children and adolescents each year, primarily from motor vehicle crashes. Children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the back seat, and infants and toddlers should remain rear-facing until at least two years of age. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p411.html

Conduct Disorder: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2018 - Conduct disorder is a psychiatric syndrome that most commonly occurs in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by symptoms of aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. Risk factors include male sex, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/p584.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Adolescent use of illicit substances imposes an enormous burden on individuals, families, and communities. The types of illicit substances adolescents are using have changed drastically over the past decade with decreases in alcohol use (including binge alcohol use) offset by increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p689.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children - American ...

Oct 15, 2015 - Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the passage of stomach contents into the esophagus with or without accompanied regurgitation (spitting up) and vomiting. It is a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in infants and less often in children and adolescents. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p705.html

Developmental Delay: When and How to Screen - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - An estimated 15% of children in the United States have at least one developmental delay, yet less than one-fifth of those children receive early intervention services before three years of age. Many barriers exist to implementing initial screening and referral, but screening tools can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p36.html

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. This increase has coincided with the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p590.html

Diagnosis and Management of Kawasaki Disease - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects patients younger than five years. It represents the most prominent cause of acquired coronary artery disease in childhood. In the United States, 19 per 100,000 children younger than five years are hospitalized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p365.html

Back Pain in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Back pain is a relatively common presenting symptom in children and adolescents. Typical causes include muscle strain or spasm, spinal deformities (e.g., Scheuermann kyphosis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis), spondylolysis, bulging or herniated intervertebral disks, apophysitis of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p19.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p830.html

Infantile Colic: Recognition and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Infantile colic is a benign process in which an infant has paroxysms of inconsolable crying for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for longer than three weeks. It affects approximately 10% to 40% of infants worldwide and peaks at around six weeks of age, with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html

Lower Extremity Abnormalities in Children - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - Leg and foot problems in childhood are common causes of parental concern. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is most common in infants and young children. Intoeing is caused by metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion. Out-toeing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p226.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects 1% to 3% of U.S. adolescents. It is defined by a lateral curvature of the spine (Cobb angle) of at least 10 degrees in the absence of underlying congenital or neuromuscular abnormalities. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be detected via the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p19.html

Screening and Counseling Adolescents and Young Adults: A Framework for Comprehensive ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Healthy development is likely to occur when an adolescent’s risk factors are limited and when protective factors are fostered. Healthy development is further encouraged when youth feel valued, empowered, and form healthy social connections. Threats to the well-being of adolescents ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p147.html

Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 15, 2019 - Toilet training is a significant developmental milestone in early childhood. Most U.S. children achieve the physiologic, cognitive, and emotional development necessary for toilet training by 18 to 30 months of age. Markers of readiness for toilet training include being able to walk, put...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p468.html

Common Sleep Disorders in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p368.html

Noonan Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p37.html

Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p456.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Amblyopia: Detection and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - Amblyopia is the leading cause of monocular vision loss in children. Early recognition and treatment are important to prevent vision loss. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends vision screening for all children at least once between three and five years of age to detect the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p745.html

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