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Well-Child Visits for Infants and Young Children - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - The well-child visit allows for comprehensive assessment of a child and the opportunity for further evaluation if abnormalities are detected. A complete history during the well-child visit includes information about birth history; prior screenings; diet; sleep; dental care; and medical,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p347.html

Common Skin Rashes in Children - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2015 - Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p211.html

Disorders of Puberty: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2017 - Disorders of puberty can profoundly impact physical and psychosocial well-being. Precocious puberty is pubertal onset before eight years of age in girls and before nine years of age in boys. Patients with early isolated pubertal changes, prepubertal linear growth, and no worrisome ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p590.html

Management of Infants Born to Mothers with HIV Infection - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2021 - In the United States, approximately 5,000 women living with HIV infection give birth each year. HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her child at any time during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding. Because of effective preventive measures, the transmission rate from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0700/p58.html

The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2021 - The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is a common reason for young athletes to see a primary care physician. An annual PPE is required by most state high school athletic associations for participation in school-based sports, although there is limited evidence to support its ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0501/p539.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked. Children should be screened for elevated blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age or at every visit if risk factors are present. In children younger than 13 years, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p486.html

Knee Pain in Adults and Adolescents: The Initial Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Knee pain affects approximately 25% of adults, and its prevalence has increased almost 65% over the past 20 years, accounting for nearly 4 million primary care visits annually. Initial evaluation should emphasize excluding urgent causes while considering the need for referral. Key ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p576.html

Croup: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

Management of Fever in Infants and Young Children - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 15, 2020 - Despite dramatic reductions in the rates of bacteremia and meningitis since the 1980s, febrile illness in children younger than 36 months continues to be a concern with potentially serious consequences. Factors that suggest serious infection include age younger than one month, poor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p721.html

Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2016 - Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p586.html

Urinary Tract Infections in Young Children and Infants: Common Questions and Answers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in children and are associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. They have a high recurrence rate and are associated with anatomic and functional abnormalities. The decision to test for UTI is based on risk factors and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p278.html

Febrile Seizures: Risks, Evaluation, and Prognosis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - A febrile seizure is a seizure occurring in a child six months to five years of age that is accompanied by a fever (100.4°F or greater) without central nervous system infection. Febrile seizures are classified as simple or complex. A complex seizure lasts 15 minutes or more, is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p445.html

Failure to Thrive: A Practical Guide - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2016 - Children with very low weight for age or height and those who do not maintain an appropriate growth pattern may have failure to thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering. If confirmed by repeated valid measurements, FTT should prompt a search for causes of undernutrition, including ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p295.html

Apophysitis and Osteochondrosis: Common Causes of Pain in Growing Bones - American ...

May 15, 2019 - Apophysitis and osteochondrosis are common causes of pain in growing bones but have differing etiologies and required management. Apophysitis results from a traction injury to the cartilage and bony attachment of tendons in children and adolescents. Most often it is an overuse injury in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p610.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p94.html

Iron Deficiency and Other Types of Anemia in Infants and Children - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2016 - Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent in infants and children worldwide. The evaluation of a child with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p270.html

Newborn Circumcision Techniques - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p680.html

A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part I. General, Head and Neck, Cardiopulmonary - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - A comprehensive newborn examination involves a systematic inspection. A Ballard score uses physical and neurologic characteristics to assess gestational age. Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of the sutures, and 20% of children with this condition have a genetic mutation or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p289.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2020 - Cerebral palsy, which occurs in two to three out of 1,000 live births, has multiple etiologies resulting in brain injury that affects movement, posture, and balance. The movement disorders associated with cerebral palsy are categorized as spasticity, dyskinesia, ataxia, or mixed/other. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/p213.html

ADHD in Children: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multidimensional chronic neurodevelopmental condition that affects 8.4% of U.S. children between two and 17 years of age and may pose long-term morbidity if untreated. The evaluation for ADHD begins when parents or caregivers present ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p592.html

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (IgA Vasculitis): Rapid Evidence Review - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - Henoch-Schönlein purpura, now called immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, is a systemic, immune complex–mediated, small-vessel leukocytoclastic vasculitis characterized by nonthrombocytopenic palpable purpura, arthritis, and abdominal pain. It is the most common vasculitis in children but...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p229.html

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2019 - Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is caused by human enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses. Outbreaks can occur in the spring to fall and are common in North America, and most cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is transmitted by fecal-oral, oral-oral, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p408.html

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