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Metformin to Prevent Diabetes in Patients at Increased Risk - Cochrane for Clinicians -... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2020 - In patients at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, metformin reduces the risk (number needed to treat [NNT] = 7; 95% CI, 6 to 10) compared with counseling on standard diet and exercise.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/p531.html

Effectiveness of PPAR Gamma Agonists in Preventing Recurrent Stroke and Other Vascular ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - PPAR gamma agonists are probably effective in preventing recurrent stroke in people with previous stroke or TIA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p271.html

Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Patients using a combination of nicotine patch and fast-acting NRT are more likely to quit smoking than those on any single therapy alone (number needed to treat [NNT] = 29; 95% CI, 20 to 47).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p17.html

Smoking Cessation with Text Messaging and App-Based Interventions - Cochrane for ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Automated text messaging interventions are more effective than minimal smoking cessation support (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 3%; 95% CI, 1% to 5%).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p148.html

Interventions for Reducing Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Individual dietary interventions alone fail to change body mass index or the standardized BMI z-score across all age groups. The impact of regular physical activity or combined dietary and physical activity interventions is modest at best.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p394.html

Emergency Contraception: Safety and Effectiveness - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Oral mifepristone (Mifeprex), ulipristal (Ella), levonorgestrel-releasing emergency contraception (Plan B One-Step), ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel, and the copper intrauterine device (IUD; Paragard) are safe and effective for emergency contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p651.html

General Health Checks in Adults for Reducing Disease-Related Morbidity and Mortality - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - General health check visits have no benefit on cardiovascular morbidity or on total, cardiovascular, or cancer-related mortality. There is also no evidence that they cause patient harm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p676.html

Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation for Maintaining Cognitive Functioning in ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Vitamin and mineral supplementation has little to no beneficial effect on preserving cognitive functioning or preventing dementia in cognitively healthy adults 40 years and older.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p272.html

Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults...

Aug 1, 2019 - Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html

Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Pulse oximetry is an accurate screening test for critical congenital heart defects in newborns. Pulse oximetry is simple to use, widely available, and has moderate sensitivity (76.3%) and good specificity (99.9%). However, the prevalence of critical congenital heart defects is low, and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p421.html

Preventing or Delaying Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diet and Exercise - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) defined by an abnormal 75-g two-hour glucose tolerance test, implementing changes in diet and adding physical activity together can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p643.html

Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and ...

Jan 1, 2019 - HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p15.html

Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Aug 1, 2018 - Interventions that include combinations of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes may reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score (equivalent to BMI-for-age percentile) in overweight and obese children six to 11 years of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p151.html

Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and...

Oct 1, 2018 - Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p419.html

Individual Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Individual behavioral counseling conducted by a trained therapist provides some benefit when compared with brief counseling and support; however, this benefit is less pronounced in the context of pharmacotherapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p21.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Detection of Alzheimer Disease in Patients with Mild...

Jun 1, 2018 - There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the detection of progressive dementias in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These tests carry the risk of overdiagnosis of dementia and, therefore, overtreatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p714.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p436.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Among adolescents, educational interventions increase reported condom use at most recent intercourse, whereas contraceptive-promoting interventions increase use of hormonal contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p422.html

Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p152.html

The Effect of Statins on Dementia and Cognitive Decline - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Statins given in later life to patients at risk of vascular disease do not prevent dementia or cognitive decline compared with placebo. Adverse effects are similar between groups.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p151.html

Fluoride Varnish for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and Adolescents - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2016 - Topically applied fluoride varnishes are safe and effective in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. There is little information about adverse effects or treatment acceptability. Family physicians should consider incorporating fluoride varnish into childhood preventive ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p743.html

Impact of Antenatal Dietary Education and Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Health...

Apr 1, 2016 - Antenatal dietary education appears to decrease the rate of preterm birth and increase infant birth weight among undernourished women. Providing balanced energy and protein supplements to pregnant women decreases the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and having an infant that is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p557.html

Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

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