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Liver Disease in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p829.html

Falls in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Falls are the leading cause of injury-related visits to emergency departments in the United States and the primary etiology of accidental deaths in persons over the age of 65 years. The mortality rate for falls increases dramatically with age in both sexes and in all racial and ethnic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2159.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothermia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - Although hypothermia is most common in patients who are exposed to a cold environment, it can develop secondary to toxin exposure, metabolic derangements, infections, and dysfunction of the central nervous and endocrine systems. The clinical presentation of hypothermia includes a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2325.html

Digoxin Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Digoxin therapy has long been used to treat heart failure; however, its effectiveness was not completely known until recently. Results of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial showed that adding digoxin to standard heart failure therapy had no effect on mortality. However, adding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p613.html

Metastatic Carcinoma of the Long Bones - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - Breast, prostate, renal, thyroid, and lung carcinomas commonly metastasize to bone. Managing skeletal metastatic disease can be complex. Pain is the most common presenting symptom and requires thorough radiographic and laboratory evaluation. If plain-film radiography is not sufficient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1489.html

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Identifying Patients at Risk of Inflammation or ...

Jun 15, 2017 - NAFLD is defined as hepatic steatosis on imaging or histology in the absence of other etiologies for secondary fat accumulation. It is usually identified during the evaluation of elevated transaminase levels in a patient without heavy alcohol intake, or found incidentally on imaging ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p796.html

Oral Analgesics for Acute Nonspecific Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Physicians most often recommend or prescribe oral medication for relief of acute pain. This review of the available evidence supports the use of acetaminophen in doses up to 1,000 mg as the initial choice for mild to moderate acute pain. In some cases, modest improvements in analgesic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p913.html

Hyperparathyroidism - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia in ambulatory patients. The condition is most common in postmenopausal women, although it can occur in persons of all ages, including pregnant women. If symptoms are present, they are attributable to hypercalcemia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p333.html

Polycythemia Vera - American Family Physician

May 1, 2004 - Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass. The resultant hyperviscosity of the blood predisposes such patients to thrombosis. Polycythemia vera should be suspected in patients with elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit levels, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0501/p2139.html

CDC Updates Guidelines for the Prevention of Perinatal GBS Disease - Practice ...

May 1, 2011 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcus (GBS) disease in 1996; the guidelines were updated in 2002 and again in 2010. The most recent guidelines elaborate on laboratory methods and thresholds for GBS...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1106.html

Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2002 - Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. An important subset of heart disease is perioperative myocardial infarction, which affects approximately 50,000 persons each year. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1115/p1889.html

Conjunctivitis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1998 - Conjunctivitis refers to any inflammatory condition of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera. It is the most common cause of

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0215/p735.html

Evaluating Dysphagia - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Dysphagia is a problem that commonly affects patients cared for by family physicians in the office, as hospital inpatients and as nursing home residents. Familiar medical problems, including cerebrovascular accidents, gastroesophageal reflux disease and medication-related side effects, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3639.html

Foreign Body Ingestion in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2005 - Because many patients who have swallowed foreign bodies are asymptomatic, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously, but serious complications, such as bowel perforation and obstruction, can occur. Foreign bodies ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p287.html

Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Clostridium difficile infection is responsible for approximately 3 million cases of diarrhea and colitis annually in the United States. The mortality rate is 1 to 2.5 percent. Early diagnosis and prompt aggressive treatment are critical in managing C. difficile-associated diarrhea. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p921.html

Interventions to Facilitate Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p262.html

Common Benign Skin Tumors - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2003 - Benign skin tumors are commonly seen by family physicians. The ability to properly diagnose and treat common benign tumors and to distinguish them from malignant lesions is a vital skill for all family physicians. Any lesions for which the diagnosis is uncertain, based on the history ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p729.html

Acute Dyspnea in the Office - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2003 - Respiratory difficulty is a common presenting complaint in the outpatient primary care setting. Because patients may first seek care by calling their physician's office, telephone triage plays a role in the early management of dyspnea. Once the patient is in the office, the initial goal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/p1803.html

Evaluating Fever of Unidentifiable Source in Young Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2007 - Most children will have been evaluated for a febrile illness by 36 months of age. Although the majority will have a self-limited viral illness, studies done before the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines showed that approximately 10 percent of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0615/p1805.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - From 2 to 10 percent of women of reproductive age have severe distress and dysfunction caused by premenstrual dysphoric disorder, a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. Current research implicates mechanisms of serotonin as relevant to etiology and treatment. Patients with mild to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1239.html

Topical Therapy for Acne - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2000 - Acne is a common problem in adolescents and young adults. The disorder is caused by abnormal desquamation of follicular epithelium that results in obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal. This obstruction leads to the formation of comedones, which can become inflamed because of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0115/p357.html

A Practical Guide to Crisis Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2006 - Family physicians often treat patients who are experiencing psychological or medical crises. Any event perceived as overwhelming by the patient may trigger a crisis reaction consisting of psychological and physiological symptoms. Physicians are encouraged to assist patients who are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1159.html

Pruritus - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Pruritus is a common manifestation of dermatologic diseases, including xerotic eczema, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. Effective treatment of pruritus can prevent scratch-induced complications such as lichen simplex chronicus and impetigo. Patients, particularly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1135.html

The CDC’s Recommendations to Help Prevent Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - Editorials...

Jan 1, 2017 - Alcohol screening and brief intervention, coupled with regular discussion of the patient's reproductive life plan and ready access to effective contraception, can help ensure a healthier next generation while respecting women's autonomy.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p6.html

Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): A Patient-Centered Approach to Grading ...

Feb 1, 2004 - A large number of taxonomies are used to rate the quality of an individual study and the strength of a recommendation based on a body of evidence. We have developed a new grading scale that will be used by several family medicine and primary care journals (required or optional), with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p548.html

Vulvodynia: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - The diagnosis of vulvodynia is made after taking a careful history, ruling out infectious or dermatologic abnormalities, and eliciting pain in response to light pressure on the labia, introitus, or hymenal remnants. Several treatment options have been used, although the evidence for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1231.html

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Noninvasive cardiac imaging can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. It is central to the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or acute coronary syndromes with or without ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1219.html

Preparation of the Cardiac Patient for Noncardiac Surgery - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Approximately 20 to 40 percent of patients at high risk of cardiac-related morbidity develop myocardial ischemia perioperatively. The preferred approach to diagnostic evaluation depends on the interactions of patient-specific risk factors, surgery-specific risk factors, and exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p656.html

Management of Active Tuberculosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Although the overall incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in the United States, it remains an important public health concern, particularly among immigrants, homeless persons, and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Patients who present with symptoms of active ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2225.html

Diagnosis of Stridor in Children - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Stridor is a sign of upper airway obstruction. In children, laryngomalacia is the most common cause of chronic stridor, while croup is the most common cause of acute stridor. Generally, an inspiratory stridor suggests airway obstruction above the glottis while an expiratory stridor is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2289.html

Management of Hip Fracture: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase as the population ages. One in five persons dies in the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, and those who survive past one year may have significant functional limitation. Although surgery is the main treatment for hip ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2195.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Impairments - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2000 - Swallowing disorders are common, especially in the elderly, and may cause dehydration, weight loss, aspiration pneumonia and airway obstruction. These disorders may affect the oral preparatory, oral propulsive, pharyngeal and/or esophageal phases of swallowing. Impaired swallowing, or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2453.html

Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2005 - Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of synovial tissue and a wide array of multisystem comorbidities. Prevalence is estimated to be 0.8 percent worldwide, with women twice as likely to develop the disease as men. Untreated, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0915/p1037.html

Esophageal Cancer: A Review and Update - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - Although significant advancements have been made in the treatment of esophageal cancer, this aggressive malignancy commonly presents as locally advanced disease with a poor prognosis. Despite improvements in the detection of premalignant pathology, newer preventative strategies, and the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2187.html

Medical Management of Common Urinary Calculi - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p86.html

Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1723.html

Management of Crohn's Disease--A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2003 - Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that affects up to 480,000 persons in the United States. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise, and arthralgias, and cause considerable morbidity. Speculation about genetic, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p707.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1147.html

Warfarin Therapy: Evolving Strategies in Anticoagulation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 1999 - Warfarin is the oral anticoagulant most frequently used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. Prescribing the dose that both avoids hemorrhagic complications and achieves sufficient suppression of thrombosis requires a thorough understanding of the drug's unique pharmacology....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0201/p635.html

CDC Updates Interim Guidance on Caring for Women with Possible Exposure to Zika Virus -...

May 15, 2016 - Based on limited evidence on the persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated its interim guidance on caring for reproductive-aged women who may have been exposed to the virus, including those who do not live in areas...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p874.html

Diagnosis of Lyme Disease - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2005 - The use of serologic testing and its value in the diagnosis of Lyme disease remain confusing and controversial for physicians, especially concerning persons who are at low risk for the disease. The approach to diagnosing Lyme disease varies depending on the probability of disease (based...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p297.html

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Universal screening for GBS among women at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation is more effective than administration of intrapartum antibiotics based on risk factors. Lower vaginal and rectal cultures for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p903.html

Management of Pregnancy Beyond 40 Weeks' Gestation - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - A post-term or prolonged pregnancy is one that reaches 42 weeks' gestation; approximately 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies are post-term. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of pregnancies considered post-term when early ultrasound dating is performed. Maternal and fetal risks ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1935.html

Acute Renal Failure - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Acute renal failure occurs in 5 percent of hospitalized patients. Etiologically, this common condition can be categorized as prerenal, intrinsic or postrenal. Most patients have prerenal acute renal failure or acute tubular necrosis (a type of intrinsic acute renal failure that is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2077.html

The Evaluation of Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2000 - The most common breast problems for which women consult a physician are breast pain, nipple discharge and a palpable mass. Most women with these complaints have benign breast disease. Breast pain alone is rarely a presenting symptom of cancer, and imaging studies should be reserved for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2371.html

Childhood and Adolescent Sports-Related Overuse Injuries - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - Youth sports participation carries an inherent risk of injury, including overuse injuries. Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress fracture of the proximal humerus that presents as lateral shoulder pain, usually is self-limited. Little leaguer's elbow is a medial stress injury; treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1014.html

Diagnosing Acute Monoarthritis in Adults: A Practical Approach for the Family Physician...

Jul 1, 2003 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The first step in diagnosis is to verify that the source of pain is the joint, not the surrounding soft tissues. The most common causes of monoarthritis are crystals (i.e., gout and pseudogout), trauma, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0701/p83.html

Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematossus - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2003 - Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often difficult to diagnose. Before the diagnosis can be established, four of 11 clinical and laboratory criteria must be met. Antinuclear antibody titer is the primary laboratory test used to diagnose systemic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2179.html

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dyplasia - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2006 - Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a disorder in which normal myocardium is replaced by fibrofatty tissue. This disorder usually involves the right ventricle, but the left ventricle and septum also may be affected. Although the exact prevalence of ARVD is unknown, it ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0415/p1391.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Galactorrhea - American Family Physician

May 1, 2001 - Galactorrhea, or inappropriate lactation, is a relatively common problem that occurs in approximately 20 to 25 percent of women. Lactation requires the presence of estrogen, progesterone and, most importantly, prolactin. Stress, suckling, sleep, sexual intercourse and medications may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0501/p1763.html

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