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Evaluation of Nausea and Vomiting - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2007 - A comprehensive history and physical examination can often reveal the cause of nausea and vomiting, making further evaluation unnecessary. Acute symptoms generally are the result of infectious, inflammatory, or iatrogenic causes. Most infections are self-limiting and require minimal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p76.html

Evaluation of Nausea and Vomiting: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2013 - In the absence of acute abdominal pain, significant headache, or recent initiation of certain medications, acute nausea and vomiting is usually the result of self-limited gastrointestinal infections. Nausea and vomiting is also a common adverse effect of radiation therapy, chemotherapy,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0915/p371.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Scrotal masses are caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from benign conditions to those requiring emergent surgical intervention. Painful scrotal masses require urgent evaluation. Characteristics that suggest testicular torsion include rapid symptom onset, nausea and vomiting, high...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p723.html

Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - Scrotal masses can represent a wide range of medical issues, from benign congenital conditions to life-threatening malignancies and acute surgical emergencies. Having a clear understanding of scrotal anatomy allows the examiner to accurately identify most lesions. Benign lesions such as...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1165.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2005 - Though relatively common, syncope is a complex presenting symptom defined by a transient loss of consciousness, usually accompanied by falling, and with spontaneous recovery. Syncope must be carefully differentiated from other conditions that may cause a loss of consciousness or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/p1492.html

Evaluation of the Painful Eye - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2016 - Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/p991.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Chronic Cough - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - Initial evaluation of the patient with chronic cough (i.e., of more than eight weeks’ duration) should include a focused history and physical examination, and in most patients, chest radiography. Patients who are taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor should switch to a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p887.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Gas, Bloating, and Belching: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html

Guidelines for Treating Adults with Acute Cough - Editorials - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Feb 15, 2007 Issue Editorials Guidelines for Treating Adults with Acute Cough RICHARD S. IRWIN, M.D., University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts Am Fam Physician. 2007 Feb 15;75(4):476-482. Related Article...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p476.html

Heel Pain: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2018 - The differential diagnosis of heel pain is extensive, but a mechanical etiology is the most common. The specific anatomic location of the pain can help guide diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, which leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p86.html

Hemoptysis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Hemoptysis is the spitting of blood that originated in the lungs or bronchial tubes. The patient's history should help determine the amount of blood and differentiate between hemoptysis, pseudohemoptysis, and hematemesis. A focused physical examination can lead to the diagnosis in most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1253.html

Hemoptysis: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the lung parenchyma or airways. The initial step in the evaluation is determining the origin of bleeding. Pseudohemoptysis is identified through the history and physical examination. In adults, acute respiratory tract infections (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p243.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2009 - Numerous conditions can cause hoarseness, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to more serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions involving the larynx. Evaluation of a patient with hoarseness includes a careful history, physical examination, and in many cases, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0815/p363.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

Jaundice in the Adult Patient - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Jaundice in an adult patient can be caused by a wide variety of benign or life-threatening disorders. Organizing the differential diagnosis by prehepatic, intrahepatic, and posthepatic causes may help make the work-up more manageable. Prehepatic causes of jaundice include hemolysis and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p299.html

Lymphadenopathy and Malignancy - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2002 - The majority of patients presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy have easily identifiable causes that are benign or self-limited. Among primary care patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, the prevalence of malignancy has been estimated to be as low as 1.1 percent. The critical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2103.html

Management of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Chronic constipation is common in adults older than 60 years, and symptoms occur in up to 50% of nursing home residents. Primary constipation is also referred to as functional constipation. Secondary constipation is associated with chronic disease processes, medication use, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p500.html

Management of Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p305.html

Muscle Weakness in Adults: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2020 - Although the prevalence of muscle weakness in the general population is uncertain, it occurs in about 5% of U.S. adults 60 years and older. Determining the cause of muscle weakness can be challenging. True muscle weakness must first be differentiated from subjective fatigue or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p95.html

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html

Neuroimaging in Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2002 - Patients commonly present to family physicians with low back pain. Because the majority of patients fully or partially recover within six weeks, imaging studies are generally not recommended in the first month of acute low back pain. Exceptions include patients with suspected cauda ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2299.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Nonsurgical Management of Knee Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - The role of the family physician in managing knee pain is expanding as recent literature supports nonsurgical management for many patients. Effective treatment depends on the etiology of knee pain. Oral analgesics—most commonly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen—are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p875.html

Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2003 - Orthostatic hypotension is a physical finding defined by the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology as a systolic blood pressure decrease of at least 20 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2393.html

Outpatient Approach to Palpitations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Palpitations are a common problem seen in family medicine; most are of cardiac origin, although an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, is also common. Even if a psychiatric comorbidity does exist, it should not be assumed that palpitations are of a noncardiac etiology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p63.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Peripheral Neuropathy: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Peripheral neuropathy has a variety of systemic, metabolic, and toxic causes. The most common treatable causes include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and nutritional deficiencies. The diagnosis requires careful clinical assessment, judicious laboratory testing, and electrodiagnostic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p887.html

Persistent Night Sweats: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Night sweats are a nonspecific symptom that patients commonly experience but rarely discuss with their physicians without prompting. Although many life-threatening causes such as malignancies or infections have been described, most patients who report persistent night sweats in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p427.html

Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2004 - Sore throat is one of the most common reasons for visits to family physicians. While most patients with sore throat have an infectious cause (pharyngitis), fewer than 20 percent have a clear indication for antibiotic therapy (i.e., group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection). ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1465.html

Pleuritic Chest Pain: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p306.html

Prolonged Febrile Illness and Fever of Unknown Origin in Adults - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Pruritus - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Pruritus is a common manifestation of dermatologic diseases, including xerotic eczema, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. Effective treatment of pruritus can prevent scratch-induced complications such as lichen simplex chronicus and impetigo. Patients, particularly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1135.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

The Adult Neck Mass - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2002 - Family physicians frequently encounter neck masses in adult patients. A careful medical history should be obtained, and a thorough physical examination should be performed. The patient's age and the location, size, and duration of the mass are important pieces of information. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0901/p831.html

Traveler's Diarrhea - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Acute diarrhea affects millions of persons who travel to developing countries each year. Food and water contaminated with fecal matter are the main sources of infection. Bacteria such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2095.html

Treatment of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Constipation is a common complaint in older adults. Although constipation is not a physiologic consequence of normal aging, decreased mobility and other comorbid medical conditions may contribute to its increased prevalence in older adults. Functional constipation is diagnosed when no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2277.html

Tremor - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - Tremor, a rhythmic, involuntary, oscillatory movement of body parts, is the most common movement disorder. Tremors are classified as rest or action tremors. Rest tremor occurs when the affected body part is completely supported against gravity. Action tremors are produced by voluntary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1545.html

Tremor: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part. It is the most common movement disorder encountered in primary care. The diagnosis of tremor is based on clinical information obtained from the history and physical examination. The most common tremors in patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p180.html

Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Lymphadenopathy is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as medications and iatrogenic causes. The history and physical examination alone usually identify the cause of lymphadenopathy. When the cause is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p896.html

Update on the Evaluation and Management of Functional Dyspepsia - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2011 - Dyspepsia affects up to 40 percent of adults each year and is often diagnosed as functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. The defining symptoms are postprandial fullness, early satiation, or epigastric pain or burning in the absence of causative structural disease. These symptoms may coexist ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0301/p547.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2000 - Because the prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age, a working knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of the various types of urinary incontinence is fundamental to the care of women. As the population of the United States ages, primary care physicians can expect to see ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1201/p2433.html

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