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Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 2% to 4% of adolescents. The incidence of scoliosis is about the same in males and females; however, females have up to a 10-fold greater risk of curve progression. Although most youths with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p193.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part II. Counseling Recommendations - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - School-aged children (five to 12 years) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, during health maintenance visits, it is important to counsel families on healthy lifestyle practices. Children should eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p219.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2011 - Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/p409.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part I. History, Physical Examination, ...

Aug 15, 2019 - The goals of the health maintenance visit in school-aged children (five to 12 years) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. During the visit, the physician should address patient and parent/caregiver concerns and ask about ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p213.html

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p972.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Evaluation and Management of Neck Masses in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p353.html

School Absenteeism in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - Frequent school absenteeism has immediate and long-term negative effects on academic performance, social functioning, high school and college graduation rates, adult income, health, and life expectancy. Previous research focused on distinguishing between truancy and anxiety-driven ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p738.html

Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Heart murmurs are common in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease. Historical elements that suggest pathology include family history of sudden cardiac death or congenital heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - Underuse and overuse of medical interventions, failure to use interventions known to be effective, and provision of tests or interventions in which benefits do not exceed harms are types of low-value care. The Lown Institute’s Right Care Alliance Children’s Health Council identified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p376.html

Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p187.html

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common hip disorder in adolescents, occurring in 10.8 per 100,000 children. SCFE usually occurs in those eight to 15 years of age and is one of the most commonly missed diagnoses in children. SCFE is classified as stable or unstable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p779.html

Recognition and Management of Motor Delay and Muscle Weakness in Children - American ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in young children is often delayed for years after symptoms emerge, resulting in missed opportunities for therapy and genetic counseling. Identification of the weak child begins with careful attention to caregiver concerns and developmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p38.html

Sexual Behaviors in Children: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Sexual behaviors in children are common, occurring in 42 to 73 percent of children by the time they reach 13 years of age. Developmentally appropriate behavior that is common and frequently observed in children includes trying to view another person’s genitals or breasts, standing too ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1233.html

General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues - ...

May 15, 2018 - Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p642.html

Evaluation of Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2010 - Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of less than the 5th percentile for age. Causes vary by age. Most children with anemia are asymptomatic, and the condition is detected on screening laboratory evaluation. Screening is recommended only for high-risk children. Anemia is classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/p1462.html

A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part II. Skin, Trunk, Extremities, Neurologic - American ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p297.html

A Systematic Approach to the Evaluation of a Limping Child - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - A limp is defined as a deviation from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern resulting in an uneven, jerky, or laborious gait. It can be caused by pain, weakness, or deformity as a result of a variety of conditions. Transient synovitis is the most common diagnosis. Other causes of acute ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p908.html

Enuresis in Children: A Case Based Approach - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep in a child at least five years of age. Approximately 5% to 10% of all seven-year-olds have enuresis, and an estimated 5 to 7 million children in the United States have enuresis. The pathophysiology of primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p560.html

Childhood Eye Examination - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2013 - Vision screening in children is an ongoing process, with components that should occur at each well-child visit. The purpose is to detect risk factors and visual abnormalities that necessitate treatment and to identify those patients who require referral to an ophthalmologist skilled in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p241.html

Speech and Language Delay in Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2011 - Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0515/p1183.html

Expanded Newborn Screening: Information and Resources for the Family Physician - ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Each year, 4 to 5 million newborns receive state-mandated screening. Although the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children has identified 34 core conditions that should be incorporated into screening programs, each state manages, funds, and maintains its own ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p703.html

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2012 - Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially serious infection in children and often results in hospitalization. The diagnosis can be based on the history and physical examination results in children with fever plus respiratory signs and symptoms. Chest radiography and rapid viral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p661.html

Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Depression - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2012 - Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0901/p442.html

Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Cancer: A Guide for Early Recognition - American Family...

Aug 1, 2013 - Although cancer in children is rare, it is the second most common cause of childhood mortality in developed countries. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms similar to those of benign conditions, leading to delays in the diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p185.html

Failure to Thrive: An Update - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2011 - Failure to thrive in childhood is a state of undernutrition due to inadequate caloric intake, inadequate caloric absorption, or excessive caloric expenditure. In the United States, it is seen in 5 to 10 percent of children in primary care settings. Although failure to thrive is often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p829.html

Evaluation of Fever in Infants and Young Children - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Febrile illness in children younger than 36 months is common and has potentially serious consequences. With the widespread use of immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, the epidemiology of bacterial infections causing fever has changed. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p254.html

Diagnosis and Management of Dehydration in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2009 - The most useful individual signs for identifying dehydration in children are prolonged capillary refill time, abnormal skin turgor, and abnormal respiratory pattern. However, clinical dehydration scales based on a combination of physical examination findings are better predictors than ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1001/p692.html

VItamin D Supplementation in Infants, Children, and Adolescents - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2010 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Mar 15, 2010 Issue Vitamin D Supplementation in Infants, Children, and Adolescents CATHERINE F. CASEY, MD; DAVID C. SLAWSON, MD; and LINDSEY R. NEAL, MD, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Virginia Am Fam...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p745.html

Common Questions About Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2014 - Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a common musculoskeletal condition in newborns. Infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip, whether treated or untreated, have a higher incidence of early-onset hip osteoarthritis in adulthood. Evidence to support universal screening by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html

Cat-scratch Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bactere- mic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p152.html

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p778.html

Diagnosis and Management of Physical Abuse in Children - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2013 - Child abuse is the third leading cause of death in children between one and four years of age, and almost 20% of child homicide victims have contact with a health care professional within a month of their death. Therefore, family physicians are in an ideal position to detect and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1115/p669.html

Croup: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Croup is a common illness responsible for up to 15 percent of emergency department visits due to respiratory disease in children in the United States. Croup symptoms usually start like an upper respiratory tract infection, with low-grade fever and coryza followed by a barking cough and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1067.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Otitis Media - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2007 - Diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media include rapid onset of symptoms, middle ear effusion, and signs and symptoms of middle ear inflammation. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial isolates from the middle ear ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1650.html

Role of the Family Physician in the Care of Children with Down Syndrome - American ...

Dec 15, 2014 - Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality, occurring in one in 691 live births in the United States each year. Prenatally, the sequential contingent test for aneuploidy screening is highly sensitive for Down syndrome and has a low false-positive rate. The diagnosis should...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p851.html

Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p460.html

Counseling on Early Childhood Concerns: Sleep Issues, Thumb-Sucking, Picky Eating, ...

Aug 15, 2015 - Family physicians are often a source of information and advice on early childhood concerns regarding sleep, thumb-sucking/pacifier use, picky eating, school readiness, and oral health. Evidence indicates that family variables are important in the genesis of sleep difficulties, and that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p274.html

Newborn Skin: Part I. Common Rashes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Rashes are extremely common in newborns and can be a significant source of parental concern. Although most rashes are transient and benign, some require additional work-up. Erythema toxicum neonatorum, acne neonatorum, and transient neonatal pustular melanosis are transient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p47.html

Common Questions About Outpatient Care of Premature Infants - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Preterm births (deliveries before 37 weeks’ gestation) comprise 12% of all U.S. births and are responsible for onethird of all infant deaths. Neonatal medical advances have increased survival, and primary care physicians often care for infants who were in the neonatal intensive care ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p244.html

Revised AAP Guideline on UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2012 - In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a revision of its 1999 clinical practice guideline on urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children two to 24 months of age. The new clinical practice guideline has several important updates based on evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html

When to Suspect a Genetic Syndrome - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2012 - Family physicians should be able to recognize findings on physical examination and history that suggest the presence of a genetic syndrome to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of potentially affected patients, as well as subspecialty referral. General themes that can alert family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1101/p826.html

Osteochondrosis: Common Causes of Pain in Growing Bones - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2011 - Osteochondrosis is a term used to describe a group of disorders that affect the growing skeleton. These disorders result from abnormal growth, injury, or overuse of the developing growth plate and surrounding ossification centers. The exact etiology of these disorders is unknown, but ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p285.html

Risks and Benefits of Pacifiers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2009 - Physicians are often asked for guidance about pacifier use in children, especially regarding the benefits and risks, and when to appropriately wean a child. The benefits of pacifier use include analgesic effects, shorter hospital stays for preterm infants, and a reduction in the risk of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p681.html

Adolescent Health Screening and Counseling - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2012 - Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1109.html

Evaluation of Primary Immunodeficiency Disease in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - One in 2,000 children younger than 18 years is thought to have a primary immunodeficiency disease. Antibody, combined B-cell and T-cell, phagocytic, and complement disorders are the most common types. Children with these diseases tend to have bacterial or fungal infections with unusual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p773.html

Identification and Treatment of Amblyopia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Amblyopia is the leading cause of vision loss in children. It is treatable if diagnosed early, making identification of affected children critical. The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that clinicians ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p348.html

The Limping Child: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2009 - Deviations from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. In most children, limping is caused by a mild, self-limiting event, such as a contusion, strain, or sprain. In some cases, however, a limp can be a sign of a serious or even ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/p215.html

Proteinuria in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2010 - Proteinuria is common in children and may represent a benign condition or a serious underlying renal disease or systemic disorder. Proteinuria may occur secondary to glomerular or tubular dysfunction. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended, it may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p645.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p693.html

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