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Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Culture-Specific Asthma Education Programs for Minority Groups - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2018 - In children from minority groups, culture-specific asthma education programs (CAEPs) reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improve asthma control as measured by the Childhood Asthma Control Test but not the Asthma Control Questionnaire. CAEPs ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p572.html

Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Aug 1, 2018 - Interventions that include combinations of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes may reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score (equivalent to BMI-for-age percentile) in overweight and obese children six to 11 years of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p151.html

The Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia - ...

Aug 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that PPIs are more effective than placebo at relieving overall symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11). Low-quality evidence suggests a small benefit of PPI therapy compared with prokinetics, and little to no ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p152.html

Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and...

Oct 1, 2018 - Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p419.html

Individual Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Individual behavioral counseling conducted by a trained therapist provides some benefit when compared with brief counseling and support; however, this benefit is less pronounced in the context of pharmacotherapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p21.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Detection of Alzheimer Disease in Patients with Mild...

Jun 1, 2018 - There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the detection of progressive dementias in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These tests carry the risk of overdiagnosis of dementia and, therefore, overtreatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p714.html

Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy for Epilepsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2018 - In patients with partial-onset (focal) seizures, levetiracetam (Keppra), lamotrigine (Lamictal), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) were associated with the longest time to treatment withdrawal (i.e., the recommended patient-oriented outcome measure that balances tolerability with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p572.html

Procalcitonin to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Respiratory Infections - Cochrane ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy, when compared with routine treatments, results in decreased mortality in patients with acute respiratory infections (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 1.4%; number needed to treat [NNT] = 71).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p20.html

Atypical Antipsychotics for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents -...

Jun 1, 2018 - Risperidone reduces measures of aggression and improves conduct in children with disruptive behavior disorders; however, only short-term use is recommended. Weight gain of 2 to 2.5 kg (4.4 to 5.5 lb) is common. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits of other ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p715.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - ...

May 1, 2018 - Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p573.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p436.html

Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2018 - In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p311.html

Written Action Plans for Self-Management of COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2018 - Written self-management plans, especially those that include guidance on smoking cessation, increase health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. They also decrease the need for respiratory-related hospital admissions among patients with high or low baseline risk.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p310.html

Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Care for Procedure-Related Pain in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, effectively reduces physiologic and behavioral measures of pain in neonates during painful procedures and has no identified adverse effects. Infants who received skin-to-skin care during painful procedures had a heart rate of 10.8 beats ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p170.html

Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2018 - There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failureā€”a designation that was defined ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p169.html

Effectiveness of Moisturizers in the Treatment of Patients with Eczema - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Moisturizers decrease the rate of eczema flare-ups by 3.7 times vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4), as well as the amount of topical corticosteroids used per eczema flare-up (9.3 g less). Adverse effects are minimal.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p18.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

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