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Common Questions About the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - American ...

May 15, 2015 - Common questions that arise regarding treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include which medications are most effective, when surgery may be indicated, which patients should be screened for Barrett esophagus and Helicobacter pylori infection, and which adverse effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p692.html

Hip Impingement: Identifying and Treating a Common Cause of Hip Pain - American Family ...

Dec 15, 2009 - Femoroacetabular impingement, also known as hip impingement, is the abutment of the acetabular rim and the proximal femur. Hip impingement is increasingly recognized as a common etiology of hip pain in athletes, adolescents, and adults. It injures the labrum and articular cartilage, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1429.html

Incidentalomas: Initial Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2014 - Incidentalomas are increasingly common findings on radiologic studies, causing worry for physicians and patients. Physicians should consider the risk of discovering incidentalomas when contemplating imaging. Patients may assume that incidentalomas are cancer, and may not be aware of the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p784.html

Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p764.html

Treatment of the Common Cold in Children and Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p153.html

Acute and Chronic Paronychia - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2008 - Paronychia is an inflammation of the folds of tissue surrounding the nail of a toe or finger. Paronychia may be classified as either acute or chronic. The main factor associated with the development of acute paronychia is direct or indirect trauma to the cuticle or nail fold. This ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/p339.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and acute pancreatitis. Along with lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lowering triglyceride levels in high-risk patients (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1365.html

Diabetic Foot Infection - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2008 - Foot infections are common in patients with diabetes and are associated with high morbidity and risk of lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p71.html

Management of COPD Exacerbations - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2010 - Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease contribute to the high mortality rate associated with the disease. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of multiple interventions. The first step in outpatient management should be to increase the dosage ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0301/p607.html

Pediculosis and Scabies: A Treatment Update - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A no nit policy for schools and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p535.html

Treatment of Nongenital Cutaneous Warts - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2011 - Numerous treatments for nongenital cutaneous warts are available, although no single therapy has been established as completely curative. Watchful waiting is an option for new warts because many resolve spontaneously. However, patients often request treatment because of social stigma or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0801/p288.html

End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning - American Family...

Apr 1, 2012 - The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p705.html

Options for Women with Unintended Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Unintended pregnancy refers to unwanted, unplanned, or mistimed pregnancies. One-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and family physicians are often asked to provide counseling, support, and resources for women with unintended pregnancies. Options include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p544.html

Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndrome - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2006 - Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome occurs in approximately 20 percent of patients after abrupt discontinuation of an antidepressant medication that was taken for at least six weeks. Typical symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p449.html

Promoting Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2012 - Cigarette smoking causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Physicians can use the five A’s framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) to promote smoking cessation. All patients should be asked about tobacco use and assessed for motivation to quit at every ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p591.html

An Update on Emergency Contraception - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Emergency contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or after suspected failure of routine contraception (e.g., a condom breaking). Oral methods include combined contraceptive pills (i.e., Yuzpe method), single- or split-dose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p545.html

The Physician's Role in Managing Acute Stress Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2012 - Acute stress disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that may occur in patients within four weeks of a traumatic event. Features include anxiety, intense fear or helplessness, dissociative symptoms, reexperiencing the event, and avoidance behaviors. Persons with this disorder are at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p643.html

Drug Treatments for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2009 - Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms can be subtle and varied. These may include hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and biochemical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p671.html

Office Management of Early Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Pharmacologic treatment of hyperlipidemia in conjunction with therapeutic lifestyle changes can be used for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Statins have the most convincing data for primary prevention, especially for higher risk patients. Therefore, risk...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p551.html

Diet and Exercise in the Management of Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2010 - Dietary factors that influence lipid levels include modification of nutritional components, consumption of specific foods, use of food additives and supplements, and major dietary approaches. The most beneficial changes result from reducing intake of saturated and trans fats; increasing...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/p1097.html

Management of the Ingrown Toenail - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2009 - Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, most commonly affects the great toenail. Many anatomic and behavioral factors are thought to contribute to ingrown toenails, such as improper trimming, repetitive or inadvertent trauma, genetic predisposition, hyperhidrosis, and poor foot hygiene. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0215/p303.html

Labor Analgesia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p447.html

Principles of Casting and Splinting - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - The ability to properly apply casts and splints is a technical skill easily mastered with practice and an understanding of basic principles. The initial approach to casting and splinting requires a thorough assessment of the injured extremity for proper diagnosis. Once the need for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p16.html

Treatment of Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment. This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers. Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment. Ductal carcinoma ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1339.html

Treatment Options for Acne Rosacea - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2009 - Rosacea is a common chronic, and sometimes progressive, dermatosis. It is characterized, alone or in combination, by central facial erythema,symmetric flushing, stinging sensation, inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules), telangiectasias, and phymatous changes (tissue hyperplasia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p461.html

Reducing Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2012 - Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, duodenal ulcers, and pathologic hypersecretory conditions. Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p66.html

Managing Grief and Depression at the End of Life - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2012 - Psychological distress is common in terminally ill persons and can be a source of great suffering. Grief is an adaptive, universal, and highly personalized response to the multiple losses that occur at the end of life. This response may be intense early on after a loss manifesting ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/p259.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution. An estimated 1 million cases occur in the United States each year, and increasing age is the primary risk factor. Laboratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1432.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Hematospermia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Hematospermia can be a distressing symptom for patients, but most cases are effectively managed by a primary care physician. Although the condition is usually benign, significant underlying pathology must be excluded by history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and, in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1421.html

Subacute to Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1045.html

Pharmacologic Pearls for End-of-Life Care - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - As death approaches, a gradual shift in emphasis from curative and life prolonging therapies toward palliative therapies can relieve significant medical burdens and maintain a patient's dignity and comfort. Pain and dyspnea are treated based on severity, with stepped interventions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1059.html

Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2007 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p194.html

Management of Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p305.html

Treatment of Alzheimer Disease - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2011 - Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than one-third of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1403.html

Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2007 - Lateral epicondylitis is a common overuse syndrome of the extensor tendons of the forearm. It is sometimes called tennis elbow, although it can occur with many activities. The condition affects men and women equally and is more common in persons 40 years or older. Despite the prevalence...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/p843.html

Management of Falls in Older Persons: A Prescription for Prevention - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1267.html

Treatment of Menorrhagia - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2007 - Menorrhagia is defined as excessive uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals or prolonged uterine bleeding lasting more than seven days. The classic definition of menorrhagia (i.e., greater than 80 mL of blood loss per cycle) is rarely used clinically. Women describe the loss or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0615/p1813.html

Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2011 - Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0601/p1287.html

Exercise, Yoga, and Meditation for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders - American Family ...

Apr 15, 2010 - Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing. Several studies of exercise and yoga have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p981.html

Management of Corneal Abrasions - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2004 - Corneal abrasions result from cutting, scratching, or abrading the thin, protective, clear coat of the exposed anterior portion of the ocular epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and a gritty feeling. Symptoms can be worsened by exposure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0701/p123.html

Common Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Disease - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Family physicians are treating patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in their practices more often. Long-term complications of this disease are multifactorial and can be related to the virus itself or to adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Each drug class has side ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1443.html

Managing Adverse Birth Outcomes: Helping Parents and Families Cope - American Family ...

May 1, 2012 - Unexpected adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes (e.g., stillbirth, birth trauma, congenital anomalies) present a crisis for the family and the medical care team. In cases of stillbirth, the family physician should be flexible in supporting the parents’ choices, validate the loss, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p900.html

Treatment Options for Insomnia - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2007 - The frequency of sleep disruption and the degree to which insomnia significantly affects daytime function determine the need for evaluation and treatment. Physicians may initiate treatment of insomnia at an initial visit; for patients with a clear acute stressor such as grief, no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/p517.html

Treatment of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - Vertigo is the illusion of motion, usually rotational motion. As patients age, vertigo becomes an increasingly common presenting complaint. The most common causes of this condition are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis or labyrinthitis, Ménière's ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1115.html

Cerumen Impaction - American Family Physician

May 15, 2007 - Cerumen is a naturally occurring, normally extruded product of the external auditory canal. It is usually asymptomatic, but when it becomes impacted it can cause complications such as hearing loss, pain, or dizziness. It also can interfere with examination of the tympanic membrane. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1523.html

Medications for Migraine Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - Sufficient evidence and consensus exist to recommend propranolol, timolol, amitriptyline, divalproex, sodium valproate, and topiramate as first-line agents for migraine prevention. There is fair evidence of effectiveness with gabapentin and naproxen sodium. Botulinum toxin also has ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p72.html

Managing the Adverse Effects of Radiation Therapy - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p381.html

Treatment of Adult Obesity with Bariatric Surgery - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Bariatric surgery procedures, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, result in an average weight loss of 50 percent of excess body weight. Remission of diabetes mellitus occurs in approximately 80 percent of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p805.html

Management of Epistaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Family physicians frequently encounter patients with epistaxis (nasal bleeding). In rare cases, this condition may lead to massive bleeding and even death. Although epistaxis can have an anterior or posterior source, it most often originates in the anterior nasal cavity. A directed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p305.html

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