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Outpatient Care of the Premature Infant - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - An increasing number of infants in the United States are born prematurely, with current statistics estimating about 13 percent of all births. Although survival rates and outcomes for premature infants have dramatically improved in recent decades, morbidity and mortality are still ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1159.html

Reducing Tobacco Use in Adolescents - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2008 - After steadily decreasing since the late 1990s, adolescent smoking rates have stabilized at levels well above national goals. Experts recommend screening for tobacco use and exposure at every patient visit, although evidence of improved outcomes in adolescents is lacking. Counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p483.html

Discharge Procedures for Healthy Newborns - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2006 - Physicians should use a checklist to facilitate discussions with new parents before discharging their healthy newborn from the hospital. The checklist should include information on breastfeeding, warning signs of illness, and ways to keep the child healthy and safe. Physicians can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p849.html

Update on Immunizations in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2008 - Over the past few years, there have been many changes to the recommendations for children and adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. These include dividing the immunization schedule into two parts (i.e., ages birth to six years and seven to 18 years, with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1561.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2008 - Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/p331.html

Childhood and Adolescent Depression - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2007 - Major depression affects 3 to 5 percent of children and adolescents. Depression negatively impacts growth and development, school performance, and peer or family relationships and may lead to suicide. Biomedical and psychosocial risk factors include a family history of depression, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p73.html

Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Infancy and Early Childhood: An Update - American Family...

Jun 1, 2006 - Recent innovations in medical technology have changed newborn screening programs in the United States. The widespread use of tandem mass spectrometry is helping to identify more inborn errors of metabolism. Primary care physicians often are the first to be contacted by state and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1981.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injuries - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Injuries are the leading cause of death in children and teenagers in the United States. The leading causes of unintentional injury vary by age and include drowning, poisoning, suffocation, fires, burns, falls, and motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian-related crashes. Most injuries are...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1864.html

Evaluating the Child for Sexual Abuse - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2001 - Child victims of sexual abuse may present with physical findings that can include anogenital problems, enuresis or encopresis. Behavioral changes may involve sexual acting out, aggression, depression, eating disturbances and regression. Because the examination findings of most child ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0301/p883.html

Foreign Body Ingestion in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2005 - Because many patients who have swallowed foreign bodies are asymptomatic, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously, but serious complications, such as bowel perforation and obstruction, can occur. Foreign bodies ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p287.html

Conduct Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment In Primary Care - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2001 - Conduct disorder is a common childhood psychiatric problem that has an increased incidence in adolescence. The primary diagnostic features of conduct disorder include aggression, theft, vandalism, violations of rules and/or lying. For a diagnosis, these behaviors must occur for at least...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1579.html

Amblyopia - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2007 - Amblyopia, a decrease in visual acuity, is a major public health problem with a prevalence of 1 to 4 percent in the United States. It is thought to develop early in life during the critical period of visual development. Early recognition of amblyogenic risk factors such as strabismus, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p361.html

Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2006 - Reading difficulties are common and are associated with poor long-term academic achievement. Evaluation of a child's developmental, educational, and family histories in conjunction with standardized screening tests (e.g., Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Parents' Evaluation of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2079.html

Nutrition in Toddlers - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Toddlers make a transition from dependent milk-fed infancy to independent feeding and a typical omnivorous diet. This stage is an important time for physicians to monitor growth using growth charts and body mass index and to make recommendations for healthy eating. Fat and cholesterol ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1527.html

Evaluating Fever of Unidentifiable Source in Young Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2007 - Most children will have been evaluated for a febrile illness by 36 months of age. Although the majority will have a self-limited viral illness, studies done before the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines showed that approximately 10 percent of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0615/p1805.html

Universal Newborn Hearing Screening - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Congenital hearing loss is estimated to affect one in every 1,000 newborns. Causes of hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, mixed, or central. Known risk factors for congenital hearing loss include cytomegalovirus infection and premature birth necessitating a stay in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1349.html

Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: An Update - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2007 - Although type 1 diabetes historically has been more common in patients eight to 19 years of age, type 2 diabetes is emerging as an important disease in this group. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 8 to 45 percent of new childhood diabetes. This article is an update from the National ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p658.html

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

May 1, 2006 - The development of a national database on normative blood pressure levels throughout childhood has contributed to the recognition of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents. The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1558.html

Evaluation and Treatment of the Child with Febrile Seizure - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Up to 5 percent of children in North America and western Europe experience at least one episode of febrile seizure before six years of age. Most of these seizures are self-limited and patients do not require treatment. Continuous therapy after the seizure is not effective in reducing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1761.html

Rickets: Not a Disease of the Past - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Rickets develops when growing bones fail to mineralize. In most cases, the diagnosis is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Nutritional rickets can be caused by inadequate intake of nutrients (vitamin D in particular); ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p619.html

Bilious Vomiting in the Newborn: Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Obstruction - American ...

May 1, 2000 - Bilious vomiting in newborns is an urgent condition that requires the immediate involvement of a team of pediatric surgeons and neonatologists for perioperative management. However, initial detection, evaluation and treatment are often performed by nurses, family physicians and general ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2791.html

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Children: Part I. Initial Evaluation - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2006 - Musculoskeletal pain can be difficult for children to characterize. Primary care physicians must determine whether the pain may be caused by a systemic disease. Change in activity, constitutional symptoms such as fevers and fatigue, or abnormal examination findings without obvious ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p115.html

Promoting Medication Adherence in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2006 - The problem of getting children to follow a treatment regimen is widespread and is frustrating for physicians. The extent to which any patient adheres to a medical regimen is an essential determinant of clinical success. Strategies to improve adherence in children include using ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p793.html

Craniosynostosis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2004 - Skull deformity in infants continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Deformational plagiocephaly is a common and somewhat benign cause of skull deformity in infants that must be distinguished from the more serious craniosynostosis, which occurs alone or as a syndrome. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2863.html

Management of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1999 - Acute gastroenteritis is a common and costly clinical problem in children. It is a largely self-limited disease with many etiologies. The evaluation of the child with acute gastroenteritis requires a careful history and a complete physical examination to uncover other illnesses with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1201/p2555.html

Failure to Pass Meconium: Diagnosing Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction - American Family ...

Nov 1, 1999 - Timely passage of the first stool is a hallmark of the well-being of the newborn infant. Failure of a full-term newborn to pass meconium in the first 24 hours may signal intestinal obstruction. Lower intestinal obstruction may be associated with disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2043.html

Management of Newborns Exposed to Maternal HIV Infection - American Family Physician

May 15, 2002 - The management of infants whose mothers are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involves minimizing the risk of vertical transmission of HIV, recognizing neonatal HIV infection early, preventing opportunistic infections, and addressing psychosocial issues. Maternal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0515/p2049.html

Preventive Health Counseling for Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2006 - The leading causes of adolescent mortality are accidents (death from unintentional injury), homicide, and suicide. Additional morbidity is related to drug, tobacco, and alcohol use; risky sexual behaviors; poor nutrition; and inadequate physical activity. One third of adolescents engage...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1151.html

Childhood and Adolescent Sports-Related Overuse Injuries - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - Youth sports participation carries an inherent risk of injury, including overuse injuries. Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress fracture of the proximal humerus that presents as lateral shoulder pain, usually is self-limited. Little leaguer's elbow is a medial stress injury; treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1014.html

Infantile Colic - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2004 - Infantile colic can be distressing to parents whose infant is inconsolable during crying episodes. Colic is often defined by the 'rule of three': crying for more than three hours per day, for more than three days per week, and for longer than three weeks in an infant who is well-fed and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0815/p735.html

Evaluation and Management of the Child with Speech Delay - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 1999 - A delay in speech development may be a symptom of many disorders, including mental retardation, hearing loss, an expressive language disorder, psychosocial deprivation, autism, elective mutism, receptive aphasia and cerebral palsy. Speech delay may be secondary to maturation delay or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0601/p3121.html

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Children: Part II. Rheumatic Causes - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2006 - Primary care physicians should have a working knowledge of rheumatic diseases of childhood that manifest primarily as musculoskeletal pain. Children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can present with painless joint inflammation and may have normal results on rheumatologic tests. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p293.html

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Universal screening for GBS among women at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation is more effective than administration of intrapartum antibiotics based on risk factors. Lower vaginal and rectal cultures for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p903.html

Retinoblastoma - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - Retinoblastoma, a neuroblastic tumor, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients usually present with leukokoria (white reflex or white pupil), detected in primary care. The mean age at diagnosis is 12 months for bilateral tumors and 24 months for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1039.html

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1147.html

Lower Extremity Abnormalities in Children - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2003 - Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0801/p461.html

Childhood Asthma: Treatment Update - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - The prevalence of childhood asthma has risen significantly over the past four decades. A family history of atopic disease is associated with an increased likelihood of developing asthma, and environmental triggers such as tobacco smoke significantly increase the severity of daily asthma...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1959.html

Diagnosis of Stridor in Children - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Stridor is a sign of upper airway obstruction. In children, laryngomalacia is the most common cause of chronic stridor, while croup is the most common cause of acute stridor. Generally, an inspiratory stridor suggests airway obstruction above the glottis while an expiratory stridor is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2289.html

Evaluation and Management of Apparent Life-Threatening Events in Children - American ...

Jun 15, 2005 - Apparent life-threatening event syndrome predominantly affects children younger than one year. This syndrome is characterized by a frightening constellation of symptoms in which the child exhibits some combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, coughing, or gagging. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/p2301.html

Child Safety Seat Counseling: Three Keys to Safety - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2005 - The number one cause of death for children younger than 14 years is vehicular injury. Child safety seats and automobile safety belts protect children in a crash if they are used correctly, but if a child does not fit in the restraint correctly, it can lead to injury. A child safety seat...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0801/p473.html

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2002 - Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Many of the infections result from asymptomatic cervical shedding of virus after a primary episode of genital HSV in the third trimester. Antibodies to HSV-2 have been detected in approximately 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0315/p1138.html

Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 1999 - More than one third of children complain of abdominal pain lasting two weeks or longer. The diagnostic approach to abdominal pain in children relies heavily on the history provided by the parent and child to direct a step-wise approach to investigation. If the history and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html

A Practical Guide to Infant Oral Health - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease in young children and may develop as soon as teeth erupt. Bacteria, predominately mutans streptococci, metabolize simple sugars to produce acid that demineralizes teeth, resulting in cavities. Physicians should examine children's...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2113.html

The Newborn Examination: Part I. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the ...

Jan 1, 2002 - The routine newborn assessment should include an examination for size, macrocephaly or microcephaly, changes in skin color, signs of birth trauma, malformations, evidence of respiratory distress, level of arousal, posture, tone, presence of spontaneous movements, and symmetry of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0101/p61.html

The Gomco Circumcision: Common Problems and Solutions - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1998 - Circumcision performed using the Gomco clamp is usually quick and effective, and results in very little bleeding. However, every clinician performing circumcision occasionally has concerns or questions regarding the procedure. Some of the more common concerns regarding the use of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0915/p891.html

Failure to Thrive - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2003 - Failure to thrive is a condition commonly seen by primary care physicians. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are important for preventing malnutrition and developmental sequelae. Medical and social factors often contribute to failure to thrive. Either extreme of parental attention ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p879.html

Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - Childhood bullying has potentially serious implications for bullies and their targets. Bullying involves a pattern of repeated aggression, a deliberate intent to harm or disturb a victim despite the victim's apparent distress, and a real or perceived imbalance of power. Bullying can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1723.html

School Refusal in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - School refusal is a problem that is stressful for children, families, and school personnel. Failing to attend school has significant short- and long-term effects on children's social, emotional, and educational development. School refusal often is associated with comorbid psychiatric ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1555.html

Treating Acute Bronchiolitis Associated with RSV - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Treatment for infants with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) includes supplemental oxygen, nasal suctioning, fluids to prevent dehydration, and other supportive therapies. High-risk children who should be hospitalized include those younger than three months and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p325.html

Viral Croup - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Viral croup is the most common form of airway obstruction in children six months to six years of age. The frightening nature of croup often prompts parents and caregivers to seek physician consultation. For children with mild croup, symptomatic care and mist therapy may be all that is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p535.html

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