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Dysuria: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Dog and Cat Bites - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p239.html

Orthostatic Hypotension: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2022 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or more systolic or 10 mm Hg or more diastolic within three minutes of standing from the supine position or on assuming a head-up position of at least 60 degrees during tilt table testing. Symptoms are due to...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0100/p39.html

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2021 - In the United States, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization in children. Even in hospitalized children, community-acquired pneumonia is most likely of viral etiology, with respiratory syncytial virus being the most common pathogen, especially in children younger than two...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/1200/p618.html

Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

Sexually Transmitted Infections - American Family Physician

May 13, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on sexually transmitted disease and related issues, including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus, and syphilis. This collection features AFP content on sexually transmitted disease and related issues, including chlamydia, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=23

A Stepwise Approach to the Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests - American Family...

Mar 1, 2014 - Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, which...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p359.html

Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p164.html

Care of Special Populations - American Family Physician

May 13, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on the care of special populations and related issues, including ethnic minorities; gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered persons; homeless and uninsured persons; and mentally retarded persons. This collection features AFP content on the care of ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=45

Diagnosis and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint complex, and surrounding musculature and osseous components. TMD affects up to 15% of adults, with a peak incidence at 20 to 40 years of age....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p378.html

Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Nephrotic syndrome (NS) consists of peripheral edema, heavy proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, often with hyperlipidemia. Patients typically present with edema and fatigue, without evidence of heart failure or severe liver disease. The diagnosis of NS is based on typical clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p479.html

Thyroiditis: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2021 - Thyroiditis is a general term for inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common forms of thyroiditis encountered by family physicians include Hashimoto, postpartum, and subacute. Most forms of thyroiditis result in a triphasic disease pattern of thyroid dysfunction. Patients will ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/1200/p609.html

Bipolar Disorders: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2021 - Bipolar disorders are common, recurrent mental health conditions of variable severity that are difficult to diagnose. Affected individuals have higher rates of other mental health disorders, substance use disorders, and comorbid chronic medical illnesses. New diagnostic criteria and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0215/p227.html

Nutrition in Toddlers - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - The establishment of eating practices that contribute to lifelong nutritional habits and overall health begins in toddlerhood. During this time, children acquire the motor skills needed to feed themselves and develop preferences that affect their food selections. Classifications for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p227.html

Obesity - American Family Physician

Mar 17, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on obesity and related issues, including bariatric surgery, childhood obesity, diet, exercise, lifestyle counseling, and weight loss maintenance. This collection features AFP content on obesity and related issues, including bariatric surgery, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=19

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

The Adult Well-Male Examination - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - The adult well-male examination should provide evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being. The medical history should focus on tobacco and alcohol use, risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections, and diet and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p729.html

Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Issues - American Family Physician

May 13, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on labor, delivery, and postpartum issues and related topics, including breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, labor pain management, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm labor and birth, shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord blood storage, and vaginal ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=16

Febrile Seizures: Risks, Evaluation, and Prognosis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - A febrile seizure is a seizure occurring in a child six months to five years of age that is accompanied by a fever (100.4°F or greater) without central nervous system infection. Febrile seizures are classified as simple or complex. A complex seizure lasts 15 minutes or more, is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p445.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - More than 70% of adults treated for primary hypertension will eventually require at least two antihypertensive agents, either initially as combination therapy or as add-on therapy if monotherapy and lifestyle modifications do not achieve adequate blood pressure control. Four main ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p341.html

Gas, Bloating, and Belching: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html

Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2022 - Induction of labor is a common obstetric procedure, and approximately one-fourth of pregnant patients undergo the procedure. Although exercise and nipple stimulation can increase the likelihood of spontaneous labor, sexual intercourse may not be effective. Acupuncture has been used for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0200/p177.html

Apophysitis and Osteochondrosis: Common Causes of Pain in Growing Bones - American ...

May 15, 2019 - Apophysitis and osteochondrosis are common causes of pain in growing bones but have differing etiologies and required management. Apophysitis results from a traction injury to the cartilage and bony attachment of tendons in children and adolescents. Most often it is an overuse injury in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p610.html

Newborn Respiratory Distress - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p994.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p548.html

Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 15, 2020 - Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside of the uterine cavity. In the United States, the estimated prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 1% to 2%, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy accounts for 2.7% of pregnancy-related deaths. Risk factors include a history of pelvic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p599.html

Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p797.html

Heel Pain: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2018 - The differential diagnosis of heel pain is extensive, but a mechanical etiology is the most common. The specific anatomic location of the pain can help guide diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, which leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p86.html

Knee Pain in Adults and Adolescents: The Initial Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Knee pain affects approximately 25% of adults, and its prevalence has increased almost 65% over the past 20 years, accounting for nearly 4 million primary care visits annually. Initial evaluation should emphasize excluding urgent causes while considering the need for referral. Key ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p576.html

Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Osteoporosis-related fractures affect approximately one in two white women and one in five white men in their lifetime. The impact of fractures includes loss of function, significant costs, and increased mortality. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p261.html

Seizure Disorders - American Family Physician

May 13, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on seizure disorders, including antiepileptic medications, epilepsy, febrile seizures, nonepileptic seizures, seizures in the elderly, and status epilepticus. This collection features AFP content on seizure disorders, including antiepileptic ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=80

Acute Bronchitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.html

Osteomyelitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2021 - Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory condition of bone secondary to an infectious process. Osteomyelitis is usually clinically diagnosed with support from imaging and laboratory findings. Bone biopsy and microbial cultures offer definitive diagnosis. Plain film radiography should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/1000/p395.html

Insomnia: Pharmacologic Therapy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p29.html

Telemedicine in Diabetes Care - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2022 - Telemedicine can be useful for the management of diabetes mellitus. Remote monitoring of glucose levels improves A1C levels in people with poor glucose control. When multiple daily injections of insulin are required, continuous glucose monitoring improves glycemic control and increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0300/p281.html

Depression and Bipolar Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2021 - This collection features AFP content on depression and bipolar disorder and related issues, including antidepressants, major depressive disorder, mental health, postpartum depression, and psychiatric medications. This collection features AFP content on depression and bipolar disorder ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=6

Alcohol Use Disorders - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2022 - This collection features AFP content on alcohol abuse and dependence and related issues, including alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and detoxification. This collection features AFP content on alcohol abuse and dependence and related issues, including alcoholism, alcohol ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=1

Hemoptysis: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2022 - Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the lower respiratory tract, usually from bronchial arteries. The most common causes are acute respiratory infections, cancer, bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. No cause is identified in 20% to 50% of cases. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0200/p144.html

Adenomyosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2022 - Adenomyosis is a clinical condition where endometrial glands are found in the myometrium of the uterus. One in three patients with adenomyosis is asymptomatic, but the rest may present with heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or infertility. Heavy menstrual bleeding is the most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0100/p33.html

Septic Arthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2021 - Septic arthritis must be considered and promptly diagnosed in any patient presenting with acute atraumatic joint pain, swelling, and fever. Risk factors for septic arthritis include age older than 80 years, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, recent joint surgery, hip or knee ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/1200/p589.html

The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2021 - The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is a common reason for young athletes to see a primary care physician. An annual PPE is required by most state high school athletic associations for participation in school-based sports, although there is limited evidence to support its ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2021/0501/p539.html

Borderline Personality Disorder - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2022 - Borderline personality disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. Borderline personality disorder may be present in up to 6.4% of adult primary care visits, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0200/p156.html

Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2022 - Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a non–insulin-dependent form of diabetes mellitus that is usually diagnosed in young adulthood. MODY is most often an autosomal dominant disease and is divided into subtypes (MODY1 to MODY14) based on the causative genetic mutation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0200/p162.html

Cluster Headache: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2022 - Cluster headache, the most common form of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia, is a rare primary headache disorder that affects less than 1% of the population. The mean age of onset is 30 years, and it is two to three times more common in males. Cluster headache consists of attacks of severe...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2022/0100/p24.html

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Management - ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p284.html

Influenza: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2019 - Influenza is an acute viral respiratory infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Three types of influenza cause disease in humans. Influenza A is the type most responsible for causing pandemics because of its high susceptibility to antigenic variation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p751.html

Neonatology/Newborn Issues - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2021 - This collection features AFP content on neonatology and newborn issues and related topics, including breastfeeding, circumcision, jaundice, newborn examination, newborn resuscitation, newborn screening, premature infant care, postpartum counseling, and well-child visits. This collection...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=18

End-of-Life Care: Managing Common Symptoms - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Physicians should be proficient at managing symptoms as patients progress through the dying process. When possible, proactive regimens that prevent symptoms should be used, because it is generally easier to prevent than to treat an acute symptom. As swallowing function diminishes, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p356.html

Epididymitis: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Inflammation of the epididymis, or epididymitis, is commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Etiology and treatment are based on patient age and the likely causative organisms. Epididymitis presents as the gradual onset of posterior scrotal pain that may be accompanied by urinary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p723.html

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