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Assisted Vaginal Delivery Using the Vacuum Extractor - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2000 - Vacuum extractors have replaced forceps for many situations in which assistance is required to achieve vaginal delivery. Compared with metal-cup vacuum extractors, soft-cup devices are easier to use and cause fewer neonatal scalp injuries; however, they detach more frequently. Vacuum ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0915/p1316.html

Obesity in Pregnancy - Editorials - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Obesity is increasingly common among pregnant women, and it can cause significant risk to mother and fetus. Family physicians who provide prenatal care should also be familiar with recommendations for the management of obesity in pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p606.html

The Nature and Management of Labor Pain: Part II. Pharmacologic Pain Relief - American ...

Sep 15, 2003 - A group of family physicians, obstetricians, midwives, obstetric anesthesiologists, and childbirth educators attended an evidence-based symposium in 2001 on the nature and management of labor pain and discussed a series of systematic reviews that focused on methods of labor pain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1115.html

Does Screening Mammography Lead to Overdiagnosis of Invasive Breast Cancer? - AFP ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Implementation of a universal mammographic screening program leads to an increase in the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, because of improved detection of clinically significant cancer and overdiagnosis.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p408.html

Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions: ...

Mar 15, 2013 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the use of combined estrogen and progestin for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/od1.html

Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions - Putting ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Case Study: A 59-year-old healthy, postmenopausal woman presents for a routine health maintenance visit. She has an intact uterus and no history of skeletal fractures. She asks if menopausal hormone therapy would help prevent chronic illness, specifically stroke and dementia.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p437.html

Vitamin D Supplementation for Women During Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2013 - In several small, low-quality trials, vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy was associated with a statistically nonsignificant trend toward a decreased risk of low birth weight. There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p314.html

Treatment of HSV Infection in Late Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ...

Feb 15, 2012 - Pregnant women with a primary or recurrent episode of genital HSV infection who are later than 36 weeks of gestation should be treated with acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex) for viral suppression.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p390.html

Screening Mammography: The Goal Is Changing - Editorials - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Screening mammography is one of an increasing number of clinical issues that will require rethinking the clinical mission and restructuring clinical practice to help patients make informed choices.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p246.html

Benefits and Risks of Psychiatric Medications During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2002 - Traditionally, psychiatric medications were withheld during pregnancy because of fear of teratogenic and other effects. The emergence of evidence of the safety of most commonly used psychiatric medications, the availability of this information in the form of online databases, and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0815/p629.html

Breast Masses in Adolescents: Clinical Pearls in the Diagnostic Evaluation - Editorials...

Aug 15, 2012 - The diagnostic evaluation of an adolescent presenting with a breast mass differs substantially from that of an adult because of marked differences in breast cancer risk and breast architecture. In the adolescent, early clinical assessment and close follow-up are most important, and ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p325.html

ACS/ASCCP/ASCP Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer - Editorials - ...

Sep 15, 2012 - The American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) recently published updated recommendations for the early detection of cervical cancer. The guidelines are based on a systematic ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p501.html

The Annual Pelvic Examination: Preventive Time Not Well Spent - Editorials - American ...

Jan 1, 2013 - Given the lack of evidence to support annual pelvic examinations, it would be better for patients if we spend that time addressing screening, counseling, and other preventive services for which strong evidence exists.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p8.html

Evaluation of Pregnant Women Exposed to Respiratory Viruses - American Family Physician

May 15, 2000 - Prenatal patients are often exposed to respiratory viruses at home and at work. Understandably, these patients may be concerned and want immediate answers and advice from their physicians. While most women who are exposed to chickenpox are immune, serologic testing can be performed and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0515/p3065.html

Maternal Serum Triple Analyte Screening in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2002 - According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, it has become standard in prenatal care to offer screening tests for neural tube defects and genetic abnormalities. There have been some changes in the recommended method of prenatal screening over the past few years,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p915.html

Uterine Fibroid Embolization - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Interventional radiologists have performed uterine artery embolization to treat women with emergency uterine bleeding since the 1970s. In this procedure, the physician guides a small angiographic catheter into the uterine arteries and injects a stream of tiny particles that decreases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3601.html

Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task...

Sep 15, 2012 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for cervical cancer in women 21 to 65 years of age with cytology (Papanicolaou [Pap] smear) every three years or, for women 30 to 65 years of age who want to lengthen the screening interval, screening with a ...

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p555.html

Screening for Cervical Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2012 - Case study: J.K., a 45-year-old woman, presents to your office for a routine well-woman examination. She has been married for 20 years, and there is nothing remarkable in her medical history, including no previous abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p563.html

Epilepsy in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Epilepsy in women raises special reproductive and general health concerns. Seizure frequency and severity may change at puberty, over the menstrual cycle, with pregnancy, and at menopause. Estrogen is known to increase the risk of seizures, while progesterone has an inhibitory effect. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1489.html

Managing Menopause - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Many women will spend one third of their lifetime after menopause. A growing number of options are available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms like vasomotor instability and vaginal atrophy, as well as the long-term health risks such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1391.html

Breast-Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2002 - Surgical treatment of breast cancer has changed significantly in recent years. Fine-needle aspirations or core-needle biopsies can be used in the diagnostic process, thus avoiding scarring incisions. The preferred method of treatment for many women with early breast cancer is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1215/p2271.html

Impact of Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity on the Gynecologic Health of Adolescents - ...

Aug 1, 2001 - Dieting behaviors and nutrition can have an enormous impact on the gynecologic health of adolescents. Teenaged patients with anorexia nervosa can have hypothalamic suppression and amenorrhea. In addition, these adolescents are at high risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Unfortunately, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0801/p445.html

Epidural Analgesia for Labor Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2012 - Compared with other types of analgesia or no analgesia, epidurals offered better pain relief, but were associated with a longer second stage of labor and increased risk of instrumental vaginal delivery, maternal fever, and oxytocin (Pitocin) administration. There were no statistically ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/p241.html

Postpartum Major Depression: Detection and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1999 - Postpartum major depression occurs in approximately one of 10 childbearing women and is considerably underdiagnosed. If left untreated, the disorder can have serious adverse effects on the mother and her relationship with significant others, and on the child's emotional and psychologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2247.html

Genitourinary Infections and Their Association with Preterm Labor - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Genitourinary tract infections are one cause of preterm delivery. Prematurity is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality in the United States. Uterine contractions may be induced by cytokines and prostaglandins, which are released by microorganisms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p241.html

Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Screening - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2000 - Approximately 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually, accounting for about 48,000 deaths per year in the United States. The screening guidelines for the diagnosis of breast cancer are continually changing. Because of increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0801/p596.html

Cervical Cancer - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - What are the effects of interventions to prevent cervical cancer? What are the effects of interventions to manage early-stage cervical cancer? What are the effects of additional interventions to manage bulky early-stage cervical cancer?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1186.html

Exercise During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1998 - Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0415/p1846.html

Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Women experience depression twice as often as men. The diagnostic criteria for depression are the same for both sexes, but women with depression more frequently experience guilt, anxiety, increased appetite and sleep, weight gain and comorbid eating disorders. Women may achieve higher ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p225.html

Common Peripartum Emergencies - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 1998 - Peripartum emergencies occur in patients with no known risk factors. When the well-being of the fetus is in question, the fetal heart rate pattern may offer etiologic clues. Repetitive late decelerations may signify uteroplacental insufficiency, and a sinusoidal pattern may indicate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1101/p1593.html

HPV Testing in the Evaluation of the Minimally Abnormal Papanicolaou Smear - American ...

May 15, 1999 - Minor cytologic abnormalities of the cervix, such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), are vastly more common than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or invasive cancer. Current guidelines for the management of ASCUS include repeating the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0515/p2794.html

Newer Pharmacologic Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - With the introduction of effective pharmacologic therapies for erectile dysfunction, more men are seeking treatment. The underlying cause of erectile dysfunction is usually a chronic medical illness or a side effect of certain drugs. Less commonly, the problem is psychogenic. Even after...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1159.html

Raloxifene: A Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that produces both estrogen-agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism and estrogen-antagonistic effects on uterine endometrium and breast tissue. Because of its tissue selectivity, raloxifene may have fewer side effects than are...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1131.html

Initial Management of Breastfeeding - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2001 - Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0915/p981.html

NHBPEP Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: A Summary for Family Physicians - ...

Jul 15, 2001 - The National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy recently issued a report implicating hypertension as a complication in 6 to 8 percent of pregnancies. Hypertension in pregnancy is related to one of four conditions: (1) chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0715/p263.html

Breast Cancer in Older Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1998 - The American Geriatric Society currently recommends screening mammography for women up to 85 years of age whose life expectancy is three years or longer. The value of clinical breast examinations in older women needs further study. Total mastectomy and partial mastectomy with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1163.html

Prevention of Osteoporosis and Fractures - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Osteoporosis and low bone density are associated with a risk of fracture as a result of even minimally traumatic events. The estimated lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is as high as 50 percent, especially in white and Asian women. The use of caffeine, tobacco and steroids is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p194.html

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Updates Breast Cancer Screening ...

Mar 15, 2012 - Breast cancer–related death can be reduced through effective screening, which typically includes imaging, clinical examination, and self-examination or awareness. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends using all three techniques to screen for breast cancer.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p654.html

Preterm Labor - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 1999 - Preterm labor is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is characterized by cervical effacement and/or dilatation and increased uterine irritability before 37 weeks of gestation. Women with a history of preterm labor are at greatest risk. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0201/p593.html

Interventions to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2012 - Invitation letters are the most studied method of encouraging cervical cancer screening, and they are effective (relative risk [RR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.52).1–3 Invitation letters may be more cost-effective than more intensive recruitment efforts (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p443.html

Promoting and Supporting Breast-Feeding - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2093.html

Denosumab (Prolia) for Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis - STEPS - American ...

Feb 15, 2012 - Prolia is an expensive method of preventing osteoporotic hip fractures, and is associated with significant adverse effects. Safer, less expensive options exist for preventing fracture in high-risk women.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p334.html

Guide to Mammography Reports: BI-RADS Terminology - Editorials - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Mammography reports use specific terminology from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to describe findings and to assign a final assessment category. This editorial addresses questions that commonly arise when primary care physicians interpret mammography reports.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p114.html

New Tests for Cervical Cancer Screening - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has been used to screen women for cervical cancer since 1940. Recently, a number of new technologies have been developed to improve the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, there is substantial controversy about whether the new tests ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p780.html

Acute and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder After Spontaneous Abortion - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2000 - When a spontaneous abortion is followed by complicated bereavement, the primary care physician may not consider the diagnosis of acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The major difference between these two conditions is that, in acute stress disorder, symptoms such as...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1689.html

Obstetric Care of Patients with HIV Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2001 - Appropriate management of pregnant patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease can have a major impact on maternal and infant health. The goals of therapy are to properly manage the pregnancy, treat the maternal HIV infection and minimize the risk of vertical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0101/p107.html

Optimal Management of Cholesterol Levels and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in women, is largely preventable. Lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise) are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and low levels of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p217.html

Health Screening in Older Women - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 1999 - Health screening is an important aspect of health promotion and disease prevention in women over 65 years of age. Screening efforts should address conditions that cause significant morbidity and mortality in this age group. In addition to screening for cardiovascular disease, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1835.html

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American Family ...

May 15, 2011 - There are no studies that have shown any antidepressant to be absolutely safe for use during any stage of pregnancy. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) during pregnancy does not increase the risk of congenital malformations or ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0515/p1211.html

Coronary Artery Disease Prevention: What's Different for Women? - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2001 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women, as well as an important cause of disability, although many women and their physicians underestimate the risk. Exercise, hypertension treatment, smoking cessation and aspirin therapy are effective measures for the primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0401/p1393.html

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