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School Refusal in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - School refusal is a problem that is stressful for children, families, and school personnel. Failing to attend school has significant short- and long-term effects on children's social, emotional, and educational development. School refusal often is associated with comorbid psychiatric ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1555.html

Treating Acute Bronchiolitis Associated with RSV - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2004 - Treatment for infants with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) includes supplemental oxygen, nasal suctioning, fluids to prevent dehydration, and other supportive therapies. High-risk children who should be hospitalized include those younger than three months and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0115/p325.html

Diagnosis and Management of Positional Head Deformity - American Family Physician

May 1, 2003 - In children with positional head deformity (posterior plagiocephaly), the occiput is flattened with corresponding facial asymmetry. The incidence of positional head deformity increased dramatically between 1992 and 1999, and now occurs in one of every 60 live births. One proposed cause ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0501/p1953.html

Congenital Toxoplasmosis - American Family Physician

May 15, 2003 - Approximately 85 percent of women of childbearing age in the United States are susceptible to acute infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Transmission of T. gondii to the fetus can result in serious health problems, including mental retardation, seizures, blindness, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2131.html

Prevention and Treatment of Overweight in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Overweight in childhood and adolescence is an important public health issue because of its rapidly increasing prevalence and associated adverse medical and social consequences. Recent studies have estimated that 15 percent of children in the United States are at risk for overweight, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2591.html

The Undescended Testicle: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2000 - Early diagnosis and management of the undescended testicle are needed to preserve fertility and improve early detection of testicular malignancy. Physical examination of the testicle can be difficult; consultation should be considered if a normal testis cannot be definitely identified. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1101/p2037.html

Infant Botulism - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2002 - Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores germinate into bacteria that colonize ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1388.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Radiologic Decision-Making - American Family Physician

May 1, 2002 - Adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. The most tilted vertebral bodies above and below the apex of the spinal curve are used to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0501/p1817.html

Antiviral Drugs in Healthy Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - Several antiviral agents are available to treat viral illnesses in healthy children. In some children, treatment with acyclovir is an alternative to vaccination for the treatment and prevention of chickenpox. Acyclovir also can be useful in the treatment or prevention of herpes simplex ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1073.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - Depression among children and adolescents is common but frequently unrecognized. It affects 2 percent of prepubertal children and 5 to 8 percent of adolescents. The clinical spectrum of the disease can range from simple sadness to a major depressive or bipolar disorder. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2297.html

Exercise-Related Syncope in the Young Athlete: Reassurance, Restriction or Referral? - ...

Nov 1, 1999 - A common event in young adults, syncope is usually benign and only rarely requires more than simple reassurance. However, exercise-related syncope always requires investigation because it may be the only symptom that precedes a sudden cardiac death. Syncope that occurs during exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2001.html

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2001 - Gastroesophageal reflux is a common, self-limited process in infants that usually resolves by six to 12 months of age. Effective, conservative management involves thickened feedings, positional treatment, and parental reassurance. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a less common,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1201/p1853.html

Management of Asthma in Children - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2001 - The prevalence of asthma in children has increased 160 percent since 1980, and the disease currently affects nearly 5 million children in the United States. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program provides guidelines for improved asthma care. The goals of this program are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0401/p1341.html

Headaches in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2002 - Headaches are common during childhood and become more common and increase in frequency during adolescence. The rational, cost-effective evaluation of children with headache begins with a careful history. The first step is to identify the temporal pattern of the headache--acute, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p625.html

Double-Ligature: A Treatment for Pedunculated Umbilical Granulomas in Children - ...

May 15, 2002 - Umbilical granulomas are common inflammatory reactions to the resolving umbilical stump. The double-ligature technique is simple to perform and provides good cosmetic and functional results with only minor complications. The granuloma becomes necrotic and drops off within seven to 14 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0515/p2067.html

Evaluation of Physical Abuse in Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2000 - Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. A history that is inconsistent with the patient's injuries is the hallmark of physical abuse. A pattern of physical findings, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0515/p3057.html

Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - The prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers has declined dramatically since 1960. However, satisfaction with this achievement must be tempered because iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers is associated with long-lasting diminished mental, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1217.html

Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p817.html

Evaluation of Clumsiness in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Parents and physicians often dismiss seemingly minor motor difficulties in children. Approximately 6 percent of school-aged children have coordination problems serious enough to interfere with academic performance and social integration. These problems often arise during the early ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1435.html

Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Screening programs relying primarily on physical examination techniques for the early detection and treatment of congenital hip abnormalities have not been as consistently successful as expected. Since the 1980s, increased attention has been given to ultrasound imaging of the hip in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p177.html

Evaluating Proteinuria in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1998 - Proteinuria is a common laboratory finding in children. It can be identified as either a transient or a persistent finding and can represent a benign condition or a serious disease. A rapid but qualitative assessment of proteinuria can be made using dipstick or sulfosalicylic acid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1145.html

Evaluating the Child with Purpura - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2001 - Purpura is the result of hemorrhage into the skin or mucosal membrane. It may represent a relatively benign condition or herald the presence of a serious underlying disorder. Purpura may be secondary to thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, coagulation factor deficiency or vascular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0801/p419.html

Primary Prevention of Child Abuse - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1577.html

Issues in Newborn Screening for Phenylketonuria - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1999 - The blood sample for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening should be obtained at least 12 hours after the infant's birth. Newborn screening for PKU has largely eliminated mental retardation caused by this disease. If the first phenylalanine test demonstrates positive results, a repeat test ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1001/p1462.html

Sleep Disorders and Sleep Problems in Childhood - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Sleep problems are common in childhood. A distinction is made between problems in which polysomnography is abnormal (i.e., the parasomnias, sleep apnea and narcolepsy) and problems that are behavioral in origin and have normal polysomnography. The parasomnias--sleep terrors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p277.html

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