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Accuracy of Dermoscopy vs. Visual Inspection for Diagnosing Melanoma in Adults - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - The addition of dermoscopy to in-person visual inspection of skin lesions increases specificity and sensitivity in the detection of melanoma. In-person evaluation with dermoscopy is more accurate than image-based assessment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p145.html

Acute Appendicitis: Computed Tomography for Diagnosis in Adults - Cochrane for ... Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - In a nonpregnant adult with clinical signs and symptoms of appendicitis, computed tomography has a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 94%.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p403.html

Alternative Interventions for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Men -...

Jun 1, 2019 - In men with chronic pelvic pain and urinary dysfunction who have not responded to standard medical management, extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduces symptoms and increases quality of life. Acupuncture may also provide benefit to some patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p677.html

Antepartum Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Length of Gestation - Cochrane for Clinicians ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Omega-3 fatty acids, whether taken as supplements or consumed as part of the diet, reduce the risk of preterm birth (number needed to treat = 68) and early preterm birth (number needed to treat = 55).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p17.html

Anticoagulation for the Long-term Treatment of VTE in Patients with Cancer - Cochrane ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants, when used to prevent recurrent VTE, have a similar impact on all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p676.html

Antidepressants Plus Benzodiazepines for Adults with Major Depression - Cochrane for ... Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2020 - A combination of tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines is more effective for major depression in adults than tricyclic antidepressants alone in the first four weeks of treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/p527.html

Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy for Epilepsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2018 - In patients with partial-onset (focal) seizures, levetiracetam (Keppra), lamotrigine (Lamictal), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) were associated with the longest time to treatment withdrawal (i.e., the recommended patient-oriented outcome measure that balances tolerability with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p572.html

Antihypertensive Drug Therapy for Mild to Moderate Hypertension During Pregnancy - ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Compared with placebo, antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension (defined by the authors as a blood pressure of 140 to 169 mm Hg systolic or 90 to 109 mm Hg diastolic) caused by chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia during pregnancy does ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p403.html

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile ...

May 1, 2019 - When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p545.html

Atypical Antipsychotics for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents -...

Jun 1, 2018 - Risperidone reduces measures of aggression and improves conduct in children with disruptive behavior disorders; however, only short-term use is recommended. Weight gain of 2 to 2.5 kg (4.4 to 5.5 lb) is common. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits of other ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p715.html

Beta Blockers for Suspected or Diagnosed Acute Myocardial Infarction - Cochrane for ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2020 - Compared with placebo, beta-blocker use in patients with acute MI reduces short-term (less than three months) risk of MI and long-term (more than three months) risk of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1201/p666.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Detection of Alzheimer Disease in Patients with Mild...

Jun 1, 2018 - There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the detection of progressive dementias in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These tests carry the risk of overdiagnosis of dementia and, therefore, overtreatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p714.html

Combined Hormonal Contraceptives for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Dec 1, 2019 - Combined oral contraceptives decrease the number of women reporting menorrhagia over six months compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction = 36.7%; number needed to treat = 2.7).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p677.html

Complementary and Integrative Treatments for Pain Management in Labor - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2019 - There is evidence that all of the studied interventions have some benefit in labor, but the evidence is of low to very low quality. Massage, thermal interventions (warm and cold packs), relaxation techniques, yoga, and music reduce pain during latent labor, but not during active labor.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p154.html

Corticosteroids for Hospitalized Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Cochrane ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - For adults hospitalized with severe CAP, the use of corticosteroids may reduce the likelihood of mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p272.html

Culture-Specific Asthma Education Programs for Minority Groups - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2018 - In children from minority groups, culture-specific asthma education programs (CAEPs) reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improve asthma control as measured by the Childhood Asthma Control Test but not the Asthma Control Questionnaire. CAEPs ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p572.html

Deep Venous Thrombosis: Home vs. Inpatient Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Patients treated at home with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have lower rates of recurrent VTE than those treated in a hospital.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p642.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p295.html

Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Direct oral anticoagulants are as likely as warfarin to prevent all strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 3. They do not increase the risk of major bleeding events. The evidence remains insufficient to make recommendations for the use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p422.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2018 - In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p311.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - ...

May 1, 2018 - Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p573.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Factor Xa Inhibitors in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation -...

Oct 1, 2019 - Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibitor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and all-cause mortality (OR = ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p405.html

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