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Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Inguinal Hernias: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 15, 2020 - Groin hernias are caused by a defect of the abdominal wall in the groin area and comprise inguinal and femoral hernias. Inguinal hernias are more common in men. Although groin hernias are easily diagnosed on physical examination in men, ultrasonography is often needed in women. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/p487.html

Prevention of Unintentional Childhood Injury - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Unintentional injury accounts for one-third of deaths in children and adolescents each year, primarily from motor vehicle crashes. Children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the back seat, and infants and toddlers should remain rear-facing until at least two years of age. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/p411.html

Mechanical Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p421.html

Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2018 - Vaginitis is defined as any condition with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, itching, or burning. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Bacterial vaginosis is implicated in 40% to 50% of cases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p321.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Disorders of Puberty: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2017 - Disorders of puberty can profoundly impact physical and psychosocial well-being. Precocious puberty is pubertal onset before eight years of age in girls and before nine years of age in boys. Patients with early isolated pubertal changes, prepubertal linear growth, and no worrisome ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p590.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Urinary Tract Infections in Young Children and Infants: Common Questions and Answers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in children and are associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. They have a high recurrence rate and are associated with anatomic and functional abnormalities. The decision to test for UTI is based on risk factors and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p278.html

Chronic Diarrhea in Adults: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Chronic diarrhea is defined as a predominantly loose stool lasting longer than four weeks. A patient history and physical examination with a complete blood count, C-reactive protein, anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (IgA), total IgA, and a basic metabolic panel are useful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p472.html

Ingrown Toenail Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Ingrown toenails account for approximately 20% of foot problems in primary care. The great toe is most often affected. Ingrown toenails occur most commonly in young men, and nail care habits and footwear are most often contributory factors. No consensus has been reached for the best ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p158.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Croup: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

Pityriasis Rosea: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - Pityriasis rosea is a common self-limiting rash that usually starts with a herald patch on the trunk and progresses along the Langer lines to a generalized rash over the trunk and limbs. The diagnosis is based on clinical and physical examination findings. The herald patch is an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p38.html

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain encountered in the outpatient setting in adolescents and adults younger than 60 years. The incidence in the United States is between 3% and 6%. The cardinal feature of PFPS is pain in or around ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p88.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Gas, Bloating, and Belching: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html

Crohn's Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2018 - Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It can cause lesions from mouth to anus and may result in extraintestinal complications. The prevalence of Crohn’s disease is increasing in adults and children. Genetic predispositions to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p661.html

Fetal Aneuploidy: Screening and Diagnostic Testing - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Aneuploidy is the presence of one or more extra chromosomes or the absence of one or more chromosomes. The risk of fetal aneuploidy rises with increasing maternal age. Because fetal aneuploidy can affect any pregnancy, all pregnant women should be offered screening. First-trimester ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p481.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Outpatient Burn Care: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 15, 2020 - Most patients with burn injuries are treated as outpatients. Two key determinants of the need for referral to a burn center are burn depth and percentage of total body surface area involved. All burn injuries are considered trauma, prompting immediate evaluation for concomitant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0415/p463.html

Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

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