Cochrane for Clinicians
Putting Evidence into Practice
Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
Am Fam Physician. 2016 Mar 1;93(5):357-358.
Does influenza vaccination have any benefit for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease?
Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease. (Strength of Recommendation: A, based on consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence.)
Globally, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death.1 By 2030, it is estimated that the number of annual deaths from cardiovascular disease will increase to 23.3 million.1 Innovative strategies for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are important. Observational studies have shown an association between receipt of the influenza vaccine and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among older and vulnerable populations.2,3 Another study found that influenza infection, but not influenza vaccination, was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.4
This Cochrane review included eight randomized controlled trials with 12,029 participants 18 years or older. Interventions included influenza vaccine administered by any route at any dosage vs. a saline infusion or no intervention. Four trials (n = 10,347) focused on influenza prevention in the general and older populations and reported cardiovascular outcomes in their safety analyses. Two of these studies (n = 5,267) included adults 18 to 60 years of age, whereas the other two studies (n = 5,080) included participants 60 to 98 years of age. A minority of these patients had diabetes mellitus or undefined cardiac disease, and one-half of the patients in one of the studies had hypertension. Four trials (n = 1,682) focused on prevention of cardiovascular events in patients of varying ages with established coronary heart disease, including participants with acute myocardial infarction. These populations were analyzed separately. Primary outcomes included myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and death from cardiovascular causes. Follow-up durations ranged from 42 days to one year.
Overall, study quality was high. Three primary prevention trials and two secondary prevention trials were deficient in three or more risk of bias criteria. The four secondary prevention trials reported significant reductions in cardiovascular mortality with influenza vaccination (relative risk = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.76). Although three of the four primary prevention studies reported cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events were too scarce to allow the authors to draw conclusions.
Another systematic review that examined the effect of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular outcomes found no effect on cardiovascular mortality, but it did find a reduction in a composite outcome of cardiovascular events among those receiving influenza vaccination. This effect was greatest in those with established cardiovascular disease.2 Although data regarding the benefit of influenza vaccination for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease are inconclusive, current U.S. guidelines recommend routine vaccination for all adults without contraindications,5 and international guidelines recommend annual vaccination for patients with chronic heart disease.6
Clar C, Oseni Z, Flowers N, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Rees K. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(5):CD005050.
The practice recommendations in this activity are available at http://summaries.cochrane.org/CD005050.
REFERENCESshow all references
1. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011....
2. Udell JA, Zawi R, Bhatt DL, et al. Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;310(16):1711–1720.
3. Nichol KL, Nordin JD, Nelson DB, Mullooly JP, Hak E. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in the community-dwelling elderly. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(14):1373–1381.
4. Smeeth L, Thomas SL, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Farrington P, Vallance P. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke after acute infection or vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(25):2611–2618.
5. Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015–16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep. 2015;64(30):818–825.
6. UK Department of Health. Influenza: the Green Book. Chapter 19. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/456568/2904394_Green_Book_Chapter_19_v10_0.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2016.
These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.
This series is coordinated by Corey D. Fogleman, MD, Assistant Medical Editor.
A collection of Cochrane for Clinicians published in AFP is available at https://www.aafp.org/afp/cochrane.
Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact email@example.com for copyright questions and/or permission requests.
Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions
More in AFP
MOST RECENT ISSUE
Access the latest issue of American Family Physician