AFP Clinical Answers

Learning Disorders, Perinatal Depression, Infants with GERD, Kidney Injury, Amblyopia


Am Fam Physician. 2020 Oct 15;102(8):463.

How should physicians evaluate a child determined to have a learning disorder at school?

A child receiving an evaluation from a school for a specific learning disability should also receive a medical evaluation for possible comorbidities that can impact learning, attention, and other academic skills. Communication between the physician and the school can help families advocate for their child's needs in the school setting.

Do thickened formula feedings lead to better outcomes in infants with gastroesophageal reflux?

Bottle-fed infants with gastroesophageal reflux should be given thickened formula feedings. Thickened formula feedings moderately decrease occurrences of regurgitation and parent-reported symptoms, and they improve weight gain compared with nonthickened formula feedings.

What interventions are recommended to prevent perinatal depression?

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians provide counseling to or refer to counseling pregnant and postpartum women who are at increased risk of perinatal depression. The USPSTF recommends providing counseling interventions to women with one or more of the following characteristics: a history of depression, current depressive symptoms that do not reach a diagnostic threshold, certain socioeconomic risk factors such as low income or adolescent or single parenthood, recent intimate partner violence, or mental health–related factors such as elevated anxiety symptoms or a history of significant negative life events. First-time pregnancy is not considered a risk factor in this approach. There are no data on the ideal timing for offering counseling or referral to counseling interventions. and

What type of intravenous fluid resuscitation reduces the risk of worsening acute kidney injury?

Isotonic crystalloids are preferred



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