Gout: Rapid Evidence Review
Am Fam Physician. 2020 Nov 1;102(9):533-538.
Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.
Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in joints and tissues. Risk factors include male sex; obesity; hypertension; alcohol intake; diuretic use; a diet rich in meat and seafood; chronic kidney disease; a diet heavy in fructose-rich food and beverages; being a member of certain ethnic groups, including Taiwanese, Pacific Islander, and New Zealand Maori; and living in high-income countries. Gout is characterized by swelling, pain, or tenderness in a peripheral joint or bursa, including the development of a tophus. Diagnosis of gout can be made using several validated clinical prediction rules. Arthrocentesis should be performed when suspicion for an underlying septic joint is present; synovial fluid or tophus analysis should be performed if the diagnosis is uncertain. Colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids relieve pain in adults with acute gout episodes. Indications for long-term urate-lowering therapy include chronic kidney disease, two or more flare-ups per year, urolithiasis, the presence of tophus, chronic gouty arthritis, and joint damage. Allopurinol and febuxostat are used to prevent flare-ups, although febuxostat is associated with an increase in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and is therefore not routinely recommended.
Gout, caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in joints and tissues, is commonly encountered in primary care. This article provides a review of patient-oriented evidence to guide the diagnosis and management of gout.
SORT: TABLE OF KEY CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS
A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to http://www.aafp.org/afpsort.
SORT: TABLE OF KEY CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS
|Clinical recommendation||Evidence rating||Comments|
Lifestyle modifications to prevent recurrent gout include reducing the consumption of high-fructose soft drinks, fruit juices, fruits, and purine-rich foods (e.g., anchovies, sardines, scallops, mussels, bacon, beef, liver, turkey, veal, venison).14
Systematic review of mostly observational studies
Limited quality, patient-oriented evidence, individual validation trial
Limited quality, patient-oriented evidence, individual randomized controlled trial
Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence, individual randomized controlled trial
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