AFP Clinical Answers

C. difficile, Migraines, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Reducing Falls, Neurologic Conditions


Am Fam Physician. 2021 Feb 1;103(3):143.

What diagnostic testing should be performed in patients suspected of having Clostridioides difficile?

Clostridioides difficile is challenging to diagnose because of high rates of colonization without disease. A two-step algorithm should be used to guide diagnostic testing for C. difficile infection: enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase and toxins A and B, followed by nucleic acid amplification testing if initial results are indeterminate. For patients likely to have C. difficile infection based on symptoms, either nucleic acid amplification testing or the two-step algorithm can be performed.

Is onabotulinumtoxinA safe and effective at reducing the frequency of migraine headaches in adults?

In adults with chronic migraine, where headaches occur 15 days or more per month, onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) treatment reduces the number of migraine days by two days per month compared with placebo. Nonserious adverse effects, including neck pain, arm weakness, and blepharoptosis, are more common in patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA (number needed to harm = 7), but serious adverse effects are not increased.

Is early colonoscopy important in lower gastrointestinal bleeding?

Early colonoscopy (within 24 hours of presentation) is not preferred in hemodynamically unstable patients because it does not improve mortality, adverse events, rebleeding rates, or the need for surgery or blood transfusions over colonoscopy after hemodynamic stability and bowel preparation.

Do exercise interventions in community-dwelling older adults reduce the incidence of falls?

Exercise programs should be recommended for community-dwelling adults 60 years and older because they lead to fewer falls. Community-dwelling adults 50 years and older should participate in exercise programs to decrease their rate of falls resulting in fractures. Balance training, functional



Copyright © 2021 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions

CME Quiz

More in AFP

Editor's Collections

More in Pubmed


Oct 2021

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue

Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article