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Am Fam Physician. 2022;105(3):324-326

Published online February 18, 2022.

This clinical content conforms to AAFP criteria for CME.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial relationships.

Key Points for Practice

• Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for all adults up to 59 years of age.

• The 15- and 20-valent PCVs are recommended for all adults 65 years and older and younger adults with risk factors. Those who receive the 15-valent vaccine should also receive the 23-valent PPSV.

• In addition to adults older than 50 years, recombinant zoster immunization is recommended for people 19 years and older with immunosuppression.

From the AFP Editors

The 2022 adult and child/adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are accessible at https://www.aafp.org/family-physician/patient-care/prevention-wellness/immunizations-vaccines.html. These schedules now combine links to COVID-19 vaccination information, Vaccination Information Statements, adverse event reporting, and a QR code for online schedules. Notable changes to the child/adolescent schedule include the addition of dengue vaccine recommendations, whereas the adult schedule has been updated with the 15-and 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV15, PCV20) in place of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), recombinant zoster vaccine recommendations for immunocompromised adults, and changes to hepatitis B recommendations.

Changes to Both the Child/Adolescent and Adult Immunization Schedules

INFLUENZA VACCINATION

Routine annual influenza vaccination continues to be recommended for all people six months or older without contraindications. Although late October remains the target for universal vaccination, it should continue to be offered while influenza viruses are circulating locally and unexpired vaccine is available. The 2021–2022 influenza season coincides with continued circulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Influenza vaccination reduces symptoms that might be confused with those of COVID-19 while reducing outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit admissions and mitigating stress on the U.S. health care system.

There are six types of vaccines with nine brand names available for administration. All seasonal influenza vaccines available in the United States for the 2021–2022 season are quadrivalent with updates to the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza A(H3N2) components. U.S.-licensed influenza vaccines will contain hemagglutinin derived from an influenza A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus (for egg-based vaccines) or an influenza A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus (for cell culture–based and recombinant vaccines), an influenza A/Cambodia/e082 6360/2020 (H3N2)-like virus, an influenza B/Washington/02/2019 (Victoria lineage)-like virus, and an influenza B/Phuket/3073/2013 (Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

The minimum age for the cell culture–based inactivated influenza vaccine (Flucelvax Quadrivalent) has been adjusted from four to two years of age.

Influenza vaccines can be coadministered with other vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, with the vaccines given in separate anatomic sites. ACIP guidance concerning coadministration of other vaccines with influenza vaccines is available at: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/professionals/acip/acip-2021-22-summary-of-recommendations-updated.pdf.

People with egg allergy should receive the recombinant influenza vaccine (Flublok Quadrivalent) or the cell culture–based inactivated influenza vaccine, which do not contain egg components. If egg-based influenza vaccines need to be administered, they should be given in a medical setting under supervision of a health care professional who can recognize and manage severe allergic reactions.

Changes to the Child/Adolescent Immunization Schedule

COVID-19 VACCINATION

A booster dose of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is recommended five months after completing the initial two-dose series for children 12 to 17 years of age. Unvaccinated children in this age group are hospitalized six times as often as those who received the two-dose series.1 The risk of myocarditis for children younger than 16 years is 37 times higher for those infected with COVID-19 than those uninfected.2

In Israel, where 6% of children 12 to 15 years of age received a booster dose five months after the initial vaccine series, children without the booster were infected 17 times as often as those who received the booster. Two cases of myocarditis were diagnosed after the booster dose in more than 40,000 Israeli children who received the booster.

DENGUE VACCINATION

Recurrent dengue virus infections can be deadly when the second infection involves a different virus strain. For people nine to 16 years of age who live in an area where dengue virus is endemic and have laboratory confirmation of a previous dengue virus infection, ACIP recommends three doses of Dengvaxia administered six months apart.

Changes to the Adult Immunization Schedule

HEPATITIS B VACCINATIONS

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection carries up to a 25% risk of premature death from cirrhosis or liver cancer. The CDC Division of Viral Hepatitis announced a goal of reducing HBV infections by 90% and HBV-related deaths by 65% by 2030, and the Department of Health and Human Services announced earlier this year a goal to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat in the U.S. by 2030. Universal vaccination of adults is a key element of this goal. ACIP recommends that the HBV vaccine be administered to all adults through 59 years of age, and to adults 60 years and older who have any risk factor for HBV infection. Adults 60 years and older without risk factors for HBV infection may receive the vaccine if they choose.

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