brand logo

Am Fam Physician. 2022;106(1):online

Related Putting Prevention Into Practice: Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

As published by the USPSTF.

What does the USPSTF recommend?For sexually active women, including pregnant persons:
Screen for chlamydia if they are
  • 24 years or younger

  • 25 years or older and at increased risk for infection

Grade: B
Screen for gonorrhea if they are
  • 24 years or younger

  • 25 years or older and at increased risk for infection

Grade: B
See below how to implement this recommendation.
For sexually active men:
The USPSTF found that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. More research is needed.
I statement
To whom does the recommendation apply?Sexually active adolescents and adults, including pregnant persons, without signs and symptoms of chlamydia or gonorrhea infection.
What’s new?This recommendation is consistent with the 2014 USPSTF recommendation.
How to implement this recommendation?1. Assess risk:
  • Women aged 15 to 24 years have the highest infection rates.

  • Women 25 years or older are at increased risk if they have

    ○ A previous or coexisting STI

    ○ A new or more than 1 sex partner

    ○ A sex partner having sex with other partners at the same time

    ○ A sex partner with an STI

    ○ Inconsistent condom use when not in a mutually monogamous relationship

    ○ A history of exchanging sex for money or drugs

    ○ A history of incarceration

Clinicians should consider the communities they serve and may want to consult local public health authorities for information about local epidemiology and guidance on determining who is at increased risk.
2. Screen for chlamydia and gonorrhea in sexually active women:
  • 24 years or younger

  • 25 years or older and at increased risk for infection

Screen for chlamydia and gonorrhea using a NAAT. NAATs can test for infection at urogenital and extragenital sites, including urine, endocervical, vaginal, male urethral, rectal, and pharyngeal. Both chlamydia and gonorrhea can be tested for at the same time with the same specimen.
What are other relevant USPSTF recommendations?The USPSTF has issued recommendations on screening for other STIs, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, genital herpes, HIV, and syphilis. The USPSTF has also issued recommendations on behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. These recommendations are available at
Where to read the full recommendation statement?Visit the USPSTF website or the JAMA Network website ( to read the full recommendation statement. This includes more details on the rationale of the recommendation, including benefits and harms; supporting evidence; and recommendations of others.

The USPSTF recommendations are independent of the U.S. government. They do not represent the views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or the U.S. Public Health Service.

This series is coordinated by Joanna Drowos, DO, contributing editor.

A collection of USPSTF recommendation statements published in AFP is available at

Continue Reading

More in AFP

More in PubMed

Copyright © 2022 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP.  See permissions for copyright questions and/or permission requests.