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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Acute Kidney Injury

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an abrupt decrease in renal function or the onset of frank renal failure. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) defines AKI as an increase in the serum creatinine (SCr) level of 0.3 mg/dL or more within 48 hours, an...

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 37 million US adults. It is characterized by damage to the renal glomeruli, vascular supply, and/or tubulointerstitium through complex processes involving inflammation, fibrosis, and hyperfiltration. CKD typically is asymptomatic but may...

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) affects approximately 745,000 individuals in the United States. Patients with ESRD are dependent on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via dialysis or kidney transplantation. The two dialysis modalities are peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. No...

    Kidney Stones

    Kidney stones have a prevalence of 8.8% in the United States, with men affected more than women (10.6% versus 7.1%). Most stones are composed of calcium oxalate (61%). Calcium phosphate (15%) and uric acid (12%) stones are the second and third most common types. Risk factors...



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