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    Hyperthyroidism is an excess in thyroid hormone production caused by such conditions as Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. Overt hyperthyroidism is defined as a low or undetectable thyrotropin (TSH) level with elevated triiodothyronine (T3) or...


    Hypothyroidism is caused by deficient thyroid hormone production secondary to autoimmune disease or insufficient iodine consumption or as a complication of hyperthyroidism management. Signs and symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and cold...

    Thyroid Nodules, Cysts, and Malignancies

    Thyroid nodules are identified incidentally on imaging in most patients. Controversy exists on which patients warrant evaluation of an incidental thyroid nodule. If further assessment of a nodule detected on imaging or examination is pursued, thyroid ultrasonography with...

    Parathyroid Conditions

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) helps regulate calcium homeostasis in a complex relationship with the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, bone, and parathyroid glands. Abnormalities in PTH production can result in many conditions, including hypoparathyroidism, and primary, secondary,...



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