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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Evaluation of Suspected Anemia

    Anemia is a common condition encountered in inpatient and outpatient primary care settings. When anemia is detected, it is essential to investigate the cause to provide appropriate treatment. Patients may present with symptomatic anemia (eg, fatigue, weakness, shortness of...

    Microcytic Anemia

    Microcytic anemia is defined as anemia with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of less than 80 mcm3 in adults. Age-specific parameters should be used for patients younger than 17 years. The cause of microcytic anemia includes acquired and congenital causes, which should be...

    Macrocytic Anemia

    Macrocytic anemia is divided into megaloblastic and nonmegaloblastic causes, with the former being more common. Megaloblastic anemia results from impaired DNA synthesis, leading to release of megaloblasts, which are large nucleated red blood cell precursors with chromatin...

    Normocytic Anemia

    Normocytic anemia is anemia with a mean corpuscular volume of 80 to100 mcm3. Its causes include anemia of inflammation, hemolytic anemia, anemia of chronic kidney disease, acute blood loss anemia, and aplastic anemia. In most cases, correction of the anemia should focus on...


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