Author Information

    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Testosterone levels decrease as men age. When the testes fail to produce an adequate level of endogenous testosterone, men develop hypogonadism. Although the definition of a low testosterone level varies among guidelines, a serum total testosterone level of less than 300 to...

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    The marked decrease in estrogen levels in menopausal women can cause bothersome symptoms that affect daily life. More than 75% of women experience menopausal symptoms, which can include vaginal dryness, itching, discharge, dyspareunia, mood changes, hot flushes, and night...

    Aging-Related Hormone Replacement Therapy and Supplementation

    Given their association with aging, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) have been evaluated as potential antiaging treatments. It has been hypothesized that declining endocrine function, specifically the decreases...

    Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy

    Approximately 0.6% of adults (1 to 1.4 million adults) in the United States identify as transgender, and 2% of high school-aged individuals (150,000 to 300,000 individuals). Gender-affirming care for transgender and gender-diverse patients can include support with social...


    Additional Resources


    All editors in a position to control content for this activity, FP Essentials, are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships. View disclosures.