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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects more than 20% of adults. Risk factors include older age, obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dysfunction is a primary cause. Classic symptoms include heartburn and regurgitation. With...

    Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) involves ulceration of the mucosa in the stomach and/or proximal duodenum. The main causes are Helicobacter pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. PUD occurs in 5% to 10% of people worldwide, but rates have decreased...

    Acute Infectious Gastroenteritis and Colitis

    Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines; colitis is inflammation of the colon. Viruses are the most common cause, followed by bacteria and parasites. Incidence of the various infections varies by age, sex, location, and vaccine availability; vaccination...


    Acute pancreatitis is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders requiring hospitalization. The main causes are gallstones and alcohol use. Patients typically present with upper abdominal pain radiating to the back, worse with eating, plus nausea and vomiting. Diagnosis...




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